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REYNOLDS HISTORICAU 
GCNEALOC.Y COLLECTION 



.ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01740 3582 



GENEALOGY 
975.502 
W67WM 
1916 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/williammarycolle25tyle 



y 



WlLLIAxM AND MARY COLLEGE 

Quarterly 




HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 



Editor : LYON G. TYLER, M. A. LL. D. 
president of william and mary college, williamsburg, va. 

Associate Editor: William Clayton Torrence 
secretary valentine museum, richmond, va. 

VOLUME XXV 



Richmond, Va. 

Whittbt & Sheppbkson, Printers 

1917 



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Vol. XXV., No. 1 



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July 



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Editor : X^on (5. tlBler, ^. H,. XX. E)., 

president of XQilliarr. and flDart Colkcie, 
TJClUliamsbura, Ua. 

Sssociate SMtor; "CatUlam Clapton C:on:cnce. 

Secretary of tbc IDalentine /Duseum, 
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[Entered as second-ciass matter at the Post-Office in 'Williamsburg,] 



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William and Mary College 

Quarterly Historical Magazine. 



Vol. XXV. JULY, 1916 No. 1 



CONTENTS. 



President John Tyler and the Ashburton Treaty i 

Kenner's Mission to Europe g 

Chancellor Wythe and Parson Weems 13 

Letters of James Rumsey 21 

Letter of General Jackson 35 

Ages of Lower Norfolk County People ^6 

Joiin' Downing, of Fairfields, Northumberland County and His 

Descendants 41 

Henrico County : Beginnings of Its Families, Part IV 52 

Thomas and William Branch of Henrico and Some of Their De- 
scendants / 59 

Bathursc, a Colonial Residence 70 

Historical and Genealogical Notes "i 







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(Sluarterl? Ibietorlcal fiDagastne* 

Vol. XXV JULY, 1916 No. i 



PRESIDENT JOHN TYLER AND THE ASHBURTON 

TREATY ' 

In the Confederate Veteran for January, 191 6, there appeared 
an extract from Dr. J. LessHe Hall's writings regarding the part 
played by President Tyler in the Treaty of Washington, popularly 
called the Ashburton Treaty, negotiated with Great Britain when 
Daniel Webster was Secretary of State, in 1842. I believe it is 
generally recognized that no treaty made by any other administra- 
tion from the beginning of the government to the present time ever 
settled so many difficult and perplexing questions, and that none 
stands so high as a monument to the extraordinary skill of those 
who brought it about. Dr. Hall calls attention to the agency of 
President Tyler as apart from that of the Secretary of State, but 
he hardly goes far enough. Perhaps a more detailed statement 
might not be uninteresting even after this great lapse of time. Of 
course, as the President and his Secretary acted cordially together, 
each making and receiving suggestions, no perfectly accurate dis- 
tribution of the credit can be made. 

They proceeded by informal conferences. Questions were dis- 
cussed between the President and Webster, and after an agree- 
ment was reached Webster discussed them with Lord x\shburton. 
Very often the advice of the whole Cabinet was taken. After 
these conferences, the subject matter was reduced to writing and 
submitted to the President for his final corrections, which were 



^ By Lyon G. Tyler. Published in the Confederate Veteran (Nash- 
ville, Tenn.) for February, 1916. 



2 William and ^Iary Quarterly - 

often of the most important character. Thus "from step to step 
and day to day," to quote Mr. Webster's own words/ the negotia- 
tions proceeded "under the President's own immediate supervision 
and direction." 

In a letter written in 1858 Mr. Tyler said:- "You are aware 
that the negotiation with Lord Ashburton was conducted without 
protocol or letter. The letters were written after agreement and 
each submitted to me and received my corrections." 

One of the differences settled by the treaty was the north- 
east boundary line, from the river St. Croix to the Rocky 
Mountains. This question came down from the treaty of peace in 
1783, and all preceding administrations liad failed to solve it. It 
became involved in all kinds of complications and perplexities, 
and at last, in 1828, it was referred to the decision of the King of 
the Netherlands. This potentate, being a practical man, deter- 
mined that a precise line according to the terms of the treaty was 
impossible, and in 183 1 he submitted to the nations concerned a 
conventional line which he deemed fair to both the United States 
and Great Britain. Mr. Tazewell, the senior Senator from Vir- 
ginia, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations, sub- 
mitted a report indorsing the award and concluding with a resolu- 
tion advising President Jackson to accept it. A motion was made 
to strike out from the resolution all after the word "resolved" ; and 
while Mr. Tyler, the other Virginia Senator, voted against the mo- 
tion, Mr. Webster, voicing the wishes of Massachusetts and Maine, 
who stood for the full extent of the American claim, voted in its 
favor. 

The award was not accepted by the Senate, and the old 
methods of explorations and surveys were again resorted to in the 
vain attempt to locate points, lakes, and highlands not sufficiently 
defined in the treaty of 1783. 

Things had gotten to the fighting point between Elaine and 
New Brunswick at the time Mr. Tyler assumed the reins of gov- 
ernment, in 1 841. Before this time ^Ir. Webster had come over 



1 Letters and Times of the Tylers, II, p. 191 ; Niles, Register LXIV, 
p. 79. 

'Letters and Times of the Tylers, II, 242. 



William and Mary Quarterly 3 

f' to the opinion expressed in the vote of Mr. Tyler in 1831, that 
f the boundary was determinable only by compromise, and the main 
t difficulty to settlement was over when a government prepared to 
I accept this idea as a basic one came into power under ]\Ir. Tyler ; 
f for the British government appears to have been long of this view, 
I antedating the award of the King of the Netherlands. The chief 
1^ remaining difficulties proceeded from the personal factors in the 
I negotiations. Maine and Massachusetts, whose consent was 
i necessary to the treaty as involving their boundaries, were repre- 
I sented by commissioners w^ho w^ere disinclined to make conces- 
I sions. Then the freedom of action of Lord Ashburton, the 
British Minister, was very much limited by his instructions. And 
Mr. Webster too is represented as having ''his unreasonable, un- 
gracious, and difficult moods." Under these circumstances, when 
disputes w^ere frequent, the President's happy manners and 
abundant tact were in great request. Repeatedly the President 
intervened to bring the parties together, and he never failed to 
smooth the way for a pleasant renewal of diplomatic intercourse.^ 
f On one occasion especially there w^as a deadlock, and Lord 

|. Ashburton seriously contemplated throwing up the negotiations 
f and going home, when war would probably have resulted. In this 
^ unhappy state of affairs President Tyler sent for the British 
I negotiator ; and Mr. Curtis, Mr. W^ebster's biographer, states- 
that it is "a fact which Mr. Webster always acknowledged that 
President Tyler's address in persuading Lord x^shburton to remain 
was most skillfully and happily used." After several months a line 
was finally agreed upon as far as the Rocky Mountains, which 
was confessed as more to the the interest of the United States 
than the award rendered by the King of the Netherlands. 
I This disposed of the chief question in dispute. Two other 

I subjects were included in the treaty, and the first of these related 
I to the right claimed by England of visiting American ships for the 
I suppression of the slave trade. This pretended right was dis- 

l ^ Webster in his letter of Aug. 24. 1842, refers to the Presdent's "ex- 

g ccedingly obliging and pleasant intercourse, both with the British minister 

^ and the Commissioners of the States" of Maine and Massachusetts. 

I (bid., II, 226. 
I -Curtis, Webster, II, 113, note. 



4 William and Mary Quarterly • 

tinguished from the right of search as being confined to merely a 
so-called "visit" to ascertain whether a ship flying the American 
flag was a British ship carrying slaves and seeking to disguise its 
nationality. In practice the two "rights" could not be distin- 
guished, and many hardships were entailed on American shipping 
by the action of British captains. This question was of long . 
standing, and no progress had ever been made on either side to- i 
ward a settlment until Mr. Tyler's administration. Now the ques- : 
tion was put at rest by what was called "the cruising convention" ; 
of the treaty, which stipulated that each nation should keep a 
squadron on the coast of Africa to act in concert for the search of ! 
vessels suspected of carrying slaves. ' 

This article, which was in strict coincidence with the Presi- ; 
dent's views as expressed in his annual message of December 7, • 
1841, that the United States was capable of enforcing its own laws 
against the slave trade by its own power and authority, was placed 
in the treaty, as the President says, "upon my own suggestion." ^ j 

The other subject embraced in the treaty of Washington was | 
the extradition of persons accused of committing certain enumer- j 
ated crimes. As far back as 1794 an article for the mutual sur- ( 
render of persons accused of murder or forgery was inserted in ! 
Jay's celebrated treaty with England. No legislation was had i 
by' Congress for carrying the article into effect, and, as it was j 
not self executing, it was held to be legally inoperative and ex- { 
pired by limitation in 1806. j 

For some years previous to Mr. Tyler's administration, the 1 

condition of things on the border between the United States and j 

Canada strongly suggested a new convention on the subject. 1 
Persons accused of high crimes found a safe asylum by fleeing 1 

from, one country to the other. But the case of the Creole was t 

the immediate occasion of the new agreement, though, as it hap- j 

pened, the feature of extradition to which it applied, failed to be j 

included. The Creole was an American ship which sailed from I 

Hampton to New Orleans w4th a cargo, of domestic slaves. On i 

the way the slaves revolted, killed the person in charge of them, f 

overpowered the crew, and forced the pilot to convey them into \ 



Letters and Times of the Tylers, II, 238, 240. 



William and Mary Quarterly 



the British port of Nassau, in the West Indies. Here the authori- 
f tics, instead of assisting the crew in obtaining control of their ship, 

i entered on board and aided the escape of the negroes. The gov- 

1 errlment of the United States demanded their return, not on the 

I ground that they were slaves resisting their owners, but as 

I "mutineers" resisting authority ; and Southern representatives 

f were insistent on a new treaty of extradition with the hope of 

including mutiny among the provisions. 

In the discussion of the whole subject, however, it was found 
that Lord Ashburton would not agree to putting mutiny in the list 
of extraditable crimes, apparently lest it might commit England 
indirectly to a recognition of the relation of master and slave. 
I And so the article appeared in the treaty as embracing murder, 

piracy, arson, robbery and forgery, and without any mention of 
mutiny. As the excluded term was the only one which met the 
position of the government assumed in the demand of the Ameri- 
can consul at Nassau or in the dispatch of Secretary of State 
Webster, President Tyler, as appears from his letter^ to ^Ir. 
Webster, was at fii"st rather in favor of omitting the extradition 
article altogether, but he finally approved it as it stood. 

There were, however, three other questions, all of dangerous 
tendency, which, though not included in the treaty, are, neverthe- 
less, to be considered a part of it. They were discussed and their 
principles settled in a correspondence which accompanied the 
treaty. 

The first of these was the case of the Caroline, employed in 
1837 by Canadian rebels and their sympathizers in the United 
States for conveying supplies from New York to Canada. This case 

i involved the questions: (i) The sanctity of the American terri- 

tory, which the British authorities in Canada violated in destroying 
I the Caroline on the American side of the Niagara River, and (2) 

I the trial of Alexander McLeod in New York for the death of an 

[ American while McLeod was supposedly engaged in the British 

I expedition sent out to destroy the Caroline. 

i The published letters of Air. Tyler show that he took an active 

I personal part in the settlement of this difficulty. He conducted 



I 



^ Letters and Times of the Tylers, II, 222. 



William and Mary Quarterly 



a correspondence with William H. Seward, the Governor of Xevv 
York, which sets out very lucidly the relations of the government 
to the trial of McLeod ; and in his message December 7, 1841, he 
explained the rules governing the sanctity of a foreign territory. 
These rules were now reaffirmed by Mr. Webster in his corres- 
pondence with Lord Ashburton and admitted by the latter, who 
expressed the regret that "some explanation and apology" for the 
invasion of the United States resulting in the destruction of the j 
Caroline "was not immediately made." The question of damages 
to individuals was referred to future arrangement, and the com- 
missioners appointed under the treaty of 1853 decided that neither i 
the owners of the Caroline, on the one hand, nor Alexander ^Ic- '. 
Leod, on the other, had any just claims for damages. j 

The second question w^hose principle was settled in the cor- \ 
respondence was the liability of Great Britain for the slaves who \ 
escaped from the Creole. As shown by his corrections of Lord 
Ashburton's proposed letter on the subject, it appears conclu- 
sively that to the President is due the admission of the principle 
according to which full damages for the escaped slaves were 
awarded to the slave owners by the arbitrators appointed under 
the treaty of 1853. In the published letter of Lord Ashburton it j 
is admitted that a merchant ship, which on the high seas is held by 
international law as a part of the national territory, did not lose 
this character if it came into a foreign port by "accident or by | 
violence" and that "any officious interference" of the port authori- 
ties with affairs on board was unjustifiable. Now, the letter of 
Lord Ashburton, as first submitted to the President, did not have ] 
the words "or by violence," which were the only words that met 
the case under consideration. These words were inserted by the 
President.^ ' \ 

The third question involved in the correspondence was the 
old one of impressment that brought about the War of 181 2. 
This was directly called to the attention of Mr. Webster by the 
President in a note- of May 8, 1842. "Would it be possible," he 
wrote, "to induce Great Britain to abandon her claim to impress 

1 Ibid., II, 221-224. I 

2 Ibid., II, 224. I 

j 



William and Mary Quarterly 7 

seamen in time of war from American vessels? It would add 
luster to your negotiations." 

Accordingly, the question was discussed by the negotiators 
from the view points of both nations. In a letter^ some years 
later Mr. Tyler wrote: '*Is the question of title to protection 
under the flag of the Union on the part of a naturalized citizen a 
point to be controverted by foreign governments in view of the 
fact of their encouragement of emigration? They- grant pass- 
ports and they encourage emigrant ships. Nay, so rigid is the 
system of police on the continent that no one can leave without 
it being known to the offtcials. I put it strongly on that ground 
in the correspondence with Lord Ashburton in Webster's letter 
on impressment." As in the cases of the Caroline and the Creole, 
Lord Ashburton would make no treaty stipulation on this question, 
but he distinctly acknowledged in his correspondence that the 
execution of the claim of England was attended with the risk of 
injury to others and that "some remedy, if possible, should be 
supplied." In the reply of this government the rule was an- 
nounced which should hereafter stand, that "in every regularly 
documented American merchant vessel the crew who navigate 
it w411 find their protection in the flag which is over them." This 
doctrine Great Britain has ever since respected. 

Finally, the President played an important part in shaping 
matters for the action of the Senate. Mr. Webster was for sub- 
mitting the three subjects of the treaty to the Senate in separate 
conventions for separate ratification, but the President overruled 
him in favor of a single treaty,^ and there can be little doubt 
that the large vote given to the ratification of the treaty was largely 
due to the union of the three questions which it embraced and 
which appealed with different force to the different sections of the 
Union. Possibly no one of them separately might have received 
the sanction of the Senate on account of the prejudices attending 
the subject matter. The treaty was signed on August 9, 1842, and 
ratification was made by the Senate on August 26 by a vote of 
39 to 9. 



^Ibtd., II, 225, Note I. 
2/6tU, II, 225. 



8 William and Mary Quarterly 

Shortly after the treaty was ratified by the Senate Mr. Web- 
ster expressed his acknowledgments to the President in the fol- 
lowing words :^ **I shall never speak of this negotiation, my dear 
sir, which I believe is destined to make some figure in the history 
of the country, without doing you justice. Your steady support 
and confidence, your anxious and intelligent attention to what 
was in progress, and your exceedingly obliging and pleasant inter- 
course both with the British Minister and the commissioners of the 
State have given every possible facility to my agency in this im- 
portant transaction." 

In November of the next year (1843) he wrote- as follows: 
"In the late negotiation with the English envoy I acted, of course, 
by the authority and under the direction of the President. If the 
immediate labor devolved on me, the constant supervision and 
final sanction belonged to him." Some years later Webster again 
wrote :^ "Nor shall I cease to remember his [Tyler's] steady 
and really able cooperation in, as well as his official sanction of, 
my own poor labors in the. Treaty of Washington." 

Finally, John C. Spencer, of New York, w^ho as Secretary of 
War at the time was fully cognizant of matters, wrote^ as follows 
not long after the treaty w^as ratified : "It is bare justice to the 
President to say that in the negotiation of the various, and some 
of them exceedingly complicated, provisions of the recent treaty 
his suggestions and advice were frequently of the most important 
character and facilitated the labors of the distinguished negotiator 
on the part of the United States, and that to those suggestions and 
to the readiness with which he devoted himself to the task of 
assisting in the removal of the difficulties and to the constant, 
steady, and firm support which he rendered to the American 
representative may justly be accorded much of the success which 
crowned the negotiations." 



1 Ibid., II, 226. I 

-Ibid., II, 190; Washington Madisonian, Nov. 2, 1843. ! 

3 Curtis, Webster, II, Z77- \ 

*Niles, Register, LXVIII, 143- 1 



William and Mary Quarterly 



KENNER'S MISSION TO EUROPE 

In an article, entitled "Breaking of the Light," published in Vol. XXI 
of the Quarterly, it is stated on page 217 that in the instructions given 
to Duncan F. Kenner, sent on a mission to Europe by President Davis to- 
wards the close of the Civil War, Great Britain and France were to be 
assured that the Confederate States would abolish slavery if their inde- 
pendence was recognized. The authority for this was said in a note at 
the foot of the page to be in "Kenner's own handwriting" preserved in his 
correspondence in the Library of Congress. Unfortunately the Library 
of Congress does not hold Kenner's correspondence, and the real authority 
instead of being a manuscript of Mr. Kenner rests upon a manuscript in 
the Library of Congress of William Wirt Henry reporting a conversation 
held with Mr. Kenner a few years before he died. This manuscript is 
now printed below, and according to Dr. Gaillard Hunt, chief of the 
Division of Manuscripts of the Library of Congress, "there was or is con- 
firmation of it in the papers of Gen'l Brent, of Baltimore." 

Mem: for L IM. Callahan Esq of Johns Hopkins Uni. Sent 
24 March, 1899, ^^ W. W. Henry 

A few years before the death of Mr. Kenner of 

Louisiana, Dr. J. L. M. Curry and myself spent some time at the 
Greenbrier, White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, with him, and 
he gave us a detailed account of his mission to England and France 
in the winter of 1864-5, ^^ special envoy from President Jefterson 

Davis. ]\Ir. Kenner was a large slave owner, and a 

prominent member of the Confederate Congress ; I believe the 
chairman of the Finance Committee. He said that en the fall of 
New Orleans, which he heard of on his way home from Rich- 
mond, he became convinced that the Southern Confederacy could 
not succeed if it held to slavery, as the prejudice of the civilized 
world was against it, and to succeed the South needed the coun- 
tenance and support of England and France. I would say here 
that Mr. Kenner was then very wealthy and probably owned 
fTiore slaves than any man in the Southern Confederacy. He said 
that on his return to Richmond to attend Congress, he informed 
Mr. Davis of his conclusion, and of his determination to move in 
Congress that a conmiission be sent to Europe to propose to the 



10 William and Mary Quarterly 

courts of England and France that if they would acknowledge the 
Southern Confederacy it would abolish slavery. Mr. Davis did 
not approve of the proposal, and said that the affairs of the 
Confederacy were not so desperate as to warrant it, and he begged 
Mr. Kenner not to make the move at that time. ^Ir. Kenner did 
as Mr. Davis requested, but some time afterwards Mr. Davis sent 
for him and said that he was convinced that the proposed mission 
should be undertaken, and that he desired him to be the com- 
missioner. Upon his consenting, Mr. Davis gave him in cipher 
his credentials and directions. Mr. Kenner then went to Wilming- 
ton, N. C. in order to run the blockade, but while he was waiting 
for a ship to go out, Fort Fisher fell in the middle of January, 
1865, and he thereupon returned, by night, to Richmond, where 
he found provisions had gotten very scarce. He next determined 
to try to get to London, by way of New York, and under an as- 
sumed name he was put in charge of a man Avhose business it was 
to rvin the blockade across the Potomac, and bring back goods of 
various sorts. This man was not informed w'ho ^Ir. Kenner was, 
but was made to believe that he was trying to get to Canada to 
help some confederates who had been arrested for attacking a ship 
in the lakes. Reaching the Potomac he found it so full of ice that 
it was dangerous to cross in a boat. He stayed for a few days at 
ari old w^oman's house, who made him promise to bring her some 
needles and cloth when he returned. The boatman was slow to try 
the river, and Mr. Kenner was tempted to go higher up and trust 
himself to another, but w^as led to suspect his loyalty to the con- 
federates, and contented himself to wait. The next night the boat- 
man higher up was drowned in the attempt to cross the river. 
Having at last gotten across safely in the night he was conducted 
by hjs companion to a place near enough to Washington, to see the 
Capitol. 

On getting near a dwelling his companion made him stop, 
while he went forward to learn the situation of the affairs at 
the -house. He soon returned and said 'that it was all right, and 
that a young girl would meet him at the door, to whom he must 
deliver everything of value he had. With much hesitation he com- 
plied, and the next morning everything was returned to him. On 
leaving the house early in the morning he asked his companion. 



William and Mary Quarterly ii 

whose guidance he was following, what that ceremony meant. He 
was told, that the place being so near Washington it was liable to 
be visited by the Federal Officials, who would search every 
stranger in the house, but w^ould not search the person of the girl 
who lived there. Next night they were beyond Washington, at- 
tempting to get near a depot on the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. at 
which they could safely take a train. Approaching a house his 
companion again stopt him, while he went forward to see if the 
people who lived there were at home, as they were friendly to the 
Confederacy. He said the name of the family was Surratt. 

On returning he said the family had moved away, and they 
had to spend the night in the woods. Next day they got on the 
train, and taking seats far apart were soon in Baltimore. ^Ir. 
Kenner drove at once to a clothing house and changed his suit 
for one v/hich which gave him the appearance of a Pennsylvania 
farmer. He then took leave of his companion, who wished him 
good luck in his Canada mission. Taking the train for New 
York he arrived very early in the morning and drove to the New 
York Hotel, whose proprietor he had frequently entertained at 
his Louisiana home. The clerk eyed him closely and then assigned 
him to a room in the upper story. Before going to his room he 
asked that the proprietor be sent to him. In his room a brawny 
Irishman commenced to make him a fire, and while kneeling at the 
fireplace the door opened and the proprietor stept in. On recogniz- 
ing ^Ir. Kenner he was greatly startled, but Mr. Kenner put his 
hand on his mouth and pointed to the Irishman. When the porter 
left the room the proprietor said "what in the world brought you 
to this house Mr. Kenner! Do you not know that if it is knovrn 
that you are here it w^ill cost the lives of both of us ?'* Mr. Kenner 
replied "No one knows the fact but you and myself, I have no 
idea of telling it, and if you do, the consequences will be on your 
own head." In reply to the question what he was doing in New 
York, Mr. Kenner told him he was on his way to London and that 
he had a commercial enterprise in view^j which was true, but not 
the whole truth. He asked his friend to secure him a ticket on an 
outgoing steamer. A trunk was obtained that had just come oil 
of a European voyage and was plastered full of foreign adver- 
tisements of hotels, and Mr. Kenner w^as placed in hiding outside 



12 William and Mary Quarterly 

of the hotel until the steamer sailed. On the steamer Mr. Kenner 
had to run the gauntlet of the government officials, but he avoided 
suspicion by reading in a conspicious place the New York Tribune 
and talking French to the foreigners on board. During the voy- 
age he had to listen to much abuse of the Confederates from two | 
or three of the passengers,' which he bore in silence. On landing, j 
however, he went to a restaurant where he found these men who j 
commenced again their abuse, whereupon he walked up to them and • 
said "I am a confederate and have had to listen to your abuse j 
during the voyage over, but I want you to understand that if I | 
hear another word of it I will cut your throats." It is needless ! 
to say that a profound silence prevailed until they parted. j 

Mr. Kenner found that Mr. Mason was in Paris. He there- | 

upon went to Paris and sought an interview with him and 2vlr. | 

Slidell. When they came together in a room he found Mr. W. W. C 

Corcoran was present. He thereupon said 'T was directed to show | 

my instructions to Mr. Mason and Mr. Slidell and to no one else." | 

But these gentlemen told him that he could safely proceed in the ? 

presence of Mr. Corcoran, as he was their confident adviser. He I 
then had his instructions translated by the clerk of Mr. Slidell 

who had the key. The two Confederate Commissioners were | 

greatly astonished, and Mr. Mason at first declared he would not i 

obey instructions. But he yielded upon finding that if he did not, 1 

he would be suspended. | 

The French Emperor was communicated with through somiC I 

one connected with Mr. Slidell, and he replied that he vrould recog- ? 

nize the Confederacy if England would do so, Mr. Kenner and I 

Mr. Mason then returned to London, and the Prime Minister was | 

indirectly sounded. He replied that under no circumstances would | 

her Majesty's government recognize the Southern Confederacy. ^ 

This of course put an end to all hope of Mr. Kenner's mission | 

being successful, and in a few weeks he learned of General Lee's J 

surrender. Mr. Kenner gave an interesting account of how he got | 
back home and how he saved a portion of his property, but this 
need not be told. 



William and Mary Quarterly 13 



CHANCELLOR WYTHE AND PARSON WEEMS 

Contributed by D. R. Anderson, Ph. D., Professor of History 

and Political Science, Richmond College, 

Richmond, Virginia. 

The article below was discovered by the writer after con- 
siderable search. He had found out that Person Weems wrote a 
character sketch of Chancellor Wythe,^ and, realizing how inter- 
esting such an effusion would be, kept on the hunt for it, until 
it was located in the Tunes of Charleston, S. C, for July i, 1806. 
The "find" is of great interest to the writer, both for what it says 
about Wythe on whose life an effort is being made to collect 
material, and for the Weemsesque way in which it is said. It 
should be of interest, also, to students both of Wythe and of 
Weems. 

Of these two famous Virginians it is feared that Weems has 
a far wider popular reputation — though of a very diilerent kind — 
than Wythe. Everybody has heard of the eccentric parson who 
gave us the "cherry tree" and other remarkable stories about 
Washington. Weems, however, was the author of a surprising 
number of books and pamphlets in addition to the "Life of Wash- 
ington." Among them are lives of General Francis Clarion, 
Benjamin Franklin, William Penn, and such marvellous titles as 
the following: "The Bad Wife's Looking Glass, or God's Re- 
venge Against Cruelty to Husbands Exemplified in the Awful 
History of the Beautiful but Depraved Mrs. Rebecca Cotton, who 
Most Jnhumanly Murdered her Husband, John Cotton, Esq., for 
which Horrid Act God permitted her in the Prime of Life and 
Bloom of Beauty to be cut off by Her Brother, Stephen Kannady, 
May 5, 1807, with a Number of Incidents and Anecdotes Most 
Extraordinary and Instructive." 

In all his writings it was Weems' aim to collect a "Number of 
Incidents and Anecdotes Most Extraordinary and Instructive" 
and to use them for moral teaching. The prevalent opinion of the 
"Parson" is that expressed by Bishop Meade when he said [Old 



14 William and Mary Quarterly 

Churches, II, 234] *'If some may, by comparison be called 'na- 
ture's noblemen,' he [Weems] might surely have been pronounced 
one of 'nature's oddities.' " However, the more recent tendency 
is toward a more charitable opinion of the anecdotal "Parson." 
Hayden, in Virginia Genealogies [p. 350] says of the famous 
stories in the ''Life of Washington :" "Whatever may have been 
the character of Weems, his pretty and natural anecdotes of the 
boyhood of Washington are much more easily ridiculed than dis- 
proved." A fair judgment is that of his biographer in "Library 
of Southern Literature," XIII, 5737: "He saw the facts through 
the medium of his glowing imagination and moral enthusiasm ; 
but it is simply misconceiving the whole man to say that his stories 
are the deliberate invention of falsehood." 

Weems travelled for his publisher, Mathew Carey, of Phila- 
delphia, from Pennsylvania to Georgia, and in the article printed 
here we find him on one of his visits to Charleston, S. C, selling 
"elegant red morocco Family Bibles," and the like. A recent 
biography of Weems by L. C. Wroth appeared in 1911 under the 
title, "Parson Weems : a biographical and critical study." 

The stories told by Weems about Wythe are true to life, how- 
ever fictitious the particular incidents might be. Wythe was both 
religious and honest — two qualities not infrequently associated. 
For Wythe's religion, see a very interesting manuscript preserved 
in the Virginia Historical Society ; and published in the Virginia 
Magazine of History and Biography, VI, 102. Wythe was far 
from orthodox, as were most of the great men of his day, but he 
prayed "unceasingly," had an "unfaltering trust," and lived a 
spotless life — orthodoxy enough for most of us. As a lawyer, his 
chief quality, in addition to supreme ability, was honesty. He 
rejected bad causes, charged small fees, and gave large services. 
He was the first professor of law in America, and the teacher of 
many of the leading statesmen of his day, including such opposites 
as his life-long friends, Thomas Jefferson and John Marshall. 
For a good account of Wythe see. The Great American Lawyer 
Series, Vol. I, where President Tyler displays his usual learning 
and literary skill. 

Reverend Lee ]\Iassey, mentioned in Weems' letter, was rector 
of Truro Parish while Washington was a vestryman. He was a 



William and Mary Quarterly 15 

friend of Washington, and legal adviser of George Mason. *'He 
tried to follow in the lead of Chancellor Wythe, to examine cases 
j)laced in his care and to accept the good and reject the bad. It 
proved a failure, and he withdrew from practice . . . He 
often said Mr. Wythe was the only 'honest lawyer he ever 
knew'" [Meade II, 238, quoting Colonel Stoddert of Wycomico 
House, Maryland, grandson of Massey]. 

Robert Alexander, to whom the Wythe letter given by Weems, 
is addressed, presumably is the Robert Alexander mentioned in 
William and Mary Quarterly, IX, 253, whose will v/as dated 
1788, and proved on February 18, 1793. Alexander, Weems, 
Massey were all of Prince William and Fairfax, neighboring 
counties. x\lexander married Mariamne Stoddert, Weems mar- 
ried Fanny Ewell, sister of Dr. Thomas Ewell, who married 
Elizabeth Stoddert ; Massey was the ex-lawyer rector of Truro 
Parish in Fairfax County, and Wythe was the religious, learned, 
honest, original, and universally beloved lawyer, professor, states- 
man, and chancellor. The association of these names in Weems' 
characteristic repast of rhetoric and all-but-im.possible anecdote 
is of more than general interest. 

D. R. Anderson. 



THE TIMES, CHARLESTON, S. C. 

Tuesday Evening, July i, 1806. 

For The Times 

THE HONEST LAWYER 

An Anecdote 

Glancing an eye over one of your late papers, I accidentally caught the 
paragraph which stated the death of George Wythe, Esq., Chancellor of 
Virginia. Some of your correspondents, very young and tender-hearted, 
perhaps, appeared quite galvanized by this piece of intelligence — but for 
my own part, getting now to be a little oldish myself, and daily, as be- 
comes a stranger in Charleston, at this season, looking out for a squall of 
the same sort, I cannot say it was a matter of much shock to me. I knew 
this much of Citizen Wythe, that great and good as he was, he was still 
no more than mortal man; and I also know that he was arrived to that 
full ripe state, at which philosophers and fruits begin, alike, to tremble to 



i6 William and Mary Quarterly 

their fall ; and when death, by a touch of his old thresher, with equal ease, 
brings down a chancellor or a cherry — and still less, if possible, was I 
grieved at his exit. What ! grieved that this veteran of the law, after a f 

life of glorious toil, to revive the golden age of justice on earth, was i 

returned to the high courts of heaven — not, pale and trembling, like the J 

wretched Jeffries, wet with widow's tears and blood of murdered patriots, 
to meet the tear-avenging God; but, bright in conscious integrity, with 
hands pure as the sw^eet palms which press the alabaster bottles of life, 
and in robes of innocence snow-white as those that angels wear, to meet 
the smiles of the Judge Supreme, and the acclamations of brother saints 
innumerable. Shall I grieve at this ? At this, the loveliest sight ever yet % 

placed before the eyes of sweetly sympatliizing cbarity? Oh no. When 
a Pleader, Hke him, forsakes this toilsome clod, to return to his native i 

skies, let not the voice of grief be heard. Let us rather follow the steps f-^ 

of his departure with joy-gazing eyes, and shouts of praise to God. for a ^ 

brother, who, after a life so honorable to human nature, and so instruc- \ 

tive to the world, is going to his reward. And for the white stone that J- 

guards his dust, 'tis wisdom's beacon to the young: Let it shine with the % 

oil of gladness, suffer it not to be dimm'd with unseemly tears. Xo ; give e 

them to the vile attorney, who, for a fee, supported the villain's claims. K 

and tore from the little weeping orphan, his cake and homely robe — give ^/ 

them to the infatuated miser, who. darkened at sight of a creditor, cursed f 

his own signature if it compelled the payment of a dollar — and, unmoved 
by the calls of honor, still hugged to himself his precious pelf, content to 
live a scoundrel, provided he might but die rich — "guilt's blunder and the 
loudest laugh of hell." Give to such as these, your tears ; they need them — 
but pour them not over the tomb of the sleeping Wythe, who w^hile living, 
shewed how angels live. Having been often told, that though the honest- 
est man in Virginia, yet he Wythe was not the most orthodox. I felt an 
ardent wish for an opportunity to learn his real sentiments about religion. 
That opportunity was soon offered. I fell in with him at Richmond — he 
invited me to dine with him. Being altogether granivorous himself, he 
gave me a dinner exactly to his own tooth; rice milk, improved with 
plumbs, sugar and nutmeg ! Choice fare for a Bramin, or an Old Bachelor. 
It was over this demulcent diet, that I let drop expressions which shewed ^ 

the current of my wishes ; he took the hint, and with looks of complacency, , f 
and accents sweet as those of his native Mocking-Bird, he thus unbosomed | 

himself : — , H 

"Why, sir. as to religion, I have ever considered it as our best * 

and greatest friend. Those glorious views which it gives to our relation 5. 

to God, and of our destination to heaven, on the easy terms of a good 7. 

life, unquestionably furnish the best of all motives to virtue; the strong- ^ 

est dissuasives from vice ; and the richest cordial under trouble. Thus far. -^: 
I suppose, we are all agreed ; but not, perhaps, so entirely in another 

opinion, which is, that in the sight of God, moral character is the main _-. 



William and Mary Quarterly 17 

point. This opinion, very clearly taught by Reason, is fully confirmed by 
Revelation, which every where teaches 'That the tree will be valued only for 
its good fruit/ and, that in the last day, according to our works of love, 
or of hatred, of mercy, or of cruelty, we shall sing with angels, or weep 
with devils. In short, the Christian Religion (the sweetest and sublimest 
in the world) labours, through-out, to infix in our hearts this great truth, 
that God is love — and that in exact proportion as consequently shall par- 
take of his friendship and felicity forever. While others, therefore, have 
been beating their heads, or embittering their hearts, with disputes about 
'forms of baptism,^ and 'modes of faith,' it has always, thank God, struck 
me, as my great duty, constantly to think of this — God is love; and he that 
li'alketh in love, walketh in God and God in him." 

This was the creed of Chancellor Wythe, the Hale, the Moore, of 
V^irginia. His life was correspondingly amiable. His salary, as Chan- 
cellor of the State, was 35o£ Sterling, per annum ! — not a tythe the cost 
of a diamond necklace for the favorite Miss of an European Nabob — 
indeed, hardly a month's allowance for one of their dog kennels ! But 
to our honest Chancellor, it was enough, and to spare : — So cordially did 
he abhor the idea of giving to any man the pain of deception and disap- 
pointment, that he lived nobly independent with his little revenue, and no 
creditor ever went sad or angry from his door. With a fair claim on him, 
you might approach his simple dwelling with as light a heart as if you were 
skipping into the State Bank, with a check in your hand from John 
Blake, Esq. Exhibit your demands against him never so early, yet you 
never discomposed him — his eye lost none of its friendly lustre — his fine 
open brow contracted no cloud — no feature frowned the hateful Basilisk 
to kill the hope or to mar the pleasure of receiving your money. He never 
discharged a debt with those distressing sighs which often make a generous 
creditor wish he could afford to give it up; nor with that peevishness and 
passion which too plainly tell you, that he had rather you were at the 
devil. — 

His philanthropy gave him that tender interest in your welfare, that 
"to owe you nothing but love," was to him, in lieu of a harsh precept, an 
heartfelt pleasure, and scarcely so much his duty as his delight. 

The effect of this on the harmony and happiness of society, is incal- 
culable. "Some men," says Lord Chesterfield, "oblige us more in denying, 
than others in doing, us a favor" — owing to the sweet spirit accompanying 
I the denial. Now if there be such a charm in this spirit (which is no other 

than that of love), that with it a denial obliges us more than a denotation 
without it. then how delicious to the heart must the obligation be, when 
accompanied with that inexpressible charm of look, voice and manner, 
which converts denial into obligation? Here lay the fort of this eminent 
Barrister, from whose fair example even pulpits might gain instruction. 
He always received his creditors with a countenance so refreshing — at- 
tended to his claim with such respectful readiness — and discharged it with 



i8 William and Mary Quarterly 

a promptitude and pleasure so endearing — that his rrg-rftVor actually felt him- 
self, in turn, a debtor to the good Chancellor, whom he never left but with a 
throb of grateful sentiment, spontaneously breathing out his warmest bene- 
dictions on his head, and in as fervent prayers, that all men would, but like 
him, "live together in love, as dear children"; daily exalting each other's 
esteem, by duties, honorably performed; daily sweetening each other's 
spirits, by good office, cheerfully rendered — that thus, ever filling each 
others hearts with love, they may strew over with flowers this life's paths. 
and substantially support each others steps to a better; where the recol- 
lection of such essential services past, will serve to give a brighter lustre 
to their love-beaming eyes, and to exalt to higher enjoyment their blissful 
communion forever. 

In support of this little moral eulogy of Chancellor Wythe — in proof. 
I mean, that he possessed that fervent love, which gave him so tender an 
interest in the comfort of another, that no money could ever tempt him 
to invade it; take the following anecdote of him, and most exactly (in sub- 
stance at least) as I received it from the Rev. Mr, Lee Massey, a first-rate 
Virginia clergyman, and from early life, the intimate of Mr. Wjthe. 

"In the month of June, many years ago, I went," said Mr. Massey. 
"to dine with my friend, Bob Alexander." (Now, it may not much confuse 
the reader, to tell him that this same Bob Alexander, as Mr. Massey. in 
his familiar v/ay, alwaj's called him, was a wealthy and worthy gentleman. 
living on the Potomac, and near Alexandria). Well, "while Mrs. Alex- 
ander, like Milton's Eve, 'on hospitable thoughts intent,' was preparing 
an elegant dinner, Bob and I took our chairs into the piazza, which com- 
manded a very fine prospect indeed — full in our view lay the great Potomac, 
the mile-wide boundary between the sister states of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia — on the Virginia side the rich bottoms lengthened out, far as the eye 
could see, were covered with crops of full ripe wheat, whose yellow tops 
rolling in ridges before the playful breeze, reflected the beams of the sun 
in sudden gleams of gold, brightening the day — on the Maryland side, a 
stately ridge of hills, high crowned with trees, formed as it were, a 
frowning guard to the great river, and threw its subliming shades, a strik- 
ing contrast to the milder beauties of the opposite shore. Out spread be- 
tween the two, lay the Potomac, whose little waves, just waked up by the 
young winds of summer, ran chasing each other along their sky-blue fields, 
often speaking their joy in bursts of snowy laughter. While thus we sat 
feasting on these richly varied and magnificent scenes, which the great 
Maker had so kindly spread before us, Bob's servant arrived from town 
with the newspapers, and a letter, which he handed to his master. Having 
hastily run it over, he exclaimed with great earnestness. Well, really Par- 
son, this is strange, very strange ! Why that George Wythe must cer- 
tainly be either an angel or a fool." — 'Not a fool. Bob,' said I ; 'George 
Wythe is no fool'. — 'Well, that was never my opinion, neither, Parson : 
but what the plague are we to make of this confounded letter here — 



I 



William and Mary Quarterly 19 

Suppose, Parson, you read it, and give me your opinion on it.' I took it, 
and witli great pleasure read nearly word for word, as follows : — 

Robert Alexander, Esq. 

Sir. — The suit wherein you were pleased to do me the honor to engage 
my services, was last week brought to trial, and has fully satisfied me that 
you were entirely in the wrong'. Knowing you to be a perfectly honest man, 
I concluded that you have some how or other been misled. At any rate 
I find that I have been altogether misled in the affair, and therefore insist 
on washing my hands of it immediately. In so doing I trust I shall not 
be charged with any failure of duty to you. As your lawyer 'tis true I 
owe you everything — everything consistent with jiistice — against her, 
nothing; nor can ever owe. For justice is appointed of God, the golden 
rule of all order throughout the universe, and therefore, as involving the 
greatest of all possible good to his creatures, it must be of all things 
the dearest to Himself. He therefore, who knowingly acts against justice, 
is a rebel against God and a premeditated murderer of mankind. Of this 
crime (which worlds could not tempt me to commit) I should certainly be 
guilty, were I, under my present convictions, to go on with your suit. I 
hasten therefore to enclose you the fifty dollar note you gave me as a fee, 
and with it my advice, that you compromise the matter on the best terms 
you can. 

I have just to add, that as conscience will not allow me to say an}'thing 
for you, honor forbids that I should say anything against you. But, by all 
means, compromise, and save the costs. Adieu — wishing you that inward 
sunshine, which nothing outward can darken. 

I remain, dear sir, your's 

Geo. Wythe. 

For the sake of those who may wish to know whether the advice, in 
this extraordinary letter, was followed or not, I beg leave to add, that it 
was not followed. Mr. Massey told me, that his friend Bob was resolved, 
nolus volus, to go on with the suit, and therefore gave the fifty dollar note 
to some other gentleman of the law, who pushed the matter for him, and 
exactly with success predicted by the good Mr. Wythe — the loss of his 
land, with all costs! "Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the 
earth." 

M. L. Weems. 

M, L. W. congratulates his Charleston friends, subscribers to Wash- 
ington, for the immortal honour done, as well to their own morals as to 
the memory of that Hero. — Of 350 subscribers, there remain scarcely a 
dozen without their books, and of these, the universally fair character, 
gives full assurance that he is not to lament their lack of humanity to him, 
or of gratitude to Washington. It may not injure flavour of the sparkling 



20 



Willi A iM and Mary Quarterly 



Pintard, to say on the glorious 4th "I owe nothing now but Love to the 
memory of him him [sic] who Hke the flaming Cherubim (by the tree of 
life) stood firm, where milHons where [were] firm by that blessed tree of 
Political life, planted 30 years ago by our Father." 

M. L. W. is still with his friend Dr. Moses — has still a few elegant red 
morocco Family Bibles, with Cuts ; Hymen's Recruiting Sergeant for the 
Poor Bachelors ; the great Algernon Sidney for Politicians ; and Montague 
on the Fates and Fortunes of all the ancient Republics, a very interesting 
and valuable book, just reprinted and beautifully bound, price One Dollar. 



I 



William and Mary Quarterly 21 



LETTERS OF JAMES RUMSEY, INVExXTOR OF 

THE STEAMBOAT 

(Concluded) 

(G.) 

To ALL TO WHOM these Presents shall come Edward Bancroft 
of Francis Street in the County of Middlesex,' Esquire James 
Allan Park of Carey Street in the said County Esquire and 
Robert Barnewell of the City of London Merchant send greeting. 

Whereas by a certain Bond or Obligation bearing date the 
twentieth day of February in the present year one thousand 
5 seven hundred and ninety five Joseph Barnes of the State of \'ir- 
ginia in North America Gentleman then residing in the City of 
London Executor of the last Will and Testament of James Rum- 
sey late of the Parish of Saint Margaret Westminister Engineer 
deceased became held and firmly bound to Daniel Parker of \Vater 
Town in the State of Massachusetts in America then residing in 
Charles Street Soho Square in the County of Middlesex Esquire 
in the penal Sum of five thousand pounds — subject to a condi- 
tion theretmder written for making the same void Reciting that by 
a certain Bond or Obligation in writing bearing date on or about 
the first Day of Ivlay then last past the above named Joseph 
Barnes became bound to the above named Daniel Parker in the 
penal Sum of five thousand pounds with a condition there- 
under written whereby after reciting that disputes had arisen be- 
tween the said Joseph Barnes and Daniel Parker and in order to 
put an end to the same they had agreed to refer the same to the 
award of the above named Edward Bancroft James Allan Park 
and Robert Barnewall or any two of them it was theby [sic] 
conditioned to make void the same if the said Joseph Barnes 
should keep the award and determination of the said Edward 
Bancroft James Allan Park and Robert Barnewall or any. two 
of them of and concerning all and all manner of action and ac- 
tions cause and causes of Action suits bills bonds specialties cove- 
nants contracts promises accounts reckonings Sums of Money 



22 William and Mary Quarterly 

Judgments executions extents quarrels controversies trespasses 
damages and demands whatsoever both in Law and Equity at any 
time theretofore had made moved bought commenced sued prose- 
cuted committed or depending by or between the said parties or 
either of them so as the said award and Arbitrators or any two of 
them should be made in Writing under the hands and seals of 
them or any two of them ready to be delivered to the said parties in 
difference or such of them as should desire the same on or before 
the first Day of November then next and then last past and recit- 
ing that the said Arbitrators had proceeded to take upon them- 
selves the burthen of the said Referrence and examine the parties 
and their Accounts papers and vouchers relating to the matters 
referred to them but did not make their Award within the time 
limitted by the said recited Bond and it was agreed between the 
said Joseph Barnes and Daniel Parker to refer again to the award 
and Determination of the said Edward Bancroft James Allan Park 
and Robert Barnewall or any two of them the matters before 
referred to them by the said recited Bond The condition of the 
said Bond or ObHgation now in recital was that if the said Joseph 
Barnes his Heirs Executors or Administrators did and should for 
his and their parts and behalf in all things well and truly stand to 
obey abide by perform fulfil and keep the award order arbitrament 
final end and determination of the said Edward Bancroft James 
Allan Park and Robert Barnewall or any two of them of and con- 
cerning all and all manner of action and actions suit and suits 
cause and causes of action and suit bills bonds specialties cove- 
nants contracts promises accounts reckonings Sums of Money 
Judgments executions extents quarrells controversies trespasses 
damages and demands what soever both in Law and Equity at any 
time theretofore had made moved brought commenced sued 
prosecuted committed or depending by or between the said parties 
so as the said Award of the said arbitrators or any two of them 
be made in writing under their Hands and seals ready to be de- 
livered to the said parties in difference or such of them as should 
require the same on or before the twentieth Day of April next 
then the Obligation should be void or else should be and remain 
in full force and virtue And it was thereby agreed by and between 
the said parties that the said Bond or Obligation and the submis- 



William and Mary Quarterly 23 

sion thereby made should be made a Rule of His Majesty's Court 
of King's Bench at Westminster if the said Court should so please 
and whereas by a certain other bond or obligation bearing 
even date with the above recited Bond the said Daniel Parker be- 
came held and firmly bound to the above named Joseph Barnes in 
the penal Sum of five thousand pounds with a Condition there- 
under written for making the same void if the said Joseph Barnes 
as Executor aforesaid should and did observe perform fulfil and 
keep the Award Order and Determination of the said Edward 
Bancroft James iMlan Park and Robert Barnewall of and con- 
cerning the matters therby referred (being the same matters men- 
tioned and contained in the said herein before recitd Bond) 
AND whereas the said Edward Bancroft James Allan Park 
and Robert Barnewall have further taken upon themselves the 
said Referrence and have examined and interrogated the said 
parties and Witnesses and examined and inspected several Books 
Papers and Accounts respecting the same and heard and con- 
sidered what was alledged on both sides now know ye that 
we the said Edward Bancroft James x^llan Park and Robert 
Barnewall do therefore hereby award order and direct that the 
said Joseph Barnes as Executor as aforesaid and Daniel Parker 
or one of them shall and do out of the Copartnership Estate and 
Effects of Daniel Parker James Rumsey and Samuel Rogers well 
and truly pay or cause to be paid unto the Reverend Edward 
Wadeson of Huntingdon at the House of Mess" Roberts Curtis 
and Company Bankers in Cornhill London between the hours of 
ten and eleven of the Clock in the forenoon on the twentieth Day 
of April next ensuing the principle Money and Interest then due 
to him under or by virtue of a certain Bond or Obligation on the 
same Bond or Obligation being thereupon delivered up by him to 
be cancelled and destroyed (being the same Sum of iMoney 
awarded and directed by us to be paid to him by Samuel Rogers ' 
and Joseph Barnes as Executors as aforesaid in and by a certain 
other award order and Direction under our Hands and Seals bear- 
ing even date herewith and made in pursuance of a certain bond 
or obligation bearing even date with the above recited Bond And 
we do further order and direct that the said Joseph Barnes do and 
shall out of the assets of the said James Rumsey which have or 



24 William and Mary Quarterly 

shall come to his Hands well and truly pay or cause to be paid unto 
the said Daniel Parker his Executors Administrators or assigns 
the Sum of two hundred and eighty four pounds ten shillings and 
six pence of lawful Money of Great Britain and that upon pay- 
ment of the said Daniel Parker and the said Joseph Barnes as 
Executor as aforesaid shall do well and truly enter into and exe- 
cute to each other a good and sufficient release in Law of all 
Claims and Demands whatsoever under and by virtue of certain 
Articles of Agreement bearing Date the twenty^ fifth Day of 
March one thousand seven hundred and ninety made between the 
said James Rumsey of the first part the said Samuel Rogers of the 
second part and the said Daniel Parker of the third part and of 
certain Indenture bearing even date therewith and made between 
the said James Rumsey of the first part the said Samuel Rogers 
and Daniel Parker of the second part and Samuel Browne of the 
third part or any other Account whatsoever from the beginning of 
the World to the Day of the date of these presents and we do 
further hereby award adjudge order and direct that the said 
Daniel Parker shall and do pay two third parts or proportions 
of the Costs Charges and Expences of making and executing this 
Aw^ard And that the said Joseph Barnes shall and do pay the 
remaining third part thereof out of the Effects of the said James 
Rumsey which shall come to the Hands of the said Joseph Barnes 
IN WITNESS whereof the said Edward Bancroft James Allan 
Park and Robert Barnewall have hereunto set their Hands and 
Seals the ninth Day of March in the Year of our Lord one thou- 
sand seven hundred and ninety five. 

Edw** Bancroft (LS.) 

James Allan Park (LS.) 

Rob^ Barnewall (LS.) 

Sealed and delivered being 

first duly stamped in the 

presence of 

Rich Dann Jr. 
Threadneedle Street 
London 

1 8th August 1796 Examined with the original 

(of which it is a true Copy) by us 



William and Mary Quarterly 

William H. White Clerks to Wadeson & Hardy 
S. F. Townsend Austin Friars London 

[backed] Dated 9th Day of Mar. 1795. 

Joseph Barnes Gent. 

with I Award 

Daniel Parker, Escf 



(H) 

London iMarch 30th 1792. 
Dear Charles. 

In november Last I received your Several Letters dated at 
Shepherds town in July 91 and on the 27th day of december I 
received you letter of 22*^ of nov"" 91 written at Philadelphia. 
I Sincerely thank you for the kind concern you express, throgh the 
whole of them, for my past misfortunes, and future wellfare, and 
trusf that you will believe, that I have your interest and happiness 
as much at heart, as you have that of mine, you Seem to be 
frightened at the nature and complication of my affairs, and was no 
doubt more so when you received the Letter forwarded to you for 
M"^ West in nov"" last ; but do not Let these things make you any 
longer uneasy, they are but the natural occurrences, that all men 
in my line of life may expect to meet with, especially in a City 
that may (not unjustly) be called the capotal of the world; of 
course' pocessed with a great proportion of all the knowledge 
thereof, without much of its Virtue, on which account it is Soon 
determined after a man is broght upon this theatre whether he is 
fit for an actor or not ; I have So far passed muster, tho the part I 
have had assigned me as yet has been Sudh as (only) to keep me 
in view Rather than to make me Conspecueous and notwithstand- 
ing my discouragement has been great indeed, from the difficulties 
that have Constantly been heaped upon me yet I do not Loose 
heart, finding that "my back is always equal to the burthen that 



26 William and Mary Quarterly 

I have to bear" ! ! ! and therefore (thogh unhappy enough) am not 
in so miserable a Situation as you Seem to fear ; my unhapi- 1 
ness is only at intervals when my philpsophy and fortitude for- 
sakes me, which is not oftener now, not withstanding the turbu- 
lance and magnitude of my persuits ; than when my greatest want, 
was a grist of your indian Corn without having the money to pay 
for it ! ! ! After So long a preface your mind will in Some degree 
be prepared for any kind of news, I Shall therefore not hesitate to 
Say at once, that my affairs at this moment are not in a more 
favourable train, than when .1 wrote you last, which has been 
the true Cause of my remaining So long Silent, hopeing every 
week that Came (for Some months past) would put me into pos- 
session of the means of being independent, at least in this land of 
exile, which would lead to my turning my Eyes (once more) to- 
wards my own Country ; but alass my weried patience must brace 
up, to face another long long year, before I can even hope for that 
pleasure. Then (and not before) you may expect me ! ! ! as I ; 
have determined by that time to force my business here to an end 
of some kind or other; It might with certainty (Should I live) be 
a prosperous end, had not all my conections here as well as my 
one [vaunted?] patrons, in america, been Laches, instead of 
Liberal disinterested men. Characters, by the by that have no exist- 
ance, except in Ideal of honest men, there may be many ; I know- 
there is Some ! ! ! my Steam Vessel, from the poverty of the Con- E 
cern, has laid by the walls, nearly, for the last six months, not 
withstanding that Very little w^ork (besides repair of damages 
recevd by laying by) would make her ready for an experiment; 
that would not fail of Success, that would entitle me to receive ^ 
from niy partners £2,500 Ster'"^. But what of that Success? if g 
they have not the ability and inclination to pay me, they already ■£ 
owe me, for the new mills that I have Compleated, upwards of 
£3,000 SterK^ yet not a farthing of it is to be had, promises and 
prospects of receiveing a Considerable part of it is always before 
me, but the means for maturing them neVer appears. Thus you J 
See (as throgh all my life) I am obliged to live on Jiope, almost, > 
alone: which at this moment is but very faint as it has become 
quite uncertain wheithe the business (which is now but feebly y 
carried on) must not in the Course of a few days once more Stop ! 



I 

I 

i. 

I William and Mary Quarterly 27 

f for want of Supplies of money to carry it on ; how it my be is 

I uiicertain, yet Certain it is, that a few days must bring Changes 

I of Some sort, as I am determined to proceed [torn] short time 

I longer, without something Substantial Should Come down ; for 

I like all projectors I have, resourses in other Schemes, which I 

i this day expect to obtain a patent for, that will be put into the 

I hands of persons for execution whose Situation will respect to 

I money matters will make their efforts (to bring my new plans 

forward) much more efectual, than ours [ ?] has been In bringing 
forward the old ones : 

I am very sorry that trade proves So dull with you but don't 
let that discourage you, Something will turn up as advantages, or 
it will revive : I wish you Could Sell your property, goods and 
all; for a good farm, for after all is Said and done I am Satisfied 
it is the most Comfortable life to be a Contented farmer ! It is in 
that way I hope to end my days ! Remember me kindly to all my 
friends, particularly to my sister, who is so much interested in my 
hapiness ; and but * * * that I remain your Sincere and much 
obhged friend & 

Hum. Servt. 

James Rumsey. 

Sh for*^ 15 Cents 
Geo. Toun 4th June Alexr 10 

[backed] 25 . 

Capt. Charles Morrow 

Shepherds town 

Berkeley County 
Capt. McKensey Virginia 

Ship Mary 

Letter from James 
Rumsey filed in suit 
936 



28 William and Mary Quarterly 

(I) 

London august 4th 1789. 
Dear Charles, 

I have your letters of the i6th & 17th of march 89 by M*" 
Hunter, and that of the 17th of May by Cap*^ Suttan from Phila- 
delphia now before me, and be eshored that it gives me great pleas- 
ure to hear that you, my sister, and all friends are well, those by 
M"" Hunter I received the last week in June, that by Cap^ Sutton 
are the 12th of July, my reply will be tedious and not Satisfactory 
but before I Enter into a particular account of the dificulties I 
have Lately met with I will tell you that I have Concluded after 
mature Consideration not to Send out the goods proposed before 
next Spring, the principle reasons for not doing it follow, — you 
remember I long Since informed of a gentleman that was so 
good as to ofTer me money to try my Experiment and that I had 
a Vessel building at Dover for that purpose, she is now finished 
and is at London what is still better she is paid for, the hull 
Cables and anchors and trunk in her bottom Cost 600 guinies ; 
you will be frightened when I tell you that after I had entered 
into an agreem*^ for this vessel an had subjected myself to be 
drawn upon at very short periods for the money, I returned to 
London where to my great astonishment I found my friend and 
patron in Jail for a Large Sum of Money, I had just received a 
remittance from the Society about Suficiant to make the first pay- 
ment for the Vessel which unfortunately was lodged with him, 
with the greatest dificulty, and more address than I everbefore 
was Capable of, I got it out of his hands. Contrary to the Expecta- 
tion of Every one that knew the Circumstances ; by which I 
was Enabled to make the first payment, my Situation was 
now such that I was obliged to Close with the first person that 
would Let me have money, a good natured honest Creature 
that knew no more of my Schemes than an Idiot, proposed to 
Lend me some money, I accepted of it and got £500 of him, from 
two other gentlemen I got £200, more and was going on tolerable 
w^ell when a partner of my honest friend returned from abroad, 
pretended to be much dissatisfied with the money being gone 
without having Some considerable part of the Scheme for it, we 
had a meeting in order to try to Contract for part of my british 



William and INIary Quarterly 29 

jKitent but Could not agree, they offered nie ii200 Sterling for 
one fifth of it ; my reasons for not Closeing with them when in so 
h'dd a Situation, ware many, they then pushed for their money 
which obliged me to apply to the Very gentlemen throgh home 
I intended to get the goods ; for the lone of that Sum they ware 
fTood enough not only to let me have that Sum but as much more 
as will finish my Experiment the Cost of which will be at least 
one thousand guinies, this you will say is a great deal of money 
for me to borrow in a strange Country Especially when the 
Society that Sent me here has actually, in one Sence of the word 
deserted me having fairly refused thogh not in direct terms, to 
Establish a Credit here for me to try the Experiment these 
letters from the Society I have Shewn to the Gentlemen that has 
let me have the money. The Society words are "if the Experiment 
you are about suceeds you will send us out an Engine for a 
twenty ton boat by Cap*^ Sutton ; the Cost of which they will pay 
to your order at our next meeting the Society will take in Con- 
sideration a proposition that has been made to them, for Establish- 
ing a Credit in London for Such Engines and mechines as they 
may want !" I will leave you to Comment upon what they have 
said but I Conceive I am to get no Creditt Except the Experiment 
Succeeds, I have written them a Spirited Letter in which I toald 
them as this Experiment would be at my own risk, that I Ex- 
pected all the profits (should any arise ) of that vessel. I hope 
under these circumstances that you will approve of my not asking 
for the goods, not that I think thay would have been refused me 
but it would have had so much the appearance of straining [?] 
the free horse, that I had not resolution enough to do it besides 
was my misfortune to happen in the Experiment I should feel a 
double weight upon me by the takeing the goods for should they 
take up the Idea that my Scheme would fail it might raise in them 
Some suspitions of the uprightness of my intentions. The fore- 
f^oing dificulties at times bare harder on me than any you ever 
l<new me to Encounter in america the reason was their is no 
* * of a payment here one single day therefore the failing in 
one payment would have made me a bankrupt and my name must 
nave been (to the great Satisfaction of my Enemies) posted up 
m the public papers, or myself sent to Jail, after what I have said 



30 William and Mary Quarterly 

it is unnecessary to add any reasons for the delay of the Experi- 
ment to so late a period, the mecheniry is now on board the vessel 
and is going slowly together, / remain quite Sanguine, she is a 
butifuU vessel Burthen loi & 45/94 tons I have called the 
Columbian Maid but think to change it to the Rumseian Experi- 
ment as soon as success is ascertained. I am much obliged to you 
for [illegible] with your [illegible] for my Success, it is Cer- 
tainly my friend a great undertaking to attempt Such an Experi- 
ment as mine is under the Eyes of one million of Souls I did not at 
first intend to do it, but Several attempts are makeing in different 
parts of the kingdom to work Vessels by Steam thogh not on my 
plan I am therefore determined to let the world know the general 
principles of mine as Soon as posable, that I may thereby gain 
their Support and patronage, it is necessary in a country like this 
where almost anything Can be accomplished by Bribery and as 
shore as I have success, I shall have powerfuU opponants, and 
althogh I have (untill now) kept it as Private as possible yet I 
have Secured several powerfull friends to introduce me to the 
Lords of the admorality &c. as soon as my Vessel is ready the 
Duke of Clarance, the kings third son, has been informed of it, 
and is much pleased with the account, several of the nobility and 
Sir Joseph Banks {president of the royal Society) are ready to 
tender me Every servise in theire power, my plans has been ap- 
proved of in the royal academie of Sciences in paris and by the 
Society of the museum of arts and Sciences, in the Same place, 
where throgh the interest of the Marquis de Candorset[?] and 
Some others of my friends their, I am propossed as a member of 
that Society. It takes Some time to go throgh the necessary Cere- 
monies, but Supose 1 shall be Elected Doc. Franklin is at present 
the only one upon that list that is an american, no person can be 
admited that has not produced some new philosophical discovery ; 
So much my friend for the gratification of Vanity, the Substance 
I find is much harder to come at yet I hope it will all Come about 
in due time, respecting setting up a boat in Patamock I shall not 
forget that object the moment I have it in my power to attend to 
it. — as to my returning home, it is the only thing that Distresses 
me to a great degree, for if I stay to do my business (and con- 
sequently my duty) in Europe it will take a long time, and to leave 



William and Mary Quarterly 31 

ii undone would be to Surrender to others the fruit of my labours, 
as well as a great proportion of the reputation I might gain by 
being the Establisher of them ; these Considerations, and a wish 
to return to my native Country "and to the bosome of my friends" 
keeps as it ware, a Continuel warfare within my mind which 
renders me quite unable to determine on Either measure as yet. 
I am astonished at Fitches perseverance and rascallity I wish you 
had got him taken with a writ, however upon the hole T think his 
Exertion [ ?] will opperate against him. I hope that M"" Barnes 
has been able to Colect and pay you the money I owed you I have 
frequently written to him upon the Subject and shall do it again at 
this time. The unaccountable number of letters I have dayly to 
write persons in this & other Countries w^ill I hope plead my ex- 
cuse to my father and the rest of my relations and friend for not 
writeing Individually to them, Especially as I depend upon you 
to Communicate to Each the Contents of my letters so far as may 
be prudent an you think they would be glad to hear. I have not 
heard a word of AP Vasey Since he left London last year. The 
people of france will be a free people, they are following the Steps 
of the americans who taught the w^orld the Value of Liberty, this 
City is Crowded with french tories that has made thire Escape 
from their Justly Enraged Country men, the popularity of the 
marquis DeLafayette and his Close Intimacy with our Country- 
man M"" Jefferson, makes him (M"" Jeferson) as it ware the 
present dictator or lazv giver to the french nation, the historyes 
of the world Can not furnish such an other Instance, there has 
indeed been tyrants that has ordered the Chains of Slavery to be 
rivited on as many people, but an american is the first that at- 
tempts to have them taken off. I lived to see that dread full place 
called the Bastile it is now no more, but leveled to the Earth by 
the Candidates for Liberty, — You have not toald me how the 
navigation of Potamack goes on, and whether richi Stuart [.h]as 
yet the Command of that business I should also be glad to hear 
if the Sawmill is like to make a liveing that is tolerable for my 
poor old father and his Children that are there if it does I am 
Satisfied, your not mentioning it has gave me Some reason to 
doubt of their Success. I have my uneasiness on many other 
accounts about which I am realy afraid to Enquire ; if any person 



32 William and Mary Quarterly 

has been injured or disapointed by me, I am sorry for it, the only 
Comfort I have when such gloomy thoughts, occupy the mind is 
the being Concious that I never wished to injure one of my fellow 
Creatures who did not deserve it, and that I always did things for 
the best, what Ever might have been the Event. 

Docf iVPMechen has written to mc I am Sorry to hear that he 
is in so poor a way I wish I was able to relieve him. [torn] is 
singular (but I can ashore you my friend that It is true) that I 
never felt more affliction, for the misfortunes of my friends and 
those dependent upon me, than I ever [did?] upon my own ac- 
count. I shall Endeavour throgh [torn] Barnes to give him some 
assistance. David gray [torn] is maried; if you see him tell him I 
[torn] posable hapiness, and for his own sake [torn] he did not 
Come to Europe as it not [torn] Can Colect Idea^ which will 
add much to [torn] this life, whatever it may do to his knowledge 
— I should be glad to hear about the play house, F'itzhughs houses, 
-yym Orrick & his a fairs &c &c &c. after my best respects to you & 
your relations and to my Sister, and mine with Sincerity Sub- 
scribe myself yours & their Efectionate freind 



James Rumsey 



[backed] 



McMachen 

vs Letter 

Rumsey 



I 



Capt. Charles Morrow 
Shepherds Town 
Berkley County 

Virginia {; 

To the parti- % 

cular Care of % 

M' Hellen | 

M'" Morrow will please 

to puruse this and returne 

it to me again 

C. M. 



William and Mary Quarterly 33 

Philad. Jan. 29th 1792. 
Capt. Charles Morrow 

Dear Sir, 

These Hnes will be handed you by Adam Fraley, a young man 
who came recommended to me by Jacob Smith as an ingenious 
Mechanic, he is professionally a mill wright and is to execute the 
work of Major Rights mill upon the principles of reaction, in 
which are to be two Machines, I have given him assurances of 
patronage, on my receiveing a satisfactory advice of the com- 
pletion and Success of Said mills; the , essential parts of the 
aparatus are to be made here — 

The Committee of Congress appointed to bring in a Bill to 
amend the Patent system, have not yet made report ! however, 
they promise me it shall soon appear; From what Little I can 
discover, the report of Said Committee will not meet my Ideas but 
I will attend to its passage through the Low house, and if it shall 
be deficient get my friend to amend it. Nor has the Comm.ittee 
of the Rumseian Society appointed to take a retrospect of their 
constitution &c. yet made report — 

The 16^^ instant I rec*^ a Letter from our friend J. Rumsey 
dated London Nov. 3^ 1791 — In w^hich his apology for not having 
so long written to me is, his not having had matter of importance 
to inform me. No important event had taken place, he is passive 
on the Subject of the Steam Vessel; he observes that his partners 
have for some time payed up their quotas of the expenses, but he 
fears there is but little probability of getting any of the purchase 
money 'till the Machines shall be made productive and yield it ; 
he adds that his difficulties were much Lightened, but in conse- 
quence of his having then got any Machine in motion which was 
productive, not entirely removed. 

He, further adds that the hopes of the Rumseian Society here 
must in future depend on their Liberality, because in his Last 
Patent, dated Aug*^ 24, 1791 — he has specified mills and Engines 
so far superior to any of his former as to render them com- 
paratively of but Little value; In consequence of which he re- 
quests the mill proposed at New York to be Suspended 'till he 
forwards an improved ]\Iachine for that purpose. 



34 William and Mary Quarterly 

He further adds, that he was on the point of trying a mill on 
principles entirely new, of the result of which his next in a few 
days should inform me. 

He observes, that, he used to think he was more unfortunate 
than others because he met with more impositions from his fellow 
men, but, almost too Late, he finds the truth to be his own credulity 
in, and want of a competent knowledge of menkind, which he ob- 
serves the City of London an excellent school to teach. 

He, informs me he had not since Buel Left London rec"^ a Line 
from him, which together with Some disagreeable things which he 
has since heard of him is Sufficient ground to Suspect he (I^Ir. 
Rumsey) is once more deceived, however i^Ir. Rumsey observes if 
the result shall be, that Buel had not acted with propriety or has 
done any thing contrary to Mr. Rumsey interest he will make 
America too warm for the [torn] of Buels views? 

with the purest motives 
of respect 
I am Sir 

your hum. ser* 

Joseph Barnes 
' Capt C. Morrow 

P. S. 

Best respects to M^^ Morrow and Love to children particu- 
larly Little poUy for whom I feel sensible emotions. 
Likewise respects to M'' Rumsey, & friends, 

J- B. 

[backed] Capt. Charles Morrow 

• Shepherds Town 
M W Berkely County 

Adam Fraley Virginia 

McMachen 

vs Letter. 

Rumsey 



William and Mary Quarterly 35 



A' 7G: 



AN UNPUBLISHED LETTER OF GEN. JACKSON 

Camp near Fairfax C. H., 

Sept. 2^, 1861. 
My dear friend : 

Such you must permit me to call you though we have never 
met. Your kind note and the box of delicacies sent by yourself and 
other lady friends of Charlestown met with a very welcome recep- 
tion, and the object of these few Hnes is to make my grateful 
acknowledgments, to express my admiration of the patriotic 
course of your town when it was occupied by the enemy, and to 
ask that you wall pray more earnestly to the Giver of every good 
and perfect gift for the inestimable blessings of an honorable and 
lasting peace. 

Please give my thanks and kindest regards to the other ladies. 

Truly your friend, 

T. J. JACKSON. 
Mrs. Dr. Keene. 



i 



36 



William and Mary Quarterly 



AGES OF LOWER NORFOLK COUNTY PEOPLE 
By Charles F. McIntosh 



Abstracted from Depositions found in Books A, B, C and 
D (1637-1665) in the Norfolk County Clerk's Office. The ages 
in almost all instances are followed by the words ''thereabouts." 



(1637-1663) 

Hawkins Henry aged 

Locke George " 

Rivers Thomas " 

West Robte " 

Cheely Thomas " 

Keeling Thomas " 

Haynes Henry " 

Mason fifrancis " 

Tanner Daniell *' 

Mason Jarvis " 

Thompson Hoenery " 

Whitby Willis " 

Laton Elizabeth " 

Smith James " 

Coleman Edw^ard " 

Webbe John '' 

Hill Andrew " 

Hunter George " 

Julian Sarah " 

]oh.nson John " 

Mear^ Thomas " 

Ivey Thomas " 

Edwards William " 

Bradshawe Jacob " 

Hathwaye Walter '' 

Meares Thomas " 

Bullock Thomas " 

Bradshawe Jacob " 

Peeters Simon ** 

Riglesworth Peter " 

Body Robt " 

Kealinge Ann ** 





in 




■f 


22 years 


1637 


30 " 


1637 


21 " 


1637 


24 " 


1637 


40 " 


1637 


24 " 


1637 


44 " 


1637 


42 " 


1637 


56 " 


1^37 


26 " 


1637 


26 " 


1637 \ 

1638 I 


24 " 


24 " 


1638 


25 " 


1638 


26 " 


^638 1 


23 " 


1638 :: 


23 " 


1638 


36 " 


1638 


37 " 


1638 


20 « 


1639 • : 


38 " 


1640 :. 


36 " 


1640 ^h 


36 " 


1640 ^ 


29 " 


1640 :_ 


20 " 


1640 •' 


38 " 


1640 \ 


28 " 


1640 . 


25 " 


1640 I 


28 " 


1640 ^ 


<< 


1640 J 


24 " 


1040 % 


22 " 


1640 - 



I 



William and Mary Quarterly 



37 



Moy Dorathy 

Hutler Edward 

Richardson John 

Hawkins Henry- 

ffloyd Richard 

Crr^'ch Xicholas 

Body Robt. 

Lewellinge David 

Llilly Edward 

Hayes Robert 

Edwards William 

Chrtdy Thos 

Webb John 

Lambert Thomas 

Kemp George 

Hollmes Mathew 

Brz^aine Thomas 

Troumiball Willm 

Wattsone ^^'illm 

Darby John 

Masson Trestriim 

Lennor Clarke 

Shiindsniore Nathan 

ttoake Robt 

Lee Rich 

Land Itrancis 

Lloyd Cornelius 

Cvsiff ett John 

Harrison Thomas (Minister) 

Lane Phillipp 

Shipp Catherine 

Burrough Cristopher 

Mor>-ason John 

Cattelin Henrv* 

Holbeck John 

Casson Thos 

Allen Thos 

Windham Edward 

Woodhouse Henr\' 

Vaughan William 

Morgan Rowland 

Budding Will 

Capps Willm 

Phillips Mathew, gent 

Howell Thomas 



" 26 




1640 


" 22 




1640 


" 20 




1640 


" 27 




1640 


" 23 




1640 


" 21 




1640 


" 23 




1640 


" 22 




1640 


" 22 




1640 


" 46 




1640 


'• 44 




1640 


" 50 




1640 


" 35 




1640 


" 30 




1640 


" 28 




1 6-10 


" 26 




1640 


" 30 




1640 


" 28 




1640 


" 32 




1640 


" 36 




1641 


" 22 




1641 


" 24 




1641 


" 54 




1 641 


" 37 




1 641 


" 32 




1 641 


" 37 




1 641 


" 33 




1641 


" 36 




1641 


" 25 




1 641 


" 35 




1 641 


" 30 




1641 


" 29 




1 6-11 


" 2S 




1641 


" 40 




1642 


" 30 




1642 


" 38 




16-;^ 


"' 28 




Ib42 


" 26 




1642 


" 35 




1642 


" 30 




1642 


" 23 




1642 


" 18 




1643 


" 25 




1643 


" 45 




1646 


" 31 




1646 



38 



William and Mary Quarterly 



1 



Land ffrancis 

Lloyd Cornelius 

Powell Owen 

Yardley Fran. . . . . . 

Todd Thomas 

Eyre Robert 

Browne Arthur . . . . 

Abrell Richard 

Waring Sampson . . . 

Godby Ann 

Conquest Richard . . 

More William 

Butler W^ill 

Page Robt, Capt. . . . 

Mudler Joseph 

Mikaye Michaell . . . 
W^heeler Richard . . . 

Nicols Rich 

Barker William 

Hill John 

Clarke Elizabeth . . . 

Scott Jacobi 

Tooker Thomas . . . . 

Peeters Simon 

Sternell Richard . . . . 

W^oody Robert 

Seaborne Nicholas . . 

Kelly Darby 

Ankef/// ffrancis . . . . 
Mason Lemuell .... 

Martin John 

Atterbury William . , 
Goodrich Thomas . . 
Bridge Thomas . . . , 

Marshall John 

Peeters Simond 

Wright Thomas . . . , 

Dyer Willm , 

Davis Henry 

G^dney John 

Fo//ett Alfred . 

Bott Richard 

Huckstepp 

Bankes James 

Harding Thos 

Bustian Christopher 



" 35 




[646 


" 38 




1646 


" 35 




1646 






1647 


" 33 




1647 


" 35 




1647 


'' 56 




1647 


" 23 




1647 


" 30 




1647 


" 20 




1648 


" 28 




1648 


" 32 




1648 


" 26 




1648 


" 42 




1649 


" 23 




1649 


" 22 




1649 


" — 




1649 


"30or3: 


2 " 


1650 


'' 56 




1647 


"50 to 60" 


1647 


" 17 




1651 


" 21 




i6si 


" 38 




1652 


" 42 




1652 


" 38 




1653 


" Z^ 




1653 


" 39 




1653 


" 26 




1653 


" 28 




1653 


" 25 




1653. 


" 37 




1653 


" 47 




1653 


" 40 




1654 


" 30 




1654 


" 42 




1654 


" 42 




1654 


" 64 




1654 


" 40 




1655 


'' ^l 




1655 


" 18 




1655 


" 30 




1655 


" 22 




1655 


'' 34 




1656 


- 24 




1656 


" 38 




i6s6 


" 12 




1656 



William and Mary Quarterly 



39 



Malbone Peter 

Rigge John 

Iimperor Francis 

Willey John of New Eng. 

Peeters Ferdinand 

Carwi^/zon Caleb 

Johnson EHzabeth ., 

Johnson James , 

fleetwood Magret 

Wilkinson Mary 

Daines Wm 

White Thomas, Sr 

Hall William 

Overzee Symon 

Daines William 

W^hite Wm 

Emperor Francis 

Emerson Elizabeth 

Martin John 

Malbone Peter 

Robinson Edward 

Covden Samuell 

Abbott George 

Renalls Elizabeth 

Poole Robert 

Stanley Wm 

Hodgkinson Jasper 

Huckstepp Walter 

Scott James 

Pigot John 

Hall Edward 

Bowman Edward 

Porter John, Sr 

Gaive Ann 

Hall Thomas 

fonkes John 

Madock Thos 

Carraway John 

Linton ]Moses 

Lynton Dorathy 

W^ilder Edward 

Nicols Elener 

Sidney John, Coll 

Porter John Sr 

Harding Thos 



23 


' 1656 


" 30 ' 


' 1656 


'^ 28 ' 


' 1656 


u 27 ' 


' 1656 


" 27 ' 


' 1656 


" 35 ' 


' 1656 


*' 20 ' 


' 1656 


" 36 ' 


' 1656 


* 37 / 


' 1656 


" 25 ' 


' 1656 


" 40 ' 


' 1657 


" 58 ' 


' 1657 


" 26 ' 


' 16S7 


- 30 ' 


' 1657 


*' 40 ' 


' 1656 


" 23 ' 


' 1657 


" 28 ' 


' 1657 


- 36 ^ 


' 1657 




' i6S7 


" 24 ' 


' 1657 


" 32 ' 


' 1657 


" 32 ' 


' 1657 


" 40 * 


' 1657 


" 41 ' 


' 1658 


' 37 ' 


' 1658 


" 2^ ' 


' 1658 


" 60 ' 


' 1658 


" 36 ' 


' 1658 


" 28 ' 


' 1658 


" 38 ' 


' 1658 


" 56 ' 


' 1658 


" 42 ' 


' 1658 


" 30 ' 


' 1658 


" 29 ' 


' 1659 


" 45 ' 


' 1659 


" 28 ' 


' 1659 


" 50 ' 


' 1659 


" 40 ' 


' i6;9 


" 46 ' 


' 1650 


" 36 ' 


i6:;9 


" 30 ' 


' 1659 


" 32 ' 


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40 



William and Mary Quarterly 



Pinner Richard 

Harvey Thomas 

Newell Peter 

Phillips Thomas . . . . 
Hoskins Bartholomew 

Smith William 

Butler James 

Moore Thomas 

Martin John 

Lovett Lancaster . . . . 

Watson Henry 

Tose\d.nd Thomas . . . 

Brinson Thomas 

Shipp fifrancis 

Phillipps Wm 

Turbey Samuell 

Malbone Peter 

Akford Ambrose . . . . 

Taylor John 

Hattersley Margarett 

Dale William 

Shipp Sarah 

Hargrave Richard . . . 

Yonge ffrancis 

Hebdon John 

Townesend Josias . . . 
Sharpham Thomas . . . 

Moy John , 

Carraway Ann , 

MuUekin Rosemond . 

Segg^ Thomas 

Pitts Thomas , 

Newport Anthony . . , 
Raveninge Joane . . . . 
Port^w William . . . . , 

Nicholls Wm 

Pearse John 

Biddle Margery .... 
Atwood, Edward . . . 
Capps, William .... 



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NOTE.- 

spelling 



-Names or letters in italics indicate uncertainty of 



William and Mary Quarterly 41 



JOHN DOWNING OF FAIRFIELDS, NORTHUMBER- 
LAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA, AND HIS 
DESCENDANTS 

By Mrs. O. A. Keach, Wichita, Kansas 

I. John- Downing, the second son of Captain William^ Down- 
ing, "of Great Wicomico River, planter," * is first mentioned in 
the records of Northumberland County, January 27, 1668, when lie 
and his brother, William, were deeded land by their father and 
which is described as "600 acres of land up the norch side of 
horse-path bounding east upon William Wildy and west upon 
Richard Nelms." 

Captain William^ Downing had five sons and two daughters : 
(i) William,- who left no male issue; (2) John;- (3) Thomas,- 
who left one son, Thomas,^ who died without issue; (4) George,- 
died unmarried; (5) Charles,- who died unmarried; (6) ^lary,- 
probably married Jonathan Royston, and had an only child, Mary,^ 
who married Charles Betts ; (7) Patience,- married first, ante 
1695, Daniel Neale (issue: Nathan^ Neale) ; second, John Graham 
(and as Mrs. Patience Graham brought suit in behalf of her son 
Nathan Neale) ; third, William Coppedge (issue: John^ Coppedge, 
born January 31, 1710). 

Thus it would seem that John,- the second son of Captain 
William^ Downing w^as the progenitor of all that name in Nothum- 
berland County. 

In 1679, John- Downing was granted a certificate for 100 acres 
of land for two headrights, Charles Blackzvell and iMargaret 
Harley. On January 16, 1684, he added 350 acres to his holdings 



* See 'The Downings of Northumberland County." in William and 
Mary Quarterly, Vol. XXIV, p. 189, in which article Mrs. Keach gives 
the record of Captain William Downing and some account of the de- 
scendants of his daughters. 



The will of Mrs. Elizabeth Downing (relict of Mr. John- 
Downing) was presented in court October 15, 171 5, by her execu- 
tor, Mr. Thomas Hughlett. 

It is believed Mr. John^ Downing had issvie :* 

2. i. Sarah-^ Downing married, first, John Span; second, David 
Spence. 

3. ii. SamueP Downing married Elizabeth Saunders. 

4. iii. John^ Downing married Elizabeth . ' 

iv. (Possibly) Ann^ Downing. 



42 William and Mary Quarterly 

for seven headrights.. May 21, 1679, ^^ ^vas appointed constable 
for Fairfields parish. 

On October 19, 1681, the Court appointed John- Downing 
guardian to John Cockrill, son of Andrew Cockrill. This associa- 
tion of names continues for more than a hundred years and it is | 
possible that John^ Downing may have married the widow of | 
Andrew Cockrill. June 8, 1684, ^^r. John^ Downing and William j 
Tignal (Tignor) were church-wardens of Fairfields parish. j 
August 15, 1688, John- Downing and Thomas Hobson Jr. are j 
mentioned as overseers of the will of Mr. William"^ Downing, | 
Senior. John- Downing was a member of the House of Bur- ! 
gesses in 1693, was a Justice of the Peace in 1694 and succeeding \ 
years. In May, 1695, ^^s half brother, Charles,- chose Mr. John- * 
Downing his guardian. i 

The will of Mr. John^ Downing was proved May 18, 1698, by ' • 

the oaths of David Spence, Thomas Hobson and John Simpkin. i 

Mrs. Elizabeth Downing, his widow, was his executrix. She was | 

the second wife of John- Downing and later, as guardian of her | 

son, John Downing, brought suit in his behalf against Susannah \ 

Franklin, relict of John Hughlett, and John Hughlett, Jr., proba- 1 

bly for her son's maternal inheritance. Captain Richard Haynie \ 

was Mrs. Downing's attorney and represented her in the courts ] 

at various times. 1 



* Except in the case of his youngest son, John,^ the only direct identifi- I 

cation of the children of John Downing in the Northumberland County ^ 

records seems to be that of his daughter, Sarah,^ who must have been \ 

among his older children. \ 



William and Mary Quarterly 43 

2. Sarah^ Downing (John/ William^) married first, John 
Span (son of Richard and Gracianna Span) ; second, David 
Spcnce.f 



t The records of the Spence family are very fragmentary. It is an 
honorable Scotch name of considerable historical importance. In Northum- 
berland County, the Spences and Pickerings were associated from the time 
of the second large immigration into tliat county. 

Feb. 4, 1666. George Pickering, planter, and Sarah, his wife, made a 
deed to David Spence for a tract of land in Northumberland County — 
towards the head of the Lower Chetank Creeke — being part of a patent 
granted to said Pickering February 4, 1662. 

Oct. 28, 1665. Assignment of land from David Spence to John 
Graham. 

1665, Nov. 21. Deed of gift from David Spence to John Alexander, 
son of William Alexander, for one heifer. 

Capt. Alexander Spence was sheriff, and otherwise prominent in West- 
moreland County, and died about 1712. 

In an abstract from Richmond County, dated February 6, 1694. it is 
stated that Alexander Spence married Elizabeth, the youngest daughter 
of Evan Browne and that James Taylor, late of Richmond county, but 
now of Westmoreland County, married the widow of Evan Browne 
(William and Mary Quarterly). 

Patrick Spence lived probably in Lancaster County. On May 27, 1712, 
Hon. Robert Carter of Lane. County petitioned the Northumberland 
County Court in behalf of Mary Spence. In this record it is stated that 
Capt. George Eskridge of Westmoreland County, was one of the executors 
of Patrick Spence, deceased, and guardian to Mary Spence, sister of said 
Patrick and daughter of Alexander Spence, and that Mr. Richard Neale 
of Northumberland County and Mr. Matthew Mason of Maryland mar- 
ried the other two daughters of said Alexander Spence, now both de- 
ceased. 

1704, July 20, Susannah Mason of the Province of Maryland vs. Phil. 
Rogers (Northumberland Co. Records). 

There was also a John Spence who married Jemima Waddy, daughter 
of Mr. Thomas Waddy of Wicomico parish. 

Was David Spence who gave the deed of gift to John Alexander in 
1665, the father of: (i) Alexander Spence who married Elizabeth 
Browne; (2) David Spence who married ist, Sarah Downing, 2nd, Ann 
Edwards; (3) John Spence who married Jemima Waddy? 

My first record of the second David Spence is November 16, 1692, 
\\aen Mr. John Downing was awarded an attachment against the estate of 
John James, a part of which was in the hands of David Spence. 

On May 18, 1698, the will of Mr. John Downing was proved by the 
oath of David Spence, one of the witnesses. 



44 William and Mary Quarterly r 

it- 
On May 19, 1697, Sarah'' Span, widow and relict of John Span, 

deed., was granted a commission of administration upon the estate 

of her deceased husband and February 17, 1698, Sarah Span was 

granted administration upon the estate of her deceased daughter, 

Elizabeth Span. j^ 

Sarah-^ (Downing) Span, widow of John Span, probably mar- 
ried David Spence in 1698, before her father's death, as on 
August 18, 1699, David Spence and Sarah, his wife, legatee ; 

of John- Downing, deceased, brought suit against Mrs. Elizabeth | 

Downing, executrix of Mr. John Downing. September 2^, 1699. f 

judgment was granted David Spence and Sarah, his wife, legatee 
of Mr. John- Downing vs. Mrs. Elizabeth Downing, his executrix, 
and said Elizabeth Downing in her qualification as executrix was f 

ordered to pay over the amount due. August 23, 1700, John 
Reason was arrested at the suite of David Spence and Sarah, his 
wife, late Sarah Span, widow, and judgment was granted for 12 t 

pounds sterling and two thousand pounds tobacco. I 

Sarah-^ Spence died before July 17, 1711, as on that date David 
Spence and Ann (Edwards) his wife, petitioned for Ann's estate. 

David Spence's will, dated February 23, 1726, was proved 
April 20, 1726. 

John and Sarah^ (Downing) Span, had issue: E |f 

i. Elizabeth* Span, on whose estate administration was 
granted to her mother, Mrs. Sarah Spann February 17, 1698. 



He was probably at this time the husband of Sarah Downing, daugh- 
ter of Mr. John Downing. They lived in Newman's Neck, as he was 
appointed surveyor of the highways there in 1700. 

David Spence appears often in the county records, in several law 
suits, as grand juror, as appraiser of estates, and on May 19. 1708, he was 
appointed constable for Newman's Neck "in room of Williams Nelms." 
This was an office of dignity and held by men o'f the best standing in the 
community. David Spence added to his plantation by purchase in 1710 and 
1724. His wife, Sarah, died probably in 1710 and he married again in 171 1, 
Ann Edwards, widow. His will was dated February 23, 1726, and was 
probated April 20, 1726. 



8 



William and Mary Quarterly 45 

David and Sarah'' (Downing-Spann) Spence, had issue, 
(mentioned in David Spence's will) : 

ii. Sarah* Spence married William Pickering, of Northumber- 
land County, issue: (a) Sarah-^ Pickering, born December 18, 
1718; (b) William^ Pickering, born November 24, 1720; (c) Ann^ 
Pickering, born December 28, 1722; (d) David^ Pickering, born 
February 2, 1725. (These names from S. F. Stephen's Parish 
Register) ; (e) Laurenah^ Pickering (her name obtained from 
Northumberland County Records). 

On May 7, 1748, David Pickering of St. Stephen's Parish, the 
grandson of David Spence, sold to Moseley Mott, part of a tract 
land described as follows : "granted by patent to WiUiam Cornish 
December 9, 1662, and by him sold to Samuel Nicholls April 30. 
1673, from Nichols to Downing, from Downing to Spence, from 
Spence to \V/n. Pickering, from Pickering to David Pickering, 
first party to this present deed." 

iii. Ann* Spence, married about 1720, Sylvester Welch, Jr., of 
Northumberland County. The will of Sylvester Welch, dated 
June 13, 1753, proved February 11, 1754, names wife Ann, son 
Benjamin, pistol, holster and sword; sons John and Sylvester; 
daughters Sarah and Ann; Executors, wife Ann and son Benjamin. 
Witnesses, Thomas Cotrell and David Pickering. Sylvester and Ann-^ 
(Spence) Welch, had issue: (a) Winifred'^ Welch, born August 22, 
1721 ; (b) Benjamin^ Welch, born January i, 1723; (c) John^ Welch, 
born August 17, 1727; (d) Silvester^ Welch, born October i, 1729; 
(e) Daniel^ Welch, born February 18, 1732; (f) Laurenah-^ Welch, 
born December 6, 1733; (g) Nancy^ Welch, born October 18. 1740 
(these names and dates are from St. Stephen's Parish Register) ; 
(h) . Ann3 Welch; (i) Sarah^ Welch (named in their father's 
will). 

The Pickerings and Welches were substantial and well known 
families and furnished several soldiers to the Revolutionary Army. 

iv. John* Spence, d. unm. and April 19, 1727, Sylvester Welch 
(husband of Ann [Spence] Welch), presented an inventory of the 
estate of John Spence, deceased, his brother-in-law. 

3. Samuel'^ Downing (John,' William^). It will be remembered 
that Captain William^ Downing on January 27, 1668; deeded six 
hundred acres of land to his sons William- and John,- described 
as "up the north side of the horse-path and bounding east on 
Richard Nelms." This land was situated in Fairfield's parish and 
Mr. John- Downing made many additions to its acres by purchase 



46 William and Mary Quarterly 

and by patent from the proprietors of the Northern Neck. The 
"horse-path" became the "horse-head" and is so knov/n to the 
present time. By inter-marriage the "horse-head plantation" 
passed into the hands of the Nelms family who were, even in 
1668, neighbors of the Downings. 

The will of Mr. John- Downing is missing but ^s Samuel- 
was seated upon the horsepath land in Fairfield's parish, he was 
no doubt the eldest son. 

Samuel Downing married Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Ebenezer 
Saunders. In 171 1, April 2, upon the motion of Samuel Down- 
ing and Elizabeth, his wife, daughter of Mr. Ebenezer Saunders, 
deceased, a commission was appointed to divide the estate and 
lay off 100 acres left by will to the said Elizabeth. 

Samuel Downing's will is also missing but it was presented 
by his widow October 19, 171 5, and proved by the oaths of Joseph 
Typton and Elizabeth Cockrill.* 

SamueP and Elizabeth (Saunders) Downing had issue: 

5. i. William* Downing married Winifred Nelms. 

6. ii. Samuel"* Downing married Elizabeth Dameron. 

iii. Elizabeth* Downing married William Nelms. In 1736 
William and Samuel Downing assigned their share of negroes to 
their sister Elizabeth wife of William Nelms 

4. John^ Downing (John,^ William^). He was the youngest 
son of his parents, John^ and Elizabeth Downing, and was a 
minor in 1698 at the time of his father's death. 

In 1709, July 20, Anne Lyon, wife of John Lyon, and executrix 
of Hugh Gallon, petitioned the Court to appoint Mr. John Down- 
ing, Charles Nelms and David Spence to appraise the said Gallon's 



ft 



*The widow, Elizabeth (Saunders) Downing, married Charles Nelms 
and on May 17, 1716, they petitioned the court to appoint appraisers for the 
estate of Samuel Downing. 

On July 17, 1717, Mr. Chas. Nelms and Mrs. Elizabeth Downing con- 
fessed judgment to Mr. Joseph Typton for personal estate made over to 
said Typton by his deceased mother, Mrs. Elizabeth Typton by deed of gift. 

May 20, 1724. Charles Nelms was by the court appointed overseer of 
the highways from "Horsehead" to Dunoway's old field. This plantation 
known as "Horsehead" has remained in the Nelms family until within the 
last generation. 



William and Mary Quarterly 47 

estate. Anne Lyon may have been a sister of Mr. John Downing, 
and sister-in-law of David Spence who married a daughter of Mr. 
John Downing, Sr. 

Feb. 16, 1 71 6, the will of John"^ Downhig was presented by 
Elizabeth Downing, one of the executors. Witnesses, Joseph 
Typton and William Harding. (Margaret Downing, the widow of 
Captain William^ Downing had married about 1683 Mr.' Edward 
Typton.) 

March 19, 1718, Judgment was granted Elizabeth Downing, 
executrix of John^ Downing against the estate of Samuel^ Down- 
ing (Samuel and John Downing v/ere brothers) and the Court 
ordered that Samuel Nelms and wife, Elizabeth (relict of Samuel 
Downing) pay same. 

The will of John^ Downing is missing but very careful study 
of the records seems to prove that John^ Downing and Elizabeth, 
his wife, had issue: 

7. i. John^ Downing married Hannah Fallin. 

8. ii. Edward* Downing married Frances Nutt. 

9. iii. David^ Downing. 
10. iv. Charles* Downing. 

V. Possibly a daughter, 

5. William'* Downing (Saiuiiel,^ John,- William^), the eldest 
son of SamueP and Elizabeth (Saunders) Downing, was probably 
of age about March 17, 1726, as on that date he petitioned the 
Court for his part of his father's estate. In 1736 William"* and 
Samuel* Downing assigned their share of negroes to their sister 
Elizabeth Nelms, the wife of William Nelms. 

William* Downing married Winifred Nelms. 

The w^ll of William* Downing, dated June 9, 1741 and proved 
November 9, 1741, names his wafe, Winifred, sons Samuel and 
William, and appoints wife, Winifred, and father in law, Samuel 
Nelms, executors. 

William* and Winifred (Nelms) Downing, had issue, (so far 
as is known) : 

11. i. Samuel^ Downing, born July 2, 1728 (St. Stephen's 
Parish Register) ; died circa 1751 ; married Winifred Dameron. 

12. ii. William-^ Downing, born ^ r, died 1783 ; mar- 
ried Sarah Cockrill. 



48 William and Mary Quarterly 

6. Samuel* Downing (Samuel,^ John,- William^), known as 
Samuel Downing, Senior (to distinguish him from his nephew, 
Samuel,^ son of William^ and Winifred [Nelms] Downing), and 
the younger son of SamueP and Elizabeth (Saunders) Downing, 
became the progenitor of a notable and distinguished branch of 
this Northumberland County family. On March 17, 1726, he 
chose his stepfather, Charles Nelms, his guardian. The will of 
Charles Nelms, proved September 19, 1733, named William Nelms, :r 
Samuel Nelms and Samuel Downing as executors. ^■ 

Samuel* Downing, Senior, married, about 1742, Elizabeth 
Dameron, daughter of Mr. Thomas Dameron and Katherine 
Hughlett, his wife. Elizabeth (Dameron) Downing* is mentioned 
in the will of her father, Thomas Dameron, dated April 17, 1751 
proved May 10, 1751. |; 

By the death of her brother, Thomas Dameron, Jr., Elizabeth [ 
Downing had inherited a considerable estate which had been left \ 
to them by the will of their grandfather, Thomas Hughlett. She r 
did not marry a second time, but in the interests of her estates 
appears many times in the court records. % 

The will of Samuel^ Downing, dated April 17, 1757, was | 
proved May 10, 1757: to son Samuel, land given me by my father '- 
Samuel Downing ; to son John, land I bought of Hugh Kelly and f 
Samuel Nelms, Jr. ; to daughter Betty ; to son Thomas, the negroes f 
that fell to me by the death of Mr. Thomas Dameron ; wife '? 

Elizabeth and Mr. Samuel Blackwell executors and guardian of f- 

my children. I 



* April 16, 1771, an indenture between Elizabeth Downing of St. f 

Stephen's parish, of the one part, Thomas Downing, son of the said Eliza- | 

beth of the second part, and John Downing, son of the said Elizabeth of l 

the third part and Betty Downing, daughter of the aforesaid Elizabetli | 

of the fourth part, doth by these presents bargain, sell and give to her I 

son, Thomas Downing all of said lands, negroes, goods and all other I 

estate which descended to her upon the death of her brother. Thomas f 

Dameron . . . Deeds of gifts to her son John and daughter, Elizabeth. » 

This indenture further witnesseth that Thomas Downing doth grant and | 

confirm to his brother, John Downing all ... the estate which | 

fell to said Thomas by the death of Samuel Downing, brother to said | 
Thomas." 



William and Mary Quarterly 49 

Samuel* and Elizabeth (Dameron) Downing, had issue: 

13. i. Thomas'^ Downing, born May 23, 1744, died November 
14, 1799, married Sarah Ann Rogers. 

ii. Samuel'' Downing,* m. Oct. 2, 1765, Mary Robertson, 
dau. Dr. Robertson of Lancaster Co. 
iii. Betty^ Downing. 

14. iv. John^ Downing, born May i, 1755, married Elizabeth 
Nutt. 

7. John* Downing (John,^ John,- William^). John* Down- 
ing, son of John^ and Elizabeth Downing, appears in the court 
records in 1733 when on May 16 he brought suit against the 
estate of Richard Dudley, in the hands of Richard Smith and 
others. He was also a grand juryman November 9, 1739. On 
November 9, 1743, Hannah, orphan of Edward* Downing, chose 
(her uncle) John* Downing, her guardian. August 4, 1748 he was 
executor of Samuel Snow and on November 9 presented an in- 
ventory of the estate of Joseph Bridgman. The appraisers of the 
Bridgman estate were William Blundell, Samuel Downing and 
Samuel Nelms. March 30, 1752, John Downing and Hannah, his 
wife, of Fairfield's Parish, conveyed by deed to Elizabeth Nelms; 
Jr., 25^ acres of land adjoining the land of Samuel Downing 
and Samuel Nelms. September 8, 1755, a deed from Peter Bear- 
croft to John Downing. February 14, 1763, a deed from Thomas 
Wornum to John Downing, of St. Stephen's Parish. July, 1773, 



* The few items gleaned from the records about Samuel-^ Downing 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph will be set out here instead of later. 

An inventory of his estate was presented to the court on April 10. 1769, 
and Mary, widow of Samuel Downing was possessed with her dower in 
said Samuel's estate in the hands of Thomas Downing. On the 13th of 
December following, Mary, the widow of Samuel, gave a deed to Thomas 
Downing for her right of dower in land and the grist mill left her by her 
deed, husband "who died sometime in May, 1768." It is probable that Mary 
Downing married Robert Henning as at the same time,, she released her 
dower, Thomas Downing of St. Stephen's parish gave a negro girl to 
Robert Henning, of Wicomico parish which after tiie death of the said 
Henning was to return to Thomas Dameron. 

It is evident that Samuel Downing left no issue. His twin sister Betty 
died unmarried. Her brothers very scrupulously deeded her property to 
provide her an independent living. 






50 William and Mary Quarterly 

a deed from William Worniim and Elizabeth, his wife, to Charles 
Downing. March 11, 1776, John Downing and Hannah, his wife, 
conveyed by deed, land to their son Charles Downing. July 8, 
1782, John Downing, of Northumberland County, deeded land to 
his son, Edward Downing, and on the same date there is a deed 
of gift of negroes from John Downing, Sr., to his son, John 
Downing, Jr. June 11, 1786, appears Captain John Downing, an 
officer of militia. 

October 14, 1793, the inventory of John Downing, deceased. 

John* Downing married Hannah, daughter of Charles Fallin* 
and had issue : 

15. i. Charles^ Downing, born July 4, 1738. 
ii. Elizabeth^ Downing, born x\pril 9, 1740. 
iii. Hannah-^ Downing, born April 19, 174 — ; married 

Shearman. 

iv. Nancy^ Downing, born January 20, 174 — ; died un- 
married.f 

16. V. Edward"* Downing, born April 22, 1750. 
vi. Sarah^ Downing, born February 18, 1753 ; married John 

B. Kenner. 

17. vii. John^ Downing. 

8. Edward"* Downing (John,^ John,- IVilliam'^), son of 
John^ and Elizabeth Downing, died before 1739. He married, 
prior to 1734, Frances Nutt. 

On June 12, 1739, Richard Smith and others were appointed to | 

settle the accounts of Edward Downing's estate and to allot to k 

the widow, Frances, her part of the same. Frances (Nutt) Down- | 

ing married secondly, W^illiam Haynie, son of Captain Richard 
Haynie.' On December 14, 1741, William Haynie, guardian of 



* The will of Charles Fallon, dated January 23, 1753, proved June 8. 

1752 [sic] mentions daughter Hannah Downing and grandson Charles f 

Downing. The will of Charles Fallin, dated February 11, 1773, proved f 

October 11, 1773, names brother in law, John Downing and sister, Hannah | 

Downing. Charles Downing was one of the executors of the last men- § 

tioned will. 1 

t The will of Nancy Downing, dated April 28, 1814, proved December | 

12, 1815. mentions sisters Hannah Shearman and Sarah Kenner; brother I 

John Downing; brother in law John B Kenner; niece Elizabeth Kenner; | 
nephew John Downing. 



William and Mary Quarterly 51 

Hannah^ Downing, orphan of Edward"* Downing, petitions for her 
part of Charles Downing's estate in the hands of John Downing.* 
Edward^ Downing had children : 

i. Elizabeth^ Downing, born June 20, 1731 (who must have 
died in infancy). 

ii. Hannah"' Downing, born December 11, 1733. 

9. David"* Downing (John/ John/ IVilliam^). It is believed 
that David was the third son of John and Elizabeth Downing. He 
was probably named for David Spence, the husband of his aunt, 
Sarah (Downing) Spence. On April 19; 1733, Thomas Edwards 
moved the Court in behalf of the orphans of John Bell to appoint 
a commission consisting of Joseph Graham, John Shapleigh and 
Thomas Gill to audit the accounts and set apart so much of the 
estate of David Downing of sufficient value to satisfy orphans and 
put it in the hands of William Hobson. On the same date, an at- 
tachment was granted Matthew Kenner against the estate of David 
Downing. Nothing more is known of David Downing. He proba- 
bly married the widow of John Bell and may have left young chil- 
dren. 

10. Charles* Downing (John/ John/ William^). Charles, 
probably the youngest son of John and Elizabeth Do waning seems 
to have died unmarried. On December 14, 1741, Wm. Haynie, 
guardian of Hannah Downing orphan of Edw^ard, petitioned the 
Court for her part of Charles Downing's estate in the hands of 
John Dow^ning. 

A record bearing date February 6, 1789, recites that Wm. 
Wildy, Jr., gave a deed to Charles Downing (son of Capt. John 
Downing) for 90 acres in St. Stephen's parish, part of a tract sold 
by Charles Downing, deceased to Mottley Wildy, deceased, by 
deed bearing date October 6, 1739. 

(To be Concluded.) 



* On August II, 1742, Mrs. Fallin, grandmother of Hannah Downing 
was refused guardianship of the child "because the Court is informed that 
one of Mrs. Fallin's daughters is married to the petitioner, John Downing 
who is heir at law on the part of the father of said Hannah, who is only 
daughter and heir of Edward Downing, deceased." Spencer Ball was ap- 
pointed guardian to Hannali Downing at this time, but she later chose her 
uncle, John Downing for her guardian. 



1 For some valuable notes on one branch of the Watklns family the 
reader is referred to a pamphlet, entitled A Catalogue of the Descendants 
of Thomas Watkins of Chickahominy. . . . By Francis N. IVatkins. 
, . . Henderson, N. C. 1888. 

2 From the land patents and the records of other counties it is known 
that there were other persons by the name of Watkins, resident in Vir- 
ginia prior to Henry Watkins and whose descendants were contem- 
poraneous with Henry Watkins of Henrico, but, so far, any relationship 
between them has not been discovered. 

3 Henrico Records. 



53 William and Mary Quarterly 



HENRICO COUNTY, VIRGINIA: BEGINNINGS OF ITS 

FAMILIES 

Part IV 

By William Clayton Torrence 

Watkins Family ^ 

One of the most interesting families in Virginia from the point 
of view, of economic, social and political development is the dis- 
tinguished Watkins family whose earliest, positively identified, an- 
cestor was a resident of Henrico County, a man by the name of 
Henry Watkins, who was born about the year 1638 and who ap- 
pears from the hst of Heads of Families in Henrico in 1679 ^o 
have been living at that time in the vicinity of Turkey Island (see 
Quarterly, Vol. XXIV, p. 131).^ It has been so far impossible 
to prove that there was any connection between the Henry Wat- 
kins, of Henrico, and other Watkinses residing in Virginia at that 
time. Henry Watkins, who was born about 1638,^ lived in the 
southernmost part of Henrico County near Turkey Island Creek, i 

Chickahominy Swamp and Malvern Hills. Turkey Island Creek | 

forms part of the boundary line between Henrico and Charles f 

City Counties. In 1634-5 (February) in a deed from John | 

Cawsey, of Charles City County to Walter Aston conveying 200 | 

acres in Charles City County it is stated that the said land is | 

nea.r Shirley Hundred ^'bordering south upon a Creeke called f 



^ 



William and Mary Quarterly 53 

Henry IVatkins, his Creeke."^ Thus we have a Henry Watkins 
living in 1634 not more than eight or ten miles from the home, 
in 1679 (and for many years later) of Henry Watkins, who was 
born about 1638. The problem of a probable connection be- 
tween these two Henry Watkinses must be left for solution to a 
more extensive research. The fact is merely stated here as a 
probable "clue." 

Henry Watkins, of Henrico, was a small but apparently ener- 
getic farmer. In November 1679 he received a patent for 170 
acres of land on north side James River in Henrico County, ad- 
joining John Lewis, Mr. Cocke and 3.1r. Beauchamp, and touch- 
ing the ''Three Runs,"- and in July 1690, the same Henry Watkins, 
purchased from Lyonel Morris, 360 acres, 20 poles in Varina 
Parish, Henrico County, on the southside of Chickahominy 
Swamp.''^ In October 1690 Henry Wackins patented 60 acres in 
Varina Parish, Henrico County, adjoining his ozvn land and 
lands of Thomas Wales and Madam Bland and touching 
a run of Turkey Island Creek. These are the only records 
extant which show the acquisition of land in Henrico by 
Plenry Watkins. It is no doubt true, however, that he owned 
land in the county prior to the patent of November 1679 ^^^ he 
was ^-esiding in Henrico in Jiuie 1679 when the Hst of Heads of 
Families was recorded and in which list he is entered as pos- 
sessed of three tithables, one of whom was doubtless himself the 
other two, in all probability, his two eldest sons. 

Henry Watkins* life was to all appearances a rather hard one. 
As a member of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, he naturally 



1 Register of the Land Office, Patent Book 2, p. 79. 

2 Register of the Land Office. Patent Book 7, p. 17. The name appears 
in the patent Henry Watkinson, but otlier conve3'ances in Henrico prove 
that this land was granted to Henry Watkins. Could the Waikinson have 
been intended for Watkins' son? There is no evidence (so far discovered) 
to this effect, but raising the question may start sbme one on the search to 
work out the matter. The name of John Lewis given in this patent may 
be significant of the source of the baptismal name of Lewis Watkins, who 
appears in Henrico in 1679. No connection between Henry and Lewis 
Watkins has been discovered. 

2 Henrico Records. 



w 



54 



William and Mary Quarterly fc 



clashed with the authorities. In June 1684 the courts of Henrico 
refused his petition for a remission of fines imposed upon him 
"he not appearing himself to suppHcate this Court but (as y*^ Court 
Conceives) continuing still in his Quakerism/'^ Not only did 
Watkins clash with the public authorities on account of an un- 
wavering loyalty to the tenets of his "faith" but he also encoun- 
tered rebuke from his "brethren in the faith." A difference (the 
nature of which is not apparent) having arisen between him and 
one James Howard, members of the Henrico Meeting were dele- 
gated to bring about a reconciliation betv/een the two ; the princi- 
pals seemed amenable to the reasoning of the delegates and "recon- 
ciliation" was acknowledged by them in November 1699 "only," so 
runs the record — "only he [Watkins] had mad a rash promise 
not to take him [Howard] by the hand."- Probably this obduracy 
was part and parcel of the same "stuff" of which was made his 
defiance of the Henrico legal authorities. fc. 

In December 1691 Henry W^atkins was granted certificate by ^ 

Henrico Court for having made 21^ pounds of dressed flax and % 

hemp. In 1699 Watkins subscribed 500 pounds of tobacco to- 
wards the building of the Friends ^vleeting House at Curies and 
in 1703 he paid 50 pounds of tobacco towards furnishing the l. 

building. | 

Every document on record to which Henry Watkins signed | 

his name he signed with a mark. 1 

Henry Watkins was the father of at least six children whose I 

names were WiUiam, Joseph, Edward, Henry, Thomas and j 

Elizabeth. * ' I 

In 1692 he deeded to each of his sons : Joseph and Edward, I 

120 acres of laiid each on the south side of Chickahominy Swamp, | 

and to his son, Henry Watkins, Junior, the tract (acreage not . f 
given) of land on which Watkins, the elder, then lived; and, to f 

his son Thomas Watkins, 200 acres on the Three Runs. All of ' * 

this land was in Henrico County. | 

Of ^Elizabeth Watkins, (the daughter of Henry Watkins, the l 

elder) nothing more is definitely known than of her indomit- 



f : 



1 Henrico Records, Order Book. 

2 Minutes of Henrico Meeting, 1699-1756, p. i. 



William and Mary Quarterly 55 

able courage of conviction which is well attested by the following 
incident recorded in Henrico Court. 

In April 1685 Elizabeth Watkins, the daughter of Henry Wat- 
kins, at the time of the tender age of sixteen years literally ''backed 
down" the august body known as Henrico Court, by refusing, 
"for conscience sake" to swear to a deposition which she had 
made. A Quaker, she willingly made ''affirmation" to the state- 
ments contained in her deposition, but make oath thereto she 
would not. The court ordered her imprisonment. In June she 
was again brought to the bar and still ''persisting in ye same 
obstinacy as she pretends out of conscience sake and therefore 
desiring to he excused and her father also humbly seconding her 
request the court have out of their clemency in consideration of 
her young years remitted her offence and releast her of her con- 
finement." To the really thoughtful student of conditions there is 
great significance of the tender aged Elizabeth's character in what 
the honorable court deemed persistent obstinacy. 

At a court held for Henrico February i, 1691-2 Henry Wat- 
kins, Senior, made gift of a heifer to John Bottomly's daughter 
Elizabeth. This gift was acknowledged by Henry Watkins at the 
same court at which he acknowledged the conveyance of lands 
(alluded to above) to his several sons. Considering the fact 
that Henry Watkins is known to have had a daughter Elizabeth,' 
that personalty is known to have been more frequently than land 
the portion of daughters, and considering the fact of the gift 
to Bottomly's daughter Elizabeth, one cannot but wonder if Eliza- 
beth Watkins, the daughter of Henry, had married John Bottomly 
and that thus the gift of the heifer was made by Watkins to his 
granddaughter. This is, however, merely theor>% no item of 
record having been discovered to raise the evidence above the' 
nature of "circumstantial.'* 

Henry W^atkins, Junior, son of the elder Henry Watkins, was 
also a Quaker and a small planter and after an inconspicuous 
life died sometime between the middle of November 17 14 and 
early in February 171 5, leaving a wife and live sons who were 



56 William and Mary Quarterly 

under age.^ His will dated November 15, 1714, was proved by 
Henrico Court February 7, 1714-15, devised but a comparatively S 

small estate in land, etc., to his wife Mary, and his sons, John, ;^ 

Benjamin, Joseph, Henry and Stephen. No document made by J 

Henry Watkins, other than his will has been found and to this he f 

signed his mark which is stated merely as a fact and may not be 
taken as any evidence of illiteracy on his part in view of the 
absence of any other documents made by him. The sickness and 
weakness of body heralded in the opening clause of his will may 
have for once indeed been the cause of *1iis mark." Within two 
years of his death his widow ^lary had married Edward ?^Iosby. 

Joseph Watkins, son of Henry Watkins, the elder, died in 
Henrico possessed of but small means and on October 5, 1725, 
Henrico Court ordered that the Churchwardens of Henrico Parish 
"bind out the orphans . . . according to directions of acts 
of Assembly for distribution of intestates." 

Thomas Watkins (son of Henry Watkins, the elder) moved 
to Cumberland County. To every document made by him 
(so far found) he signed his name. He became a man of 
comparatively substantial means, and his will probated June 23, 
1760 {disposed of a comfortable estate in land and 24 negros be- 
sides other personalty. From Thomas Watkins of Cumberland 
descended the Watkinses of Chesterfield, Prince Edward and 
Charlotte Counties in Virginia and the Watkinses of Georgia and 
a branch of the Morton fam^ily of Charlotte County, the 
distinguished Daniels of the Virginia Court of Appeals and the 
distinguished brothers, Benjamin Watkins Leigh and William 
Leigh. 



1 He probably had also a daughter, Mary, who married Nicholas \ 
Hutchins of Henrico in 1701, though it is not improbable that Mary was 

a daughter of Henry Watkins, the elder. However, the record of the \ 

marriage (Minutes of Henrico Meeting, 1699-17^6. p. 12) gives "Nicholas I 

Hutchins of the County of Henrico and Mary Watkins, daughter of Henry | 

Watkins," and the first name signed among the witnesses, is that of "Henry I 

IVatkins, Jur." I 





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58 William and Mary Quarterly 

The name of Watkins in the South has ever been synonymous 
with strength of character, mental abiHty and it is interwoven in 
the fabric of her spiritual and material life. The church, the 
school, the state all bear the impress of this family's nifluence. In 
view of all that the Watkins name stands for these '"beginnings" 
are of vital interest and of marked significance. 

The local records of Eastern Virginia are filled with data 
which could be utilized in a history of the Watkins family and 
supplemented by private annals and state papers such a work 
could but prove invaluable.^ 



1 1 regret that it has been impossible to procure the names of the wives 

of the Watkins men. A research much more extensive than is practicable | 

would be required to do this. There are "traditions" (and in them : 

probably "clues") but as positive evidence is lacking it is thought best to | 

refrain from giving these here. ' i 



William and Mary Quarterly 59 



THOMAS AND WILLIAM BRANCH OF HENRICO AND 
SOME OF THEIR DESCENDANTS 

By William Clayton Torrence 

In the year 1907 Mr. James Branch Cabell issued his very 
interesting work, entitled Branchiana, Being a Partial Account 
of the Branch Family in Virginia, and in 191 1 appeared his 
further contribution to the family history in the little (only in 
size, however), volume Branch of Abingdon, Being a Partial 
Account of the Ancestry of Christopher Branch of Arrozchattocks 
and Kingsland in Henrico County and the Founder of the Branch 
Family in Virginia. Owing to the clearly defined limitations of 
the scope of his research for Branchiana Mr. Cabell should not 
be blam.ed for overlooking the almost innumerable descendants of 
Christopher Branch through his eldest and second sons ; and 
particularly as Mr. Cabell's interest centered in the descent 
from the youngest (so called) son of the immigrant from whom 
Mr. Cabell descends. This immediate branch of the family should 
feel under great obligation to their kinsman for his Branchiana 
as should all of the descendants of Christopher Branch, the 
"founder" for his Branch of Abingdon. 

It may as well be stated that "personal interest" in the descent 
from Thomas Branch, eldest son of Christopher, and in WiUiam 
Branch, second son of Christopher, inspired the research of 
which the appended data are the result. In investigating a "family 
matter" the compiler of these notes struck a clue which carried 
a member of his household back in a double line to Christopher 
Branch and on further investigation, discovering such an interest- 
ing field for research, he made many notes of others in this line 
of descent than the persons in whom he was directly interested. 

Aside from any matters of purely personal interest, the study 
of the descendants of Thomas Branch, who is proved to have been 
the eldest son of Christopher Branch, the immigrant, develops 
the fact that "according to the ancient law of primogeniture" the 



6o 



William and Mary Quarterly 



"headship" of the Branch family in the United States most 
probably resides among his descendants.* 



* I am fully aware that this statement is a contradiction of that in 
Branchiana, p. y^, where Mr. Cabell says : "Colonel James Ransom Branch 
. . . is to-day, according to the ancient law of primogeniture the head 
of the Branch family of Virginia." Colonel Branch may in fact be t'le 
"representative" of the line descending from Benjamin Branch (1732-1786) 
of Willow Hill, Chesterfield County and thus {provided there are no living 
male representatives of Benjamin Branch and Edward Branch of Chester- 
field who [according to position given them in Branchiana, pages 46 and 
47] were respectively eldest and second son of Benjamin Branch [1732- 
1786]) "representative" in the male line of Christopher Branch, of Charles 
City County son (and presumably third son) of Christopher Branch, the 
immigrant. But the ancient law of primogeniture to whose provisions 
Mr. Cabell implicitly appeals by his statement would most certainly, before 
sanctioning so positive a statement, take cognizance of any possible or 
probable descendants of Thomas Branch (1623-1694) who is proved to 
have been the eldest son of Christopher Branch, founder of the line in Vir- 
ginia. Unfortunately Mr. Cabell does not tell us by what process of 
elimination he reached the conclusion w^hich his statement proclaims. The 
production of the proofs would, of course, throw to the ground the claim 
here tentatively made, but until the proofs are produced one is forced by 
merely the circumstantial evidence afforded by the fact that there were 
male descendants of the name (claiming through Thomas Branch [1623- 
1694]) living in Virginia as late as 1800, and people of the name of 
Branth are living at the present time claiming descent from Mathew 
Branch (son of Thomas), to consider that the so-called "headship" of the 
family resides among these latter. 

Of course there is nothing vitally important about this matter of 
"headship" of a family nor does any significance attach to such a matter 
in the mind of an American. But it would be interesting to any one to 
know who really is the "representative" of Christopher Branch in Virginia — 
or in the .United States as for that matter — for whoever should be proved 
(in strict accordance with the terms of the law primogeniture) to be the 
"representative" of Christopher Branch, the immigrant, will also have 
been proved (according to the data given in Branch of Abingdon) to be 
the "representative" of Richard Branch of Abingdon, in Berkshire. Eng- 
land, born ante 1500, died 1544 (the earliest identified ancestor of this 
tamily). Richard Branch, of Abingdon died in 1544 leaving as eldest 
son Thomas Branch, of London, draper, who, dying in 1565 icithont issue, 
placed "representation" in William Branch of Abingdon, the second son. 
William Branch (born post 1524; died 1602) had. as eldest son, Thomas 
Branch, who died in 1603, without sun'iving issue, and as second son, 



r 



William and Mary Quarterly 6i 

A brief statement of the record of Christopher Branch, the 
ininiigrant, will be of interest here. 

Christopher^ Branch (son of Lionel and Valentia [Sparke] 
Branch, of London) was born in England in 1602 and died in 
Virginia, 1681. On vSeptember 2, 1619, he was married in St. 
Peter's, Westcheap, London, to Mary Addie, spinster, daughter 
of Francis Addie, of Darlon, County York, husbandman. They 
came to Virginia in the ship London Merchant in March, 1619-20, 
and settled in the present Henrico County where they were living 
"att ye Colledg Land" in February 1623-4 with their son Thomas- 
Branch, nine months old. Christopher- Branch later patented land 
and first lived at or near Arrowhattocks on the north side of 
James River finally settling at Kingsland on the south side of the 
river (almost opposite Arrowhattocks) in the present Chesterfield 
County, near Proctor's Creek, at that time, and for many years 
afterw^ards, Henrico. 

Christopher^ Branch was one of the view^ers of tobacco in 
Henrico in 1639 and in an Assembly convened January 1639 was 
one of the representatives for Henrico County in the House of 
Burgesses.* In 1656 he was a justice of the peace for Henrico. 

Christopher^ Branch's will dated June 20, 1678, was probated 
in Henrico County, Februar}^ 20, i68i-2.f 

I. Christopher^ and Mary (Addie) Branch, had issue: 

2. I. Thomas^ Branch, of Henrico Country, born 1623, died 
1694; married Elizabeth -. 

3. ii. William- Branch, of Henrico Count}^, born about 1625, 
died about 1676; married Jane . 



i 



Richard Branch, who died ante 1602, uithout issue, and as third son 
Lionel Branch, of London, whose apparently only child Christopher 
Branch was the ''founder" of the Branch family in Virginia. 

I here raise this question of representation hoping that it may be 
productive of starting a search on the part of some one who has the time 
to settle the matter. 

* Stanards' Colonial Virginia Register, p. 60. says 1639; Branehiana, 
p. 28, says 1629. This last date is probably a typographical error. 

fThe above facts are from Branehiana, p. 25-31, and Branch of 
Abingdon. The will of Christopher Branch is given in full in the last 
named publication, p. 121, et seq. 



62- William and Mary Quarterly 

iii. Christopher- Branch, born about 1627, died 1665 ; moved 
to Charles City County where he was a justice of the peace in 1657. 
The name of Christopher Branch's wife is unkonwn. It is with 
the descendants of Benjamin'^ Branch, third son of Christopher- 
Branch that Branchiana deals. 

2. Thomas- Branch {Christopher^) of Henrico County. He | 

was born 1623; died about 1694 or 5. He lived on a part Tj 

of the "Kingsland" tract on the south side of James River, Hen- | 

rico County. | 

Thomas- Branch married Elizabeth (whose surname is un- i 

known).* Thomas*^ and Elizabeth Branch, had issue: 1 

4. i. Thomas^ Branch, of Henrico County. 

5. ii. Matthew^ Branch, of Henrico County. 

6. iii. James^ Branch, of Henrico County. 
iv. Elizabeth^ Branch married Melchizedeck Richardson. 
V. Martha^ Branch married Richard Ward. 



* The will of Edward Deeley, of Henrico Parish and County, dated " 

October 18, 1688, probated June l, 1689, makes bequests as follows : to ; 

cousin Matthew Branch, land and plantation, all tobacco I have in hands < 

of William Glover and John Davis will all materials provided to go to- 1 

wards the house now building and what remains unfinished to be at said ; 

Brahch's cost; to said Branch a negro during term of ten years and then » 

he to be free ; to James Branch, a cow and calf ; to each of Thomas Branch, | 

Junr' his daughters, one cow ; to Richard Ward's daughter, a cow ; to 4 

Robert Broadway, my horse ; to Dorothy Blackman. a young mare, to Wil- ! 

liam Blackman. junr, John Blackman, Elizabeth Blackman, Henrico Parish \ 

Church, John Bromfield, William Blackman. Charles Douglasse. Mr. Good. \ 

Joshua Step, and William Glover, bequests : my brother Thomas Jefferson. \ 

executor (Henrico Records). I have been unable to find any further * 

explanation of the relationships mentioned in this will. "Cousin" applied 
to Mat'thew Branch may have meant nephevy, as that was the common 
acceptation of the term at this date. ;. 

The will of Thomas Branch. Senior, of Henrico County, dated 25th 
8br [October] 1688 was proved in Henrico County i February 1694. He 
alludes to himself as "being in a sickly Cracy Condition but of sound and 
perfect memory" [evidently his "Cracy Condition" was physical, not 
mental!]. To m\' three sons, Thomas, Matthew and James, 5 shillings 
each; residue of goods and chatties to wife Elizabeth, but should she die 
before testator then said goods and chatties to be equally divided between 
testator's aforesaid 3 sons "only I give to my two daughters, Elizabeth 



William and Mary Quarterly 63 

^ William- Branch (Christopher^) of Henrico County, who 
led in 1676, many years before his father.* He married Jane 



Kichardson and Martha Ward, 5 shillings each to buy a ring. Wife, 
F.Iizabeth, whole and sole executrix. Witnesses : William Glover, Chris- 
iui>iier Branch, Ann Branch. 

The will of Elizabeth Branch, Senior, of Varina Parish, Henrico 
County, dated 2 August 1697, was proved 20 August 1697. To son Thomas 
Cranch, bed that standeth with the head to the partition on the left hand 
the door as one cometh in, with all furniture belonging thereto, also 5 
puir sheets (one pair being Holland), my long table and form, a great 
copper kettle, an iron pot known by the name of the long pot, and one 
l.clmettle skillet; son Matthew Branch, i pair "new curtains and vallens 
to the bed he hath had already," five pair sheets (one being Holland), 
chest of drawers, drawing table and small forme, biggest brass kettle, 
second great pot, one pot called the new pot being made of iron, chafing 
dish, pair fire dogs ; son James Branch, feather bed that standeth on the 
right hand as one cometh from the door to the chimney with the curtains 
and vallens and all other furniture belonging to said bed ; 5 pair sheets (one 
being Holland) half this present crop of wheat, one great iron pot, one 
small iron pot, small brass kettle, negro man Mingo; daughter Elizabeth 
Richardson, suit of wearing clothes, my riding gown, and twelve pence in 
money; son-in-law Melchizedeck Richardson, half crown to buy him a pair 
of gloves ; son-in-law Richard Ward, half crown to buy him a pair of 
gloves ; granddaughter Martha Branch, all my wearing clothes in general, 
linnen and wollen, shoes and hose ; three sons Thomas, Matthew and 
James, before mentioned, residue of estate to be qually divided between 
them except that half the wheat, after James hath his, is to be divided be- 
tween Thomas and Matthew, and 2 cows called Nanny and Cherry and one 
cow calfe and half an ox which I give to son James and other half of said 
ox to son Thomas ; residue of goods and chatties to be equally divided be- 
tween sons Thomas and Matthew ; sons Thomas and James executors. 
Witnesses : Joseph Tanner, John X Cocke. 

* December i, 1697, Thomas Branch of County and Parish of Henrico 
to John Cocke and Obedience, his wife, the daughter and one of the co- 
heirs of John Branch, late deceased. For £5 sterhng, conveys 100 acres at 
''Kingsland" or near thereto in county aforesaid, formerly given to Jane 
{the grandmother of said Obedience), and wife of William Branch (son 
of Christopher Branch) and father to John Branch, and to the heirs of 
said William Branch as by deed on record in Henrico Court may appear, 
etc- (Henrico Records, Vol. 1697-1704, p. 39.) 



64 William and Mary Quarterly 

(whose surname is unknown). f She married second William 
Baugh, Jr., and third, Abell Gower. 
William- and Jane Branch had issue : 

i. William-^ Branch, who died without issue. 
7. ii. John^ Branch, of whom hereafter. 

iii. Sarah^ Branch, nothing further is known of her. 
iv. Mary-' Branch, married first, Thomas Jefferson; second, 
Joseph Mattox.$ 



t Search in the remaining Henrico County Records for the maiden \ 
name of Mrs. Jane Branch-Baugh-Gower has proved, so far, fruitless. ) 
She was born about 1640 (Deposition, made Xber i, 1688, stating her age | 
as about 48 years. Henrico Records, Vol. 1688-97, p. 25.) The will of | 

Jane Gower, of Parish and County of Henrico, dated December 7, 1709, l 

was proved in Henrico Court January, 1710; grandson William Cox and I 

my daughter Mary Cox, all my outlands ; granddaughters. Obedience i 

Turpin and Priscilla Wilkinson, to be equally divided between tliem, the \ 

land I now live on called the great Stone ; grandson William Farrar, feather ] 

bed, rugg, pair blankets, pair sheets, pillow and boulster, grandson Abel ] 

Farrar, feather bed, boulster, pillow, blanket, rug and pair sheets ; grand- * 

daughter Mary Womack, four silver spoons ; granddaughter Mary ; 

Wilkinson 4 silver spoons, ; granddaughter Obedience Turpin, four 
silver spoons; granddaughter Martha W^ilkerson, chest of drawers, oval 
table, diaper table cloth, one dozen napkins ; to Priscilla Farrar, bed, 
boulster, blanket, rug; to John Spike, bed he lies on with furniture thereto 
belonging; to William Wom^'ck, two breeding sows; daughter Mary Cox,, 
all stock except 2 cows ; granddaughter Priscilla Farrar, silver porringer ; 
my sister Hatcher, damask gown and petticoat; grandson Abell Farrar, 
iron pot, silver tumbler, table standing in the chamber, two pewter dishes ; 
granddaughter Priscilla Farrar, iron pot, table with drawer in it, pewter 
dish ; grandson William Farrar, 2 pewter dishes, my biggest tumbler, silver ; 
granddaughter Judith W^omack, box iron and heaters ; daughter Mrs. Mary 
Cox, residue of estate and she named as executrix. (Henrico Records, 
Vol. 1710-1714, p. 35.) 

The mention of "iny sister Hatcher" in Mrs. Jane Gower's will but ' 
serves to make the problem of Mrs. Gower's family name m.ore intricate. 
It must suffice here to state that no positive, and very little circumstantial' 
evidence has been adduced to settle the question. The statement in 
Virginia Magadne of History and Biography, Vol. XVH, p. 401, that Mrs. 
Jane Gower was the daughter of Edward Hatcher of Henrico is erroneous 
as the only Edward Hatclier (of that period) was born about 1633 (Hen- 
rico Records) and was therefore only about seven years old at the time 
of Mrs. Gower's birth. 

$ For an account of the Jetferson descent see I'irginia Magazine of 
History and Biography, Vol. XXHI, p. 173, et seq. 



William and Mary Quarterly 65 

4. Thomas'* Branch (Thomas,^ Christopher^) of Henrico 
County, was born about 1658 (Henrico Records, Vol. 1710-14, p. 
48), and died in 1728. In a deed dated December 2, 1697, he is 
called 'Thomas Branch, the eldest son of Thomas Branch, who 
was the eldest son of Christopher Branch, late of Henrico, de- 
ceased" (Henrico Records). Thomas Branch married Elizabeth, 
daughter of George Archer, of Henrico County.* 

The will of Thomas^ Branch, of Henrico County, dated 
December 4, 1727, was probated December, 1728.! 



* Henrico County Orphans Court 12 October, 1688, *'Mr. Joseph Royall 
Guard of ye orph^ of Geo Archer deed doth give acc^ that he hath taken up 
two mares belonging to >•* s'^ Orph^ one of which he hath del"^ to Tho 
Branch who marryed Eliz^ Archer (one of y^ sd Orph^) wch delvy ye s"* 
Branch in Court acknowledgeth and ye other he hath exchanged w^-'^ Sam^^ 
Knibb for another wch now hath a foal." Henrico Records, Orphans 
Court 1677-99, p. 23. 

t Will of Thomas Branch, dated December 4, 1727, probated December, 
1728, son Thomas, negro girl Hannah, large copper kettle, high bed and 
bedstead, rug, blankets, curtains, vallcnce, pair best sheets, boulster and 
cases (standing in upper chamber on right hand of the stairs), great 
looking glass, chest of drawers in the lower chamber, six largest Russia 
chairs leather, silver tumbler, gun, large table cloth and form, pair andirons, 
large iron pot called the soap pot; son William, negro boy Tom, negro 
girl Sarah, bed in ye chamber, bedstead, rug, blanket, pair sheets, great 
chest in lower room, one bole, six Russia leather chairs of the second 
sort, three silver spoons, oval table, brass kettle about 18 or 20 gallons ; 
son James 280 acres land on deep . bottom of Proctor's Creek, negro 
woman Pegg, two negro children Matt and Jack, bed, bedstead, rug, 
blanket, sheets "which his brother Thomas and he allways lie on," new 
iron pot and pot hooks, 3 silver spoons, six of the old high leather chairs ; 
daughters Tabitha Mitchell, Agnes Worsham, Elizabeth Pnnch, Frances 
Tanner, Amey Branch, each 10 shillings credit in a London store, daugh- 
ter Mary Tatum £16 credit in some London store; daughter Martha, bed 
and bedstead, rug, blanket and sheets "which she and her sister now lies 
on in the lower chamber" and 12 shillings to buy a ring, one chest that 
she calls hers ; daughter Margery, £8 currency to buy a bed ; sons William 
and James, 3 old guns ; wife Elizabeth during widowhood, for maintenance 
of her and her family labor and benefit of 3 negros, viz. : Mingo, Doley, and 
Peter and if she marries said Mingo and Doley to my son Thomas, said 
Peter to my son James ; wife Elizabeth, during life, use, profits and in- 
crease of residue of personal estate and my goods movable and immovable 
and all crop now on plantation except legacies herein mentioned, and after 



66 



William and Mary Quarterly 



Thomas'^ and Elizabeth (Archer) Branch had issue: 



i. Thomas* Branch, of Henrico, later Chesterfield County. His 
will bears date October 30, 1765, and recorded in Chesterfield 
County, devises to William Branch, land and plantation whereon 
my brother Williarn Branch formerly lived on Appomattox 
River; residue of estate to Henry Mitchell, Edward Os- 
borne, Robert Goode, son of Robert Goode, deceased, Josiah Tatum. 
Branch Tanner, Christopher Branch, Tho Branch Willson and 
John Goode, and they are named as executors. (Chesterfield County 
Will Book, No. I, p. 536.) 

ii. William* Branch, of Henrico, later Chesterfield County. The 
will of William Branch, of Henrico, dated October 4, 1741, and 
recorded in Chesterfield County, devised to brother Thomas Branch, 
whole estate real and personal and he is named as executor. 
(Chesterfield County Will Book, No. i, p. 336.) 

iii. James* Branch, of Henrico County, will dated August 5, 
^7i^, probate October, 1737, devises to sister Martha Branch, a 
negro girl; to sister Margery Branch, a negro girl; brother Thomas 
Branch £10 currency; brothers Thomas and William Branch, residue 
of estate and they are named as executors. Witnesses : John 
W^orsham, Edward Osborne, Jr.; Josiah Tatum. (Henrico Records. 
Vol. 1725-37.) 

iv. Tabitha* Branch married Mitchell. 

V. Agnes* Branch married, first, Edward Osborne; second, 
John Worsham. Administration on the estate of Edward Osborne, 
deceased, was granted to Agnes Osborne, at Henrico Court Septem- 
ber 1724. Benjamin Branch and Thomas Branch, Jr., sureties 
(Henrico Records, Vol. 1719-24). On October 11, 1726, John Wor- 
sham, Jr., and Agnes, his wife, convey two negroes (Lucy and 
Sarah) to said Agnes' sons WilHam and Joseph Osborne (Henrico 
Records, Vol. 1721-2,7, P- 62). 

vi- Elizabeth* Branch married first, Robert Goode; second, Page 
Punch; third, Edward Curd.$ 



her decease the same to be equally divided between my three sons and tzco 
daughters who are unmarried. W'ife Elizabeth, executrix and guardian to 
all my children that are under age. Witnesses ; Richard Ward, Junior, 
Higginson X King, Charles Griffith. Henrico Records, Vol. 1725-37. 
p. 221). 

:j:Mrs. Elizabeth (Branch) Goode-Punch-Curd, died November 30. 
1766 {Virginia Cousins, p. 37). The proof of Elizabeth* Branch's three 
marriages comes in this way. Thomas-^ Branch in his will dated Decem- 
ber 4, 1727, names his daughter Elizabeth Punch. In record of an Orphan's 
Court held for Henrico Co. October 5, 1725 is mention of Page Punch who 



William and Mary Quarterly t'j 

Robert and Elizabeth^ (Branch) Goode had issue: 

(a) Robert^ Goode, born July 19, 171 1, died March 6, 1765"; 
married Mary Turpin, born Septeml^er 1720, died March 6, 1765, 
daughter of Thomas and Obedience (Branch) Turpin. 

(b) Francis'* Goode, of whom nothing furtlier is known. 
Page and Elizabeth* (Branch-Goode) Punch had issue: 

(c) Mary5 Punch. 

vii. Frances* Branch married Lodowick Tanner of Henrico and 
Amelia Counties. An account of the Tanner Family will be given 
in the next issue of the Quarterly. 

viii. Mary* Branch married Tatum. 

ix. Amy* Branch. Query: Did she marry Henry Branch? 

X. Martha* Branch ] They were unmarried as late as August, 

xi. Margery* Branch j 1736. 

5. Matthew^ Branch {Thomas^ Christopher^) of Henrico 
County. He was born about 1661 and died 1726. The name of 
his wife is now unknown. 



intermarried with Elhabeth, relict of Robert Goode, deed (Henrico 
Records, Vol. 167 -1739, p. 54). The will of Robert Goode. of Henrico 
County, dated May 25, 1718, probated July 17, 171 8, names sons Robert and 
Francis Goode ; sister Ann ; and wife Elizabeth, who is named sole execu- 
trix. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1716-18, p. 260). The will of Page Punch, 
of Henrico, dated August 31, 1726, probated November 6, 1727, names 
daughter Mary (under age) ; son-in-law [step-son] Robert Goode; wife 
[name not given], sole executrix. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1723-37, p. 152). 
The will of Edward Curd, of Henrico, dated February 4, 1739-40, probated 
December, 1742, names son Edward Curd; my wife [name not given]; 
son John Curdf son Richard Curd; to Mary Mackbride, and her son 
Edward Mackbride; my daughter in lazv [step-daughter] Mary Punch; 
grandson, John Curd; granddaugliter Jane Mackbride; daughter Mary 
Richardson; daughter Elizabeth Williams (Original Wills in Henrico 
County). The will of Robert Goode, of Chesterfield County, dated 
September 8, 1765, names daughters Elizabeth and Obedience; son Robert; 
son Francis; son Thomas; son Samuel; wy mother Elizabeth Curd; execu- 
tors, sons Robert and Francis (Chesterfield County Records). 

The evidence here given corrects the "Statement made in Goode's 
Virginia Cousins, page 37. that Robert Goode married Elizabeth Curd. 
A rather full account of the descendants of Robert and Mary (Turpin) 
Goode is given in Virginia Cousins. Obedience Branch, wife of Thomas 
Turpin (and mother of Mary Turpin, wife of Robert Goode, above), was 
daughter of John Branch, son of William Branch who was son of Chris- 
topher Branch, the immigrant, and her fine of descent will be given in the 
next installment of this article. 



68> William and Mary Quarterly 

The will of Matthew^ Branch, Senior, of Henrico, dated 
December 15, 1722, was proved in Henrico County July 4, 1726 
and (while the name of his wife is unknown) his children (in the 
order named in his will) were:* 

7. i. Matthew*- Branch, of Chesterfield County, married 1750, 
Ridley Jones. 

8. ii.. John* Branch, of Chcsteffield. 

9. iii. Olive* Branch, of Chesterfield. 

10. iv. Daniel* Branch, of Chesterfield. 

11. V. Thomas* Branch, of Chesterfield. 
vi. Phoebe* Branch, of whom nothing further is now known, 
vii. Ehzabeth* Branch, born ; died November 7, 

1789, married, first, November 30, 1730, Stephen Woodson (who died 

January 18, 1735-6) ; and second, Bates. Stephen and 

Elizabeth (Branch) Woodson had issue: \ 

\. Matthew^ Woodson, born February 25, 173 1-2. I 

ii. Elizabeth^ Woodson, born March 19, 1734. I 

iii. Stephen^ Woodson, born September 25, 1735.! ^\ 

6. James^ Branch {Thomas,'^ Christopher^) of Henrico and 
Chesterfield Counties was born about 1666 (Henrico County 
Records) and lived for many years in Henrico County, his home 



* Matthew Branch, Senior, of Henrico County, will dated 15 Decem- 
ber, 1722, proved 4 July, 1726; son Matthew Branch, plantation I now 
dwell on, only my wife to have lower half with dwelling house I now hve 
in during her life and half of out houses ; son Matthew Branch land lying 
on head of my brother Thomas Branch and joins to my brother James, 
commonly called Bcrhados, also a parcel of land joining John Blackman 
which he bought of John Tullit and so to Grindoll's Run, only my wife 
to have privilege on my son Matthew's land both here and att Berhados, to 
get timber and fencing for building and keeping in repair the plantation I 
now live on; son John Branch, whole part of land taken up between my 
brother James and myself, son [s] Olive and Daniel Branch, land I bought 
of Mr. John Tullit, said land to \it equally divided and son Olive to have 
that part next to Poewhite and Daniel part next the Reedy Creek; should 
Olive or Daniel die in non-age, or one before the other, survivor to possess 
the whole tract; son Thomas Branch, 150 acres which I took 
up with Captain Jefferson, Thomas Harris and Thomas Turpin ; son 
Olive a gray colt ; son Thomas, a black colt ; daughter Phebe Branch, 
a bay mare; daughter Elizabeth Branch, a bay mare. Residue of estate to 
wife to be disposed of among my children as she pleases. Wife [name 
not given] whole executrix. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1725-37.) 

t William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. XVI, p. 285. 



William and Mary Quarterly 



69 



falling in the new county of Chesterfield on the latter's creation 

in 1749- 

On August II, 171 1, James Branch, of the parish and county 
of Henrico conveyed (for iio sterling) to Matthew Branch, of the 
same, the interest of the said James Branch in 355 acres on south 
side of James River in Henrico County as by patent to said 
Matthew and James Branch in April, 1703. On the same date 
Matthew Branch, conveyed to James Branch (for iio sterling) 
interest of the said Matthew Branch in 355 acres on south side 
James River in Henrico County, being part of a patent granted 
Matthew and James Branch in April 1703 (Henrico Records). 

On November 2, 1726, James Branch, of Henrico County, 
planter, conveyed to Henry Vanderhood, of same, Merchant, for 
£150 currency, 100 acres on south side of James River at a place 
commonly called Kingsland, which said land was conveyed by 
Christopher Branch unto his grandsons William and John Branch 
by deed dated October 17, 1659, and by the said John Branch, the 
survivor devised unto his daughter Obedience late the wife of 
Thomas Turpin, deceased, in his will dated January 17, 1687, and 
by the said Thomas and Obedience, his wife, conveyed to the 
aforesaid James Branch by deed April 2, 1716. Mary, wife of the 
said James Branch, rehnquished her right of dower (Henrico 
Records). 

James* Branch's will dated August 19, 1726, in Henrico 
County was proved in Chesterfield County in the fall of 1749. 
The will of his wife Mary Branch of Chesterfield County bears 
date November 28, 1750.* 



* The will of James Branch, of Henrico County, dated August 19, 1726, 
daughters Frances, Elizabeth, VerHnche, Mar}^ and Phoebe Branch and son 
John Branch, one shilHng each; residue of estate left to wife [name not 
given] to dispose of as she sees fit to children. Witnesses : Thomas 
Branch, Jr., William Branch, Mattliew Branch. Estate appraised October 
5, 1749. (Chesterfield County, Will Book, No. i, pp. 55, 57.) 

The will of Mary Branch, of Chesterfield County, dated November 
28, 1750, devises personalty to daughters Verlinche Branch, Mary Branch, 
and Phoebe Hill and to granddaughter Elizabeth Wooldridge and to son 
John Branch, residue of estate and he is named as executor. Witnesses : 
John Branch, Jr. Samuel Branch, John Hancock. (Chesterfield County 
Will Book, No. I, p. 235.) 



70 William and Mary Quarterly 

James^ and Mary Branch had issue : 

i. Frances* Branch. 
ii. Elizabeth* Branch. Unt^aced. 

iii. Verlinche* Branch. 
. * iv. Alary* Branch. 

V. Phoebe* Branch, married Hill, 

12. vi. John Branch, of Chesterfield County. 

(To be Concluded) 



I 

I 

I 
BATHURST, A COLONIAL RESIDENCE | 

The editors are indebted to Judge Lewis H. Jones, of Louis- j 

ville, Kentucky, for the photogravure of "Bathurst," which ap- 
pears as the frontispiece of this number. "Bathurst" was buih by 
Francis IMeriwether, the old clerk of Essex Co., circa 1692, and 
received its name from his marriage with Mary Bathurst, daugh- 
ter of Lancelot Bathurst, of Essex County, Virginia, son of Sir 
Edward Bathurst of Gloucestershire, England, and his second 
wife, Susan Rich. L^pon the death of Francis ^Meriwether's 
widow in 1740, the land was divided among his heirs, and the 
"Bathurst" tract fell to the wife of Theodorick Bland. Bland sold [ 

it to Francis Smith who married Lucy, a daughter of Francis 
Meriwether. From them it descended to their son Meri- 1 

wether Smith, first member of Congress from that district, patriot, 
etc. From him it passed to his son, George William Smith, 
who became governor of Virginia, lost his life in the burning of 
the Richmond theatre, who early sold "Bathurst" to Major 
Thomas Ap Thomas Jones, whose mother was daughter of r^Iary, 
another daughter of Francis Meriwether, and her husband James 
Skelton. From them it descended to their only son, Thomas Ap 
Thomas Jones, the grandfather of Judge Lewis H. Jones, who 
sold it for ^3950 in 1800, and moved to Kentucky. 



t 



William and Mary Quarterly 71 



HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL NOTES 

PIuDGiNS OF Mathews County. — Mr. Russell W. Hudgins, 
of Ellis Island, New York harbor, writes in correction of the note 
on this family on page 285 of last volume that Harriott Hudgins 
was a daughter of Captain Matthew xA^nderson, son of Robert 
Anderson, of "Gold Mine," Hanover Co., and not Captain John 
Anderson. Mr. Russell W. Hudgin's father was Charles Houlder 
Hudgins and not plain Houlder Hudgins. Otherwise the sketch 
is correct. 

Gordon. — William Gordon was the son-in-law and executor 
of Lyddall Bacon, of Mecklenburg Co., whose will was dated 
July 21, 1775. Wanted his ancestry. — Mrs. Mary Mitchell Daniel, 
Eastman, Georgia. 

Norvell. — William Norvell, of James City Co., Va., died 
22 November, 1802, in the 77th year of his age. {Poulsons Ad- 
vertiser, Philadelphia, 8 Dec, 1802.) Capt. William Norvell, Sr., 
married Ann, daughter of Col. John Wyatt. (Sketches and 
Recollections of Lynchburg.) What relation were the two 
William Norvells to one another. The first above was a member 
of the House of Burgesses 1775-1776, and of the Conventions 
of 1775 and 1776. The latter was from the County of Amherst 
and President of the Bank of Virginia in Lynchburg. 

Mathews. — There is a deed dated 13 July, 1751, recorded in 
York County between Baldwin Tvlathews Smith of the County, of 
Northumberland, gent., and Francis W^illis, of the County of 
Gloucester of the other part. By this deed Smith sells to W^illis 
all that tract of land in Bruton Parish, York Co., by estimation 600 
acres, part of the real estate of Baldwin Mathev/s, deceased, late 
of the County of York, gent., deceased, intestate, from whom the 
same descended to Mary, late wife of Philip Smith, gent., de- 
ceased, and at the decease of said Mary the said Baldwin 
Matthews Smith, party to these presents, her eldest son, inherited 
the same as heir to the said Mary, his mother, and all the land, 
which upon a partition made between the said Philip Smith and 



^2 William and Mary Quarterly 

his wife Mary, and Thomas Buckner and Mary, his wife, grand- 
daughter of the said Baldwin Mathews, etc. 

Mattapony Fort. — In 1653, 2350 acres called "Mattapony 
Fort," on the north side of Mattaponai River, beginning at a small 
creek called Pockatamaino, was granted Edward Digges, Esq. 
Land Office Grants. 

Query : Seymour-Renicks. — Will some one please tell us of the 
ancestry of Col. Felix Seymour, and Margaret Renicks, his wife, 
w^ho resided in Hardy County, Virginia (now W^est Virginia), 
prior to the Revolution. It is supposed that Col. Felix Seymour 
was an Englishman, coming to America about 1750, and that 
shortly after his arrival was married to Margaret Renicks ; pos- 
sibly was married before leaving England. The answer can be 
made through these columns or direct to W. H. Cobb, Elkins, 
W. Va. 

Anecdote of Rev. Servant Jones. — Many stories are told of 
Rev. Servant Jones, who was first minister of the Baptist de- 
nomination in Williamsburg. One of these is as follows : A 
great Baptist revival was held at Hickory Neck Church in James 
City County some time before the Civil War, and Rev. Littleberry 
Allen was at Mr. Jones' invitation the guest of the occasion. He 
delivered a powerful exhortation, and was particularly severe on 
"backsliders," finally asking with great vehemence what punish- 
ment ought to be accorded to them. Thereupon Mr. Jones 
solemnly arose and said, "They ought to be hung with a p'ison 
vine." This raised a laugh, and Mr. Allan, much chagrined, 
remarked, "Brother Jones, you have ruined the effect of my 
sermon." 



ZKHuUam anb /llbar^ College 

©uarterli? Ibietortcal fiDaQasine* 

Vol. XXV OCTOBER, 1916 No. 2 



LETTERS OF MAJOR THOMAS ROWLAND, C. S. A. 
FROM NORTH CAROLLNA, 1861 AND 1862 

Contributed by the late Miss Kate Mason Rowland, LL. D. 

Goldsboro, N. C, September 11, 1861. 
My Dear Mother: 

Aunt Laura promised to write to you upon my departure from 
Richmond to tell you that I have been ordered to Newbern, 
N. C. * * * 

Tuesday evening I received an invitation to Miss Jennie 
Pegram's where I met most of my Richmond acquaintances. I 
spent a very pleasant evening, went to my hotel and packed up, 
and after about three hours sleep took the cars Wednesday be- 
fore day. My friend Jones and I, both of the Engineers are 
ordered to report to Genl. Gatlin. Oweing to the peculiar ar- 
rangements of the North Carolina railroads we have to spend a 
day or a night at each small town on our route. Yesterday we 
had to spend the day at Weldon, a very uninteresting little town. 
Last night and to-day we are sojourners in Goldsboro, a very 
pretty and neat little town. We are in a very comfortable hotel, 
and the proprietor being kind and attentive, and Goldsboro being 
to-day the scene of a great militia muster, we hardly regret the 
delay in consideration of the anticipated entertainment. 

We hear that Nevv'bern is a very pleasant place of old Revolu- 
tionary associations, and celebrated for beautiful girls with 
wealthy paternals. A slight stampede among the inhabitants was 
caused by the advent of the enemy to Fort Hatteras, but they 



74 William and Mary Quarterly 

are recovering confidence and I hope the young ladies will return. 
I already see around me evidences of my being in the land of 
tar, pitch and turpentine. Endless pine forests at a respectful 
distance, surround the beautiful little village of Goldsboro. As I 
came on in the cars I could look through the window into dark 
and densely grown swamps, upon whose gloomy waters the sun 
never shines. 

My love to the girls and all friends. 

Your aff. son 

' , T: Rowland. 

Newbern, North CaroHna, September 15, 1861. 
My Dear Mother: 

I wrote you a few lines from Goldsboro several days ago on 
my w^ay to this place. We arrived here the day after I wrote that 
letter and have since been awaiting orders from Genl. Gatlin who 
is absent. We received a letter from him this evening. Obenchain 
is ordered to Washington, N. C., Jones and I are directed to 
report to Col. Thomson of the Engineer Department. We saw 
him this evening and learned from him that we are to make a 
reconnoisance for a military road along the Neuse, the object of 
which will be to send troops and artillery to the coast in case of 
the attempt of the enemy to land. 

I am very glad that Jones and I are to be together, he being 
a Virginian and a West Pointer. Newbern is almost deserted 
at present, partly by the absence of the inhabitants at the water- 
ing places, partly by the panic. It seems to be a ver}- genteel, quiet 
old .place, and I hope that the ladies will return, for it will proba- 
bly be our rendevous for some time to come. We have been here 
several days already, during which we have occupied our time by 
studying, reading, and sailing on the river. 

While I think of it, if you have any. trunk at Warrenton, send 
me Davies' Surveying and Mahan's Civil Engineering, and if you 
could in any way come across Mahan's Field Fortifications, please 
send it to me. It is very difficult to find books pertaining to my 
profession. 



William and Mary Quarterly 75 

1 am getting to be very fond of fresh figs which are very 
libundant here. I think it is an acquired taste. We have no 
peaches but figs and grapes are very plentiful and can be bought 
for a trifle. Newbern is celebrated for its elm trees. Every street 
is shaded by an arch of beautiful trees. From the river you see 
apparently a forest of elms with here and there the steeple of a 
church or the chimneys of a tall house peering out from the mass 
of foliage which excludes the city from view. We went to the 
Episcopal Church this morning and heard a very good sermon. 
The congregation was very small, so many people being away. 
The mosquitos here form a very bad feature of the place ; they 
are terrible, worse than I ever saw them before. My hands are 
almost eaten up by them. 

Wednesday: I wTote this letter last Sunday; Monday morn- 
ing we started down the river too early for me to put it in the 
office. Since then we have been very busy, going down the river 
every morning and returning in the evening. We are at work on 
the road that I told you of. We go to Fort Lane every morning 
in a steamboat and after our day's work return in the same 
manner. 

[T. Rowland.] 



Newbern, N. C, September 23, 1861. 
My Dear Mother: 

I have just received orders to report to Col. Johnson at Fort 
Johnson, Wilmington, N. C. Just as I am fixed comfortably in 
Newbern with Jones, I am compelled to leave. However as I have 
no family to carry with me it does not make any diiterence. I 
only regret that he does not go too. We are getting to be such 
inseparable friends that it will be disagreeable to part. But I 
have no doubt I shall find pleasant people and good friends at 
Wilmington as I have at every post at which I have been during 
the war. The w^eather has been very warm here, but it has 
suddenly changed in consequence of a North-Easter, and is now 
quite cold. 

Jones and I have had very hard work here, sometimes walk- 
ing for miles through forests and thickets, and sometimes stand- 



I 



76 William and Mary Quarterly 

ing all day on the parapet of a fort in the broihng hot sun ar- 
ranging apparatus for aiming the 32 pdr guns. (The gunner is 
level, and the breech sight are [sic] not to be had, so we have to 
arrange a new method of aiming the heavy guns.) 

McLeod Turner one of my schoolmates at HalloweFs, is Cap- 
tain of a company at F'ort Macon. 

[T. Rowland.] \ 

Fort Johnson, N. C, October, 1861. 
My Dear Mother: 

I wrote to you the night before I left Newbern to tell you 
of my change of Post. I have since received yours of the 23d, 1 

the first letter I have had from any one since I have been in North ^ 

Carolina. I met Capt. Smith the morning after I arrived in 1 

Wilmington. He has been sick for a week and is not yet well • 

enough to do any duty. He is ordered here to construct some defen- ] 

sive works at Fort Johnson, and I was to have assisted him. He is j 

the same Smith of the Army that you met last winter in Detroit ; . * 
he speaks a great deal of the pleasant times he had with you all 
during the winter. I brought a letter to him from Uncle Robert. 
Fort Johnson is one of the coast defenses of N. C, guarding the 
approach by water to Wilmington. There are no fortifications 
here at present. Fort Caswell, about three miles distant, stands 
between us and the sea. The latter is strongly fortified and 
probably able to resist any attack that can be made by sea. It 
guards the mouth of the main Inlet. Batteries at Confederate 
Point guard the approach by New Inlet. ^; 

The lighthouse displays a flag whenever the U. S. vessels of 
war are in sight. The flag is seldon down. Four or five steamers 
are generally hovering around to enforce the blockade. A priva- 
teer went out yesterday, however. I am boarding with a graduate 
of the V. M. I. Capt. Smith has just arrived. We go to work 
to-morrow on the fortifications. ,: 

Fort Johnson, N. C, October 13, 1861. | 

My dear Lizzie: | 

I believe that quite a week has expired since I despatched 
my last letter to Warrenton. I am glad to hear that you antici- 

t 
I 



William and Mary Quarterly yj 

jk'ite a pleasant month at the Springs, and hope that when the 
month is over you will be able to return safely to the Cottage. 
Capt. Smith and I are progressing in the erection of our batteries 
at this place. I am very much pleased with the Engineers Corps 
as far as my experience goes. The duties are quite agreeable to 
niy taste, scientific without being sedentary. The junior officers, 
moreover, are more independent, and less restricted by the author- 
ity of superiors than in the line of the army where all are subject 
to a severe regimental discipline. My rank is not what I am en- 
titled to but that does not make much difference ; a more serious 
objection to my position is that my pay is, a mere pittance insuffi- 
cient for my support, incurring as I necessarily do, — the same ex- 
penses and discharging the same duties as a lieutenant. 

With much reluctance I wrote to the President requesting some 
other position, and I hope that I will be enabled to be of some 
assistance to mother during the winter. I wrote to the President 
myself because I think it is always best to ask a favor directly. 
If you do it through a friend you annoy two persons instead of 
one, and if a request is reasonable and just in itself, it needs 
no influence to second it. I feel assured that mine is both reason- 
able and just. 

Quite an amusing circumstance happened while our first bat- 
tery was in process of construction. The overseer superintending 
the negroes employed in throwing up the parapet of sand had, 
it seems, made some remarks derogative to the character of three 
young women in Smitheville. Whereupon the offended parties 
marched out one fine evening, armed with cow-hides, stormed our 
battery in rear, and gave the fellow a good trouncing, much to the 
surprise of the negroes. 

I have commenced reading Rollin's Ancient History, the only 
useful book that I can get hold of. We play whist a great deal 
in the evenings wath the officers of the loth Regiment. I have 
made no acquaintances in Smitheville ; in fact there are very few 
people in the town. It is a summer resort for many of the 
inhabitants of Wilmington, but in these times they don't like to 
be so near the coast. I suppose Mason has by this time received 
his commission in the Navy. 

[T. Rowland.] 



y8 William and Mary Quarterly 

Fort Johnson, Oct. i8( ?) [1861] 

I am boarding at a house kept by old Mrs. Stewart and her 
daughters. It is right on the shore of the inlet and just beyond 
that is the broad Atlantic. Here for the first time I have heard 
the roaring of the sea. My roommate is named Parker ; he is 
from Missouri though he has relations in Norfolk and is a grad- 
uate, as I said, of the V. M. I. He is the soul of a gentleman 
and has good morals and habits, which it will please you to know. 
He was formerly in the Provisional Army, Va., and distinguished 
himself in a rencontre between the U. S. Steamer Monticello 
and a battery under his command. He is thrown out of service by 
the bursting of the Old Dominion Bubble and takes refuge in 
N. C. as a drill master. He proposes to raise a battalion for the 
war and offers me the Adjutancy. I will wait till it is raised. We 
are intimate friends and sympathize with each other in the mis- j| 

fortune of low rank and low pay. A little grumbling does one's 
heart good. 

By the way my accommodating landlord in Newbern, because 
I did not finish my month with him, charged me $20.(X) for twelve 
days besides a handsome item for washing. 

The officers here are very pleasant gentlemen. Iverson of 
the U. S. Cavalry was in the same regiment with Frank Wheaton, 
Sumner's. He is Colonel of the loth Regiment of North Caro- 
lina Volunteers and commands the post. A Virginian is the Ad- 
jutant of the regiment. 

I hope the girls and yourself will winter in the Cottage and 
that I may spend Christmas with you. 

Your aff. son 

T. Rowland. 



i * 



Fort Johnson, N. C, Oct. 21, 1861. ^ 

My Dear Mother: I 

It is a cold, rainy Monday, the first chilly day of the season. 
Capt. Smith left yesterday to be absent for a week or two, 
leaving me to complete the batteries during his absence. He has 

f 
I 



William and Mary Quarterly 79 

been ordered by Gcnl. Anderson to make a reconnaissance at some 
point north of this upon the North CaroHna coast. He was fur- 
nished with an escort of cavalry. My friend, Capt! Parker has 
gone too. He has been ordered to Wilmington to drill a company 
of light artillery. I heard a most excellent sermon yesterday from 
a celebrated Methodist minister. He is one of the best preachers 
I have ever listened to, because he employs all his talents to en- 
force the truth of the gospel rather than to dazzle his hearers with 
a brilliant sermon. 

What has become of Aunt Emily ? She will get home event- 
ually, I suppose if she has to come via the Rocky Mountains. I 
am delighted to hear that you have met my friend Lieut. Berney. 
He is a pleasant fellow, and we have lightened many a lonesome 
hour together in our tent at the Fair Grounds. I never met a 
young man in whom I could see less to condemn than in Berney. 
Frank, open hearted, generous and impetuous, he is a true type of 
a Southerner and a most agreeable companion. 

[T. Rowland.] 



Fort Johnson, N. C, Nov. 10, 1861. 
My Dear Mother: 

I met Pinkney Mason very unexpectedly. He is ordered to 
Fort Fisher seven miles from Fort Johnson to drill in heavy 
artillery. He has grown very much since I last saw him; he is 
nearly as stout as Landon. I have nearly finished the batteries 
here; I think they will be completed in a week or ten days. I 
have never told you anything about the old lady that I am board- 
ing with. She is quite a curiosity. She has some rather mascu- 
line characteristics, one of w^hich is a propensity to enforce her 
rights with a cudgel whenever it is necessary. She swears a little 
when she is angry, and would not be called refined or fashionable 
by the least fastidious but she can boast a better heart and more 
charity than many a lady who has a good education and greater 
opportunities for doing good. Alone and unaided she has sup- 
ported a large family until they are now able to support them- 
selves. She now keeps this boarding-house with the assistance of 



8o William and Mary Quarterly 

two of her daughters, one of them a buxom widow and the other 
a fine looking young woman still unmarried, but likely to be soon 
applied for by the Surgeon of the loth Regiment. Old IMrs. 
Stuart is known to everyone who ever visited Fort Johnson. 
Upon one occasion she was elected to the office of town commis- 
sioner in Smitheville and actually served in that capacity. 

Your aff. son 

T. Rowland. 

Fort Johnson, N. C, December i, 1861. 

I am delighted to hear of Aunt E!mily's safe arrival in the 
South. It makes me sick to hear of the Cottage being occupied 
by Federal officers. I should like to disturb their arrangements 
by kicking them out. Poor Aunt Betsy ! I know she has ''gone 
where the good niggers go." She was a good old soul and a true 
friend of the family. 

Fort Johnson, N. C, Dec. 10, 1861. 
My Dear Aunt: 

I congratulate you upon your safe arrival in the Southern 
Confederacy. Quite a change has taken place since you left Dixie 
last' May. The gathering clouds have burst in furious storms, at 
Bethel, Manassa, Springfield and other places rendered illustri- 
ous by the success of Southern arms. We have had our reverses 
too, but even these have not been inglorious. Rich Mountain 
stands as a living monument to the memory of the brave patriots 
who fell overwhelmed by superior numbers and betrayed by a 
treacherous countryman. Hatteras and Port Royal fell before 
a po\\;erful navy, but what can they do with these if Fortress 
Monroe has brought them nothing but the battle of Bethel. 

Nations are as obstinate as individuals, and perhaps not until 
they have expended all their resources and ruined themselves 
by their efforts, will the Northern Peoplp discover too late that 
which the histor>' of our common ancestors ought to have taught 
them, that a people fighting for their liberties cannot be conquered. 

In the meanwhile we must suffer many inconveniences, but we 
can bear them cheerfully in such a cause. You have heard that 



William and Mary Quarterly 8i 

the ProviGional Army of Virginia, a military blunder of our Con- 
vention, has been dropped. I have been compelled to accept a 
cadetship, being under age, while others of my classmates have 
been appointed lieutenants. I am therefore deprived to a great 
extent of the means of assisting my mother and sisters. Capt. 
Parker, a graduate of the V. M. I., whose acquaintance I have 
made while in North Carolina, has some prospects of receiving 
the command of a battalion of Artillery. He has promised in 
that event to have me appointed his Adjutant with the rank of 
1st Lieutenant in Volunteers. I am afraid it is doubtful whether 
he will be able to accomplish his object, but if he can possibly 
get me Jthe appointment I know he will do so. 



Fort Johnson, N. C, Dec. 15, 1861. 
My Dear Mother: 

I have finished the batteries here with the exception of the 
turfing which will take several weeks more, and then I will be done 
with Fort Johnson. We expect to have a very pleasant Christmas 
here. We can enjoy Christmas no matter where we are, but still 
there is nothing like a Christmas at home. 

It is melancholy to think of our pleasant neighborhood being 
desolated by the presence of a hostile army, our houses defaced 
and our trees cut down. There w^here only a year ago all was as 
peaceful and quiet as paradise on earth, all is now the tumult 
and disorder of Yankee camps, w^hile the owners of the land are 
exiles from their homes. 

You must not expose yourself too continuously to the fatigue 
and impure air of the hospital. Take a little holiday occasionally 
with ^Irs. Randolph or Mrs. Foote. If you confine yourself too 
much to the hospital you \\\\\ get sick yourself. I have been, 
reading a ^lanual of Military Surgery for want of something 
more appropriate to my profession. The principal objection to 
this post is that I have no books to read, at least nothing of a 
substantial nature. I was delighted with Voltaire's Charles XII. 
It is very easy French. I read without any dictionary and found 
no difficulty in doing so. 



t 

82 William and Mary Quarterly i 

Fort Johnson, N. C, Dec. 23, 1861. | 

My Dear Mother: 

The Theodora ran into this port last week, passing right by 
the Blockader which did not have its steam up. The Theodora 
had no guns, but she whistled in defiance at every shot fired by 
the Blockader. The latter gave chase as well as she could with 
her scant supply of steam, but the Theodora, one of the fastest 
steamers on the Continent, was soon safe under the guns of Fort 
Caswell. It was a very exciting race. We could see it distinctly 
from both Forts, and hear the booming of the enemy's guns, an- 
swered by the shrill and defiant whistle of the Theodora ''Catch 
me if you can." The Theodora, whose* name is now historical, 
is the same boat that carried Mason and Slidell to Havanna. She 
brought in a small cargo of salt, cofifee, oranges, pineapples and 
bananas. I wish I could send you some of the fruit. 

Your aff. son I 

T. Rowland. * 

f 

Fort Johnson, N. C, Dec. 26, 1861. 

My Dear Mother: j 

I spent quite a pleasant Christmas yesterday. We all got up : 

at daylight, and the young ladies made us a bowl of tgg nogg be- i 

fore breakfast. Mrs. Stuart's youngest daughter Kate has come 1 
home from school to spend the holidays, bringing one of her 
schoolmates with her. They brought their guitar with them. They 

sing and play very sweetly. We are to have a party to-night i 

with tableaux. The weather is warm and pleasant. I am writing ^ 

in room without a fire, and a full-blown rose is lying on my mantle- * 

piece, which was pulled yesterday in the garden. It was the rose, \ 

not the mantlepiece as my last sentence indicates, which was f 

pulled in the garden. I send a few leaves of the former. - 

Christmas a year ago I dined with Dora in New^ark. To-day 

Newark is in a foreign and hostile country. What a change ! ' 

Much love to the girls. A merry New Year to all. ] 

Your aff. son ! 

Thomas Rowland. ] 



(To be Continued) 



William and Mary Quarterly 83 



WILLIAM TATHAM 

There is an account of William Tatham in the "Two Parsons," by 
George Wythe Munford, but no one would suspect in reading it that he 
was one of the most remarkable men of his times. The sketch given in 
"The Cyclopedia of Biography," by Lyon G. Tyler, says that Tatham "in 
his many published works anticipated by more than half a century all others 
in calculating the agricultural and commercial possibilities of the new 
nation and making suggestions for their development, as witness : "An 
analysis of the State of Virginia" (1790) ; "Two tracts rellating to the Canal 
between Norfolk and North Carolina" (1797) ; "Remarks on Inland 
Canals" (1798); "Political Economy of Inland Navigation, Irrigation and 
Drainage" (1799); "Communications on the . Agriculture and Commerce 
of the United States" (1800) ; "Historical and Practical Essay in the 
Culture and Commerce of Tobacco" (iSoo) ; "National Irrigation" (1801) ; 
"Oxen for Tillage" (i8ci). 

[Copied from the Richmond Enquirer for February 23, 1819.] 

"The birth-day of Washington was yesterday celebrated in 
this city with appropriate honors. The volunteer companies 
paraded, fired a grand salute, and dined at different places. The 
House of Delegates adjourned out of respect to the day. 

On the firing of the evening salute, a melancholy event hap- 
pened. Col. Wm. Tatham, a man of misfortune, but of consider- 
able information, known in London, in Washington and this city, 
for his skill in Civil Engineering, walked in front of the cannon, 
and before he was seen by the officer who gave the word of com- 
mand, was blown almost to pieces by the explosion. His body 
was almost cut in two ; his bowels were exposed ; and he in- 
stanteously lifeless. Some say that he had, intentionally 
planted himself before the cannon ; that he had in the course of 
the day expressed a wish and determination to die: but we are 
inclined to believe that this gentleman was somewhat intoxicated 
and walked about 4 or 5 feet before the muzzle of the cannon 
without being conscious of his situation. The w^adding struck him 
with great force. We have no time to collect the particulars ; 
but we sincerely commiserate the manner of his death, and regret 
his fate." 



84 William and Mary Quarterly 

[Copied from the Richmond Enquirer for February 25, 181 9.] 

Colonel W. Tatham 

Colonel Tatham, whose extraordinary death was noticed in 
our last, was born in the county of Cumberland, in England, in 
the year 1752 — his father was the Rev. Sanford Tatham. In the 
year 1769, when only 17 years of age. Col. Tatham came to 
America, "without profession, trade or employment, and with 
no more than one single family guinea in his pocket." A sketch 
of his life, down to 1802, is published in the 3d vol. of 'Tublic 
Characters", printed in London, of 1861-2; which gives also the 
lives of many distinguished men ; as Mr. Windham, Hornetooke, 
Lord Sheffield, Count Rumford, Dr. Mitchill, etc., etc. — It ap- 
pears from this Sketch that he first lived in this country, in "the 
house of Messrs. Carter and Trent, respectable merchants on 
James River." He took a stand in defence of American rights, 
when the revolution commenced. He is stated to have drawn 
"the memorial on which the civil and military organization of 
the government of the Tennessee country was founded, at a 
time when he was no more than 24 years of age." He was "ap- 
pointed adjutant of the military force of the new district of 
Washington, in which capacity he served during the attack of the 
Cherokee and Creek Indians at Fort Caswel under Col. John 
Carter, and in company wath Gen. James Robertson and Gen. 
Sevier." He was in other military situations during the war ; in 
'78 "one of the volunteer cavalry, composed of the young gentle- 
men of Virginia, under command of General Nelson;" in 1780, 
he commenced the study of the law under the celebrated and 
lamented Hardy; in '81, he assisted in arranging the business of 
the land office in North Carolina. During the invasion of Vir- 
ginia by Phillips and Arnold, he was nominated an auxiliary 
officer in General Nelson's suite : at the siege of York, he acted as 
a volunteer. After the capture of Cornw;allis, "he was called to 
occupy -a. place dependant on the Board of Privy Council in Vir- 
ginia." In 1783, "he embarked for the Havanna, in order to 
combine a knowledge of the Spanish interests in the West Indies 
with that which he had acquired in those western countries of 



William and Mary Quarterly 85 

the United States, which border on the Mississippi territories of 
his Catholic Majesty." On his return to Virginia, he visited 
General Davie in N. Carolina, under whom he finished his studies 
in the law, and was admitted to the bar of her county courts. He 
subsequently explored the several rivers of North Carolina, and 
their western communications towards the Mississippi ; in '^y, was 
elected into the Legislature of N. Carolina; and by that body was 
elected a lieut. colonel. In ^90, '91, '92, and '93 he made various 
tours to the western parts of Virginia, and to the waters of the 
Mississippi, to collect geographical information. In '95 he visited 
Spain, for mysterious purposes not developed in this Sketch, under 
the auspices of the Spanish minister in the United States ; had 
private interviews with the Prince of Peace ; was "particularly 
noticed by the King and his family ;" but owing to some political 
intrigues, was civilly notified to leave the country. He then 
visited England, and in 1801, "was called to the superintendance 
of the London docks at Wapping;" here he remained, projecting 
and executing, until the Court of Directors determined to complete 
the residue of the work by contract. 

Here the sketch terminates. Col. T. must soon afterwards 
have revisited the United States, and was subsequently employed 
by government, we believe to survey the coast of North Carolina 
. . . About 18 months ago, Mr. Monroe gave him a com- 
fortable situation in the United States' arsenal recently erected 
up the James Rver. But this unfortunate and eccentric man, who 
had addicted himself to a habit of intemperance, threw up his 
appointment, and came to this city. It was melancholy to see 
this man of great enterprise and extensive information, throwing 
himself away, the victim of adversity, the victim of himself. 
On the evening of the 22d inst. in the presence of a large crowd, 
on the capital square, while the second evening gun was firing in 
honor of Washington's natal day, this unhappy man terminated his 
existence. 

A coroner's inquest was held over his > body ; and an intelli- 
gent jury say "upon their oaths that they have carefully inspected 
the body of the deceased, and examined sundry witnesses ; from 
the evidence before them, it appears that about sun-set of this day 
on said square, when the evening's salute was fired the said de- 



86 William and Mary Quarterly 

ceased rashly and precipitately (after having previously expressed 
a wish to die) threw himself immediately in front of one of the 
guns after the order to fire had been given by the officer, at that 
very instant when a match was set thereto. From a careful 
examination of all the witnesses, it is the unanimous opinion of 
this inquest, that the said Col. Wm. Tatham, in manner aforesaid, 
came to his death accidentally, and they feel fully justified from 
the evidence in saying that no blame whatever, should be attri- 
buted to the officer or the men, who had the charge and manage- 
ment of the said cannon." 

We understand, that witnesses appjcared before the jury, who 
testified to certain declarations of the deceased, touching his 
desperate intentions. One witness proved that the deceased took 
him by the hand near the right gun which had just been fired, 
and wished to draw him towards the left gun then about to be 
fired, exclaiming, "Come, go with me, and let's be blown to 
eternity," or words to that effect. Another stated, that just be- 
fore the firing commenced, the deceased came to the drum in 
possession of the witness, took leave of the drum and its sticks, 
saying it was the last day or time he should ever hear the flam 
of a drum. Several witnesses proved, that at the time the left 
gun was about to be fired, the deceased was on the side of the 
gu'n near the axle, that he must have changed his position very 
suddenly; the smoke &c prevented their seeing him afterwards. 
They proved too the wildness of his manner, and that he spoke 
of his wish to die. 

With self-command, and with the information on civil en- 
gineering, and geographical information, which he possessed, 
Col. Tatham, at this interesting era of internal improvement,, 
migh,t have rendered the most substantial services to this country. 
But he is gone ! May his melancholy exit warn some of our 
readers. — He has left behind him a valuable stock of maps, plats, 
charts, and explanatory M. S. S. which it is hoped will be care- 
fully preserved. 






William and Mary Quarterly 87 



F.ARLY GENERATIONS OF THE TANNER FAMILY OF 
HENRICO COUNTY, VIRGINIA 

By William Clayton Torrence 

The first person by the name of Tanner* appearing in the 
extant Henrico County records was one Joseph Tanner who ap- 
pears to have had a patent for land in that county as early as 
March, 1662 [i 662-3 ].f The Tanner home, as is shown by many 
of the later records, was located in that section of Henrico 
County lying south of James River (and now Chesterfield County) 
in the well known Bermuda Hundred. 

From the original of the will of Richard Cocke of Henrico, 
dated 1665 (among the original papers in Henrico Court) the 

following interesting item is taken : 'Tn presence of us 

Henry Randolph, Cop Vir Extrati & Exam qf^ Jos: Tanner CI Cur 
Copia William Randolph CI Cur." It would seem from this that 
Tanner was clerk of the Court. 



* There were other Tanners in the colony prior to and probably con- 
temporaneous with Joseph Tanner. There was a Tanner family in Norfolk 
County and also a Thomas Tanner in Charles City County. On Novem- 
ber 27, 1657, Thomas Tanner was granted by patent 250 acres (with 34 
perches which lies on point without the east line) in Charles [City] 
County, south side James River ; east side head of Powell's Creek near 
the old Town ; bounded west by Charles Sparrow and Richard Tye. north 
head of Powell's Creek, east Piney Swamp, south into the woods. Due 
for transportation of 6 persons [names not given in record]. There was 
also an Edward Tanner of Surry County, will dated Jany. 24, 1684, pro- 
bated 7ber 15. 1685. eldest son Edward, youngest son William; son John; 
Robert Seale; my wife (Surry Records, Vol. 1684-86.) 

Where the Tanners came from to Virginia is not known, but there may 
he found references to the name in Calendar of Wills and Administrations : 
Devon & Cornwall [Publications of British Record Society], 2 Vols. 

t See footnote, p. 88, where an abstract is given of a patent to the 
four children of Joseph Tanner and which is authority for this state- 
ment. I have been unable to find record of this patent of March, 1662, to 
Tanner. 



88 William and Mary Quarterly .t 

I 

Joseph* Tanner (died prior to 1677) married Mary (born 
about 1639; died about 1700) whose surname is now unknown.* 
She married secondly, Gilbert Piatt of Henrico. The will of 
Joseph Tanner bore date Xber 7, 1668. The will of Mrs. Mary 
Piatt, dated March 18, 1699, was proved in Henrico Court Feb- 
ruary I, 1 699- 1 700. 

I. Joseph* and Mary Tanner, had issue : \ 

2. i. Joseph^ Tanner married first, Ann Floyd; second, Sarah 
(Hatcher) Turpin. x 

3. ii. Edward^ Tanner married Mary Hatcher. | 

4. iii. Mary2 Tanner married William Liggon. :' 

5. iv. Martha^ Tanner married first, Thomas Jones ; second, 
Edward Haskins.f 

Mrs. Mary Tanner's second marriage to Gilbert Platt,J seems 
to have been productive of considerable disturbance. In 
his Branchiana (pages 122-125) James Branch Cabell gives a very 
interesting account (drawn from the Henrico records) of the 



* The only evidence, thus far discovered, which proves Mrs. Mary 
Tanner-Platt's relationship to any one in Henrico (other than her own 
descendants) is found in the will of Mrs. Martha Stratton (w^idow of 
Edward Stratton, the elder, and before that of Thomas Shippy) dated 
July 24, 1692, probated in Henrico County February i, 1695/6 in which 
she mentions her "Sister Piatt." 

t Mary, Joseph, Edward and Martha Tanner received on 30 October, 
1673, a patent for 650 acres, 2 rods and 8 poles on south side James River, 
Henrico County beginning at the middle spring bottome at the river side 
near Mr. Baugh's line, nighe blind slash, along the river to mouth of 
Hell Garden bottome at the landing; 450 acre part thereof formerly granted 
Joseph Tanner, deed., by patent 24 March 1662 and by said Tanner given to 
his children above said ; and 200 acres, 2 rod due by and for the transporta- 
tion into the colony of four persons, viz. : Eliz Rogers, Christ. Hatton, 
Math Linsley, Norg*". 

t Branchiana, page 122 says, "But about 1660, at latest, he [Piatt] had 
risen somewhat in the world, and had married * * * Mary Tanner 
widow of Joseph Tanner of Henrico." [Italics mine.] The use of the 
past tense here makes Mrs. Mary, the wife of Piatt, married to him eight 
years prior to the date of Joseph Tanner's will and from two to four years 
prior to the births of Joseph and Edward Tanner, sons of Joseph Tanner 
and Mary his wife, who as the widozv of Tanner married Gilbert Piatt. 
This is obviously an error. 



William and Mary Quarterly 89 

'lomestic troubles of the Platt-Tanner connection and as space 
forbids the introduction of the whole of the "evidence" here a 
>tatement of the substance thereof must suffice and the sufficiently 
interested person is referred to Mr. CabelFs account for details. 
Piatt was quite evidently only tenant by courtesy on the Tanner 
property, which is called in the records both "Fauldinge" and 
"Bauldings" (a corruption of Baldwyn's), a situation at best 
most uncomfortable for a second mate, especially when that 
mate is of the masculine gender. Added to this situation is 
Madam Mary, who, there is every evidence from items in the 
official records for believing, possessed, or was possessed by, 
a peppery temper as well as a spirit for the administration 
of worldly affairs ; and another plus of Madam Mary's son Joseph 
Tanner, the younger, who no doubt inherited some of his mother's 
height of temper. Such a situation seems to carry as if by nature 
the germ of disruption. At any rate disruption was the result. 
First Gilbert Piatt and Madam Mary were in court "at variance 
* * * over a portion of Gilbert Piatt's own estate which by 
deed * * * [he] had made over to her." Then came the 
trouble with his wife and her children, or rather her eldest son.* 
The tossing of lightwood sticks by the step-son at the step-father 
one evening as the latter was returning home elicited complaint 
from Mr. Piatt to his wife relative to the treatment he had re- 
ceived from Master Joseph Tanner. "And for his pains" says 
Mr. Cabell, "was promptly called a liar, since, as Mrs. Piatt ex- 
plained, she had reared her children so carefully that in common 
reason none of them would ever have been guilty of such out- 
rageous conduct." And then the storm broke as young Joseph, 
going into the room, accused Mr. Piatt of having slandered him 
on a certain occasion and recourse was had to a "tobacco stick" 
or "a stake" w^hose blow seems to have knocked out Mr. Piatt. 
Again the courts were sought and the upshot of the matter 
was that Gilbert Piatt no longer troubled his wife and her children 
with his presence, resigning, by deed 2S March, 1681, all his right 
to the plantation at Bauldings to Joseph, Edward, Martha and 
Mary, orphans of Joseph Tanner, deceased (Henrico Records, Vol. 



* See depositions recorded Henrico Court Vol. 1677-92, p. i. 



go William and Mary Quarterly 3 

1677-92, p. 162). That "Bauldings" was in "Hell Garden Bottom" 
(repeatedly mentioned as a boundary in Tanner deeds) seems 
not insignificant in connection with the various disturbances in 
this family. 

2. Joseph^ Tanner (Joseph^) was born about 1662,* died 
prior to February, 1698-9. He lived in Henrico County. He ap- 
pears as having served as a juryman in August, 1688, and again 
in August, 1692. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1677-92, pp. 279, 481.) 
He became conspicuous by his trouble with his step-father, Gil- 
bert Piatt referred to above. He appears in several deeds as 
"heir" of his father, Joseph^ Tanner, deceased.f 

Joseph- Tanner married first, in 1682, Ann Floyd and, second, 
in 1689, Sarah, widow of Matthew Turpin, and daughter of Ed- 
ward Hatcher, of Henrico. Sarah (Hatcher) Turpin — Tanner 
married, third, Samuel Oulton. , 

The proof of the first marriage, to Ann Floyd, is as follows : 28 
Xbris 1682, William Byrd prayed to be relieved as security for estate 
of Ann Floyd, an orphan in the wardship of James Forrest, * * ♦ "an 
acquaintance from Joseph Tanner, who married the said orphan." Hen- 
rico Records, Vol. 1677-1692, p. 228. 

The proof of the second marriage, to Sarah (Hatcher) Turpin, and 
her identit3% is as follows : 

Marriage licenses in Henrico issued between October, 1688, and 
October, 1689: 



* Deposition Henrico Records, Vol. 1688-97, P- 26, and dated December 
I, 1688, Joseph Tanner aged about 27 years. 

tjoseph^ Tanner became guardian of his brother and sisters, on his 
coming of age. At a Court held for Henrico October i, 1683, he was ordered 
to give bond and security for estate belonging to orphans of Joseph 
Tanner deed, (he being at his own and the former guardian's request, ad- 
mitted their guardian) and Mr. Gilbert Piatt, the former guardian to said 
orphans is discharged. Richard Ward enters himself as surety for Joseph 
Tanner (Henrico Records, Vol. 1694-1739, p. 19). 

April 16, 1683, Mr. Joseph Tanner and Mr. Richard Womack had 
patent for 206 acres, i rood, 20 poles, n. side Appomattox River, Bristol 
Parish, Henrico Co., adjoining Maj. William Harris, Holy Ground Slash. 
Ashen Swamp, Holy Ground Run, great branch of Ashen Swamp, Richd. 
Womack's line. Due for transportation of 5 persons, viz.: Thos. Bayes, 
Richd. Perrot, David Salisbury, Thos Wliite and Hen. Boyce. 



1 



William and Mary Quarterly 91 

Joseph Tanner with Sarah Turpin* (Henrico Records, Vol. 1688-97, 

r 97) 

Henrico Court, October i, 1689, upon petition of Mr. Joseph Tannei. 
who married the executrix of Mathew Turpin, deed., it is ordered that be- 
tween this and next court the cattle & horses of ye deed, be according 
to his last will divided between ye executrix and children, (Henrico 
Records, Vol. 1678-1693, p. 314.) 

Henrico Court September 2, 1695, Ord'^ Mr. Joseph Tanner be sum- 
moned to next court to give new security for Mathew Turpin's orphans' 
estate. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1699-1739, p. 38.) 

3oXber 1698 Sam" Oulton for marriage with Sarah Tanner, widow. 
(Henrico Records 1697-1704, p. 104.) 

August I, 1699, Upon petn of Tho Branch, it is ordered that Sam" 
Oulton who married administratrix of Joseph Tanner (who was the 
relict of Mathew Turpin, deed.) be summoned to the next orph^ court to 
give sect^ for estate belonging to orph^ of afs"^ Matthew Turpin. (Hen- 
rico Records, Vol. 1694-1701, p. 232.) 

August 2, 1682, Edward Hatchert made gift to his daughter Sarah 
Hatcher, of an Indian girl named Kate. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1677-92, 
p. 222.) 

June I, 1686, Edward Hatcher made gift of a brown cow calf to Henry 
Turpin, son of said Hatcher's daughter Sarah and her husband Matthew 
Turpin. (Henrico Records, 1677-92, p. 320.) 

Court held for Henrico March i, 1700-1, •' * * * [Sarah] y« wife 
of Sam" Oulton humbly informs this court * ♦ * [that her former] 
husband Matthew Turpin did leave some estate wch * * * [is due] 



* Mathew Turpin of Henrico, will dated Jan. 15, 1688, probated April i, 
1689, eldest son Henry, all my lands and in case of death without male 
heirs to my son designed to be called Mathew; in case of death of both 
without male heirs then land to revert to Mr. Tho Osborne and his heirs ; 
cattle, horses, &c., to be equally divided between wife and children ; w^ife 
Sarah, sole executor. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1688-97, P- 41 •) 

t Hatcher: William^ Hatcher (born about 1614; died about 1678) 
of Henrico County. He came into the colony about 1635 and figured con- 
spicuously as a resident of Henrico. He was a member of the House of 
Burgesses from that county, 1644, 1645, 1646, 1649 and 1652, and again in 1659. 
Some interesting notes on him are given in Virginia Magadne of History 
and Biography, V, p. 98. He was the father of Edward- Hatcher (born 
about 1633; died about 1711) of Henrico County who (as appears by 
records quoted in the text) was the father of Sarah^ Hatcher who married 
first, Matthew Turpin; second, Joseph Tanner; third, Samuel Oulton. 



92 William and Mary Quarterly j 

\ 

unto his son Thomasf and praying that the same may * ♦ ♦ [be deli] 
vered up into the hands of her father Edward Hatcher for * * * [the 
use of the sd. orphanj. Ordered that she have Hberty untill * * * 
[next] court to show forth what ye sd estate is &c that further ♦ * * 
be taken therein." (Henrico Records, Vol. 1694-1701, p. 309.) 

On Xber [December] ist, 1698 Administration was granted 
Sarah Tanner on her deceased husband, Joseph Tanner's estate 
with Mr. Allenson Clerk and Mr. Edward Haskins, securities. 
(Henrico Records 1697- 1704, p. 144.) 

An Inventory of the Estate of Joseph Tanner, late of Henrico 
County, deceased, taken and appraised by order of Court this 
23** day of January 1698-9. 

[Total of Appraisement] £148:16:45/2. 

Appraised by virtue of an order of court made this ist day of 
Xber 1698 by wee ye subscribers 

Tho Edwards , 

Phill Turpin \. 

Thos Osborne - 

Seth Ward. 

Returned and recorded February i, 1698-9 as ''Presented by 
Sarah the relict of ye deceased Joseph Tanner and proved by her 
oath." (Henrico Records, Vol. 1 697-1 704, p. 134.) | 

Joseph^ Tanner had issue by his first wife, Ann Floyd : 1 

6. i. Joseph^ Tanner. | 

7. ii. Thomas^ Tanner.* 3 



t No son Thomas is mentioned in Mathew Turpin's will dated Jan. 
15, 1688, probated April i, 1689 (See abstract ante). The question arises: 
was Thomas a pothumous child or was he the son "designed to be called 
Matthew" as alluded to in his father's will? No research has yet been 
directed towards the settling of this question. A careful examination of 
the Henrico records would doubtless solve the problem. 

♦The proof that Joseph^ and Thomas'^ Tanner were sons by Ami 
Floyd comes in this way. Joseph- Tanner married Ann Floyd in 1682. At 
Court held for Henrico April i, 1699 Upon the pt" of Joseph Tanner one 
of the orphans of ^fr. Joseph Tanner, late of this county, deed. Capt. 
Peter Feld is appointed his guardian, Henrico Records. Vol. 1694-1701. 
p. 223.) At the same court "The pst" of Mrs. Mary Piatt concerning 
her grandson Thomas Tanner is referred untill y« next court at which 
time Mr. Sam'^ Oulton father in law [step-father, and such because he mar- 



William and Mary Quarterly 93 

Joseph^ Tanner had issue by his second wife, Sarah (Hatcher) 
Turpin : 

8. iii. Lodovvick'^ Tannerf married Frances Branch. 

9. iv. Lewis^ Tanner. 

3. Edward^ Tanner (Joseph^) of Henrico County was born 

ried the step-mother (Sarah, second wife and widow of Joseph^ Tanner) 
of Thomas Tanner] to y^ s"* orph is ordered and required to bring him 
before the court (Ibid.). At a court held for Henrico August 21, 1699, 
"Upon pet° of Mrs. Mary Piatt by y« consent of Sam^' Oulton who mar- 
ryed, the relict of Joseph Tanner, deed. It is ordered that she have 
under her care and tuission her grandson Thomas Tanner one of y« orph' 
of Joseph Tanner, aforesd, deed, she promising in Court to educate and 
maintain him at ner own cost and charge. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1677- 
J739. P- 42.) At a Court held for Henrico March i, 1700-1 Upon the pet° 
of Thomas Tanner one of the orph of Joseph Tanner, late of this county 
deed his grandfather James Forrest is admitted his guardian. (Henrico 
Records, Vol. 1694-1701, p. 301.) On 30 June 1708 Joseph Tanner, son and 
heir of Joseph Tanner, late of Henrico County, deed., made con- 
veyance to Thomas Tanner, second son of said Joseph Tanner, deed., of 
Bristol Parish, Prince George County. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1706-09, 
pp. 100, loi.) The question raised as to what was the exact degree of 
relationship existing between James Forrest and Thomas Tanner by the 
fact that Forrest is called grandfather to said Tanner when it seems a 
settled fact that Tanner's mother was Anne Floyd, is not definitely settled 
by any item in the Henrico Records, but, Forrest was in all probability 
stepfather to Ann Floyd (who appears to have been his ward, see Henrico 
Records, Vol. 1677-92, p. 228; quoted ante), and hence in reality step 
grandfather to Thomas Tanner. Of course it is not impossible (and 
one dare not say not improbable) that Forrest may have been grandfather 
(maternally) of Anne Floyd and great grandfather of Thomas Tanner, 
though the former theory seems the probable solution. At any rate the 
connection was through Thomas Tanner's mother for all of the women on 
the Tanner side whose availability to have produced such a connection 
were married to other parties than James Forrest. 

fThe proof that Lodowick Tanner was a son of Joseph- Tanner by 
Sarah (Hatcher) Turpin comes in this way. Lodowick Tanner was bom in 
1692 and was of age in Decem.ber 1713 (Henrico Records, Vol. 1710-14, p. 
265). Joseph^ Tanner and Sarah (Hatcher) Turpin were married somie- 
time between October 1688 and October 1689 and Joseph- Tanner did not 
die until the latter part of 1698. The following is also evidence "Whereas 
at a Court held at Varina for this [Henrico] Co. i Aug^^ instant 
[1706] Sarah Oulton (pursuant to former order) did appear & in open 
court promise to give sec^ for maintainannce of her son Lodoivick, etc. 
But for as much as sd Sarah nor non for her doth now appear It is thought 
fit & accds ord*^ that if said Sarah do not appear next court & give bond 



94 William and Mary Quarterly 

about 1664;* <^icd 1719. He was a juryman in August 1688 and 
August 1692 (Henrico Records, Vol. 1677-92, pp. 279, 481), and 
at the April Court 1685 he and others were presented to the Grand 
Jury by Francis Carter for fighting. (Ibid, p. 312.) In 1687 
he made an agreement with his mother, Mrs. Mary Piatt {Ibid., 

p. 446). 

Edward- Tanner married Mary, probably daughter of Henry 
and Ann (Lound) Hatcher. William Hatcher, Junior of Hen- 
rico, (son of Henry and Ann [Lound] Hatcher) in his will 
proved in Henrico County, June 1694, names brother Edward 
Tanner, uncle Edward Hatcher and brother Henry Hatcher. The 
will of Henry Lound, of Henrico County, dated July 2, 1708, 
probated November i, 1708, names granddaughter Mary Tanner. 

The will of Edward^ Tanner, of Henrico County, dated 
August 13, 1 719, was probated November 2, 1719, son Edward 
Tanner, plantation he now lives on and one feather bed, one cow, 
one steer ; son John Tanner, plantation he lives on and one feather 
bed and furniture; wife [name not given], plantation I now live 
on during her life and after her death to my son Joseph Tanner; 
son Joseph Tanner, plantation I now live on after my wife's 
decease, and one gun called Bockam, and one feather bed and 
furniture; grandson Edward Tanner all my land between Flin- 
ton's Slash and head line it being on south side of the slatch; 
daughter Ann * * * ^ q^^ feather bed and furniture and sole 
[leather?] trunk, one cow and heifer known by the name of her 
cows and all that she hath in her trunk ; daughter Martha Tanner, 
one feather bed and furniture, one new black leather trunk to 
her at age of 21 years or marriage; daughter Mary Tanner, bed 
and furniture, trundle bed, black leather trunk at age of 21 years 
or marriage ; daughter Elizabeth Tanner, one feather bed and fur- 
niture, black leather trunk, at age of 21 years or marriage; wife 
[name not given], my Indian slave during wife's life, then to my 



& secy for maintaining & educating of her sd son Lodowick that then the 
Shff. deliver him unto Mr. Alexander Marshall who hath lately married 
Mrs. Elizabeth Ligon by whose care & charge the sd Lodowick hatli been 
formerly maintained." This order was entered at a court held for Hen- 
rice County August 20, 1706. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1694-1739, p. 48.) 
Lewis Tanner is mentioned as brother in the will of Lodowick Tanner. 

* Deposition in Henrico County Records, Vol. 168S-97. p. 535, dated 
August 24, 1694, gives ^ Iward Tanner aged about 30 years. 



William and Mary Quarterly 95 

son Edward; wife, executrix. Witnesses : Thorn Knibb, William 
Cheatham, William Ligon.* 

No systematic attempt has been made to trace out the de- 
scendants of Edward^ Tanner and the following notes gathered 
at random are offered in the hope that some one may at a later 
day feel inclined to follow the clues : 

At Henrico Court August 1723 a petition was presented by Mary 
Tanner, executrix of the will of Edward Tanner, deceased setting forth 
that she had paid Edward Stewart (who married Martha one of the 
daughters of the said Edward Tanner) the legacy given said Martha by 
said Tanner's will and that said Stewart refusing to give a discharge for 
same ; Stewart appeared and said he had not received his wife's full legacy, 
whereupon court having considered allegations of parties and the deposi- 
tions of evidence sworn are of opinion that said Stewart hath received the 
whole legacy given his wife aforesaid. (Henrico Records 1719-24, p. 282.) 

On October 8, 1745, Mary Tanner and Joseph Tanner of Goochland 
County convey to Henry Hatcher, of Henrico County, for £25 currency, 
160 acres on south side James River in Henrico County, adjoining Thomas 
Nibb [Knibb], Peter Ashbrook, Jr, and William Baugh, being plantation 
whereon Edward Stewart now lives. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1744-8, p. 

453-) t 

The will of Edward Tanner, of Raleigh Parish, Amelia County, dated 
December 12, 1769, was probated in Amelia July 26, 1770, to wife [name 
not given], feather bed and furniture, my Black horse, and side saddle 
and bridle and use of plantation during her life or widowhood ; daughter 
Elizabeth Coleman, i shilling sterling and all other necessaries which she 
hath in her possession ; daughter Jane Coleman, the same ; son Robert 
Tanner, the same; daughter Ann Clay, the same; son Field Tanner, all 
my land from his brother Robert's line to the Back line containing 170 
acres including the plantation ; the 208 acres which I own in Mecklenburg 
County to be sold and money to be equally divided between Jeremiah 
Tanner and Edward Tanner; residue to be sold at 12 months credit and 
money equally divided (after payment of debts) between Jeremiah 
Tanner, Edward Tanner, Field Tanner, Milley Tanner and Martha Tanner : 
executors, son Jeremiah Tanner and Robert Tanner. Witnesses, Joseph 
Coleman, John Coleman, Francis Coleman. (Amelia Records, Will Book 
2x, p. Z2z). 



* This will of Edward Tanner is preserved in Henrico County Court in 
its original form among the "original papers." The volume containing the 
recorded copy thereof was destroyed many years ago. 

t From an index to wills in Albemarle County it appears that the will 
of Mary Tanner was probated there in 1760. 

(To be continued.) > 



96 William and Mary Quarterly 



JOHN DOWNING, OF FAIRFIELDS, NORTHUMBER- 
LAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA, AND HIS 
DESCENDANTS 

. By Mrs. O. A. Keach, Wichita, Kansas 

(Continued from page 51) 

II. Samuel^ Downing (William,'^ Samuel," JoJin,^ VVilliain'^), 
born July 2, 1728, died circa 1751. He was known until his death 
as Samuel Downing, Junior, to distinguish him from his uncle, 
Samuel* Downing. On December 9, 1746, SamueF' Downing, Jr., 
and his brother William^ Downing were allotted their part of their 
deceased father's, W^illiam* Downing's estate. The estate of 
William* Downing was left in the hands of Mr. William Fallin. 
June 2, 1749, Mr. Samuel Nelms, guardian to Samuel'' Downing, 
Jr., and William^ Downing, divided the slaves of their father, Mr. 
W^illiam* Downing, deceased, between them stating that those be- 
longing to William,^ who was still a minor, were in the hands of 
Mrs. Nelms (probably his aunt). 

SamueP Downing, Jr., was of age in 1749. He married Wini- 
fred Dameron, daughter of Mr. Thomas Dameron and his second 
wife, Winifred Conway. 

SamueP Downing died intestate and the court ordered an ap- 
praisement of his estate March 11, 1751. Winifred (Dameron) 
Downing, administratrix of the estate of SamueP Downing, Jr., 
returned an inventory of this estate, April 8, 1751. 



♦William^ Downing (No. 14 of this pedigree) their uncle, was ap»- 
pointed guardian of William^ and Ann,*^ children of Samuel^ Downing, 
deceased, by the court. 

Winifred, widow of Samuel^ Downing. Jr., married second. Captain 
John Williams, and John Williams was, en December 10, 1753, appointed 
guardian to his step-children, William^ and Anne'^ Downing. Captain 
John and W'inifred (Dameron-Dow^ning) Williams had a daughter, Patt>', 
mentioned in a later record. 



^^^ c 



William and Mary Quarterly 97 



Samuel^ and Winifred (Dameron) Downing, had isuse : 

i. William^ Downing. He was still under age August 11, 

1776, when his uncle, Captain William"' Downing, was his guardian. 
His step-father, Captain John Williams, had died many years before 
this time, and probably also his mother, Mrs Winifred (Dameron- 
Downing) Williams. 

Some time before October 13, 1784, William,^ nephew of 
Captain WilHam,'^ went to Accomac County, for on that date, de- 
scribing himself as William Downing of Accomac County, Va., he 
and his wife, Ann, made a deed to Sarah and Hannah Downing, 
daughters and co-heirs of Captain WiUiam Downing, late of North- 
umberland County, deceased, for 209 acres of land in St. Stephen's 
parish, which was devised by the last will of Samuel Downing, 
deceased, to his eldest son, William, and after the death of the 
said William, descended to his eldest son, Samuel Downing, and 
after the death of the said Samuel, to his eldest son and heir-at-law, 
William Downing, first party to these presents. This deed clearly 
traces the Hne of descent as follows: William,*^ of Accomac County; 
Samuel,^ Jr.; WilHam,* Samuel,^ John, 2 William.^ There is no 
further record of this W^illiam^ Downing in Northumberland County. 

ii. Anne^ Downing, daughter of Samuel^ and Winifred [Dam- 
eron] Downing) married Thomas Shearman, of the well known 
family of that name. 

1766, November 10. The Court ordered the division of the 
estate of Samuel Downing, and Thomas Shearman to be possessed 
with his part in right of his wife. December 10, 1770. Thomas 
Shearman was appointed guardian to Patty Williams, orphan of 
Capt. John and Winifred Williams. Martin Shearman, Jr., was his 
security. 

May 8, 1786. Mary and Raleigh Tapscott, executors of Henry 
Tapscott, deceased, brought suit against Anne Shearman, the execu- 
tor of Thomas Shearman. 

The children of Thomas and Anne^ (Downing) Shearman, were: 

i. Thomas^ Shearman, married July 2, 1792, Hannah Rogers 

ii. Samuel" Shearman 

iii. W^inifred" Shearman, married October 17, 1795, Kemp Hurst. » 

iv. Alice Chinn'' Shearman, married September 14, 1795, Robert 
J. Dameron, her cousin. 

12. William^ Downing, Senior (IVilliam,* Samuel,^ John,- 
William^), the second son of William* and Winifred (Nelms) 
Downing, mentioned in his father's will 1741, was probably born 



98 William and Mary Quarterly 



about 1730. He married Sarah Cockrill, and died in 1783. He 
was guardian to William^ and Ann/^ the orphans of his brother, 
Samuel' Downing in 1751 and until 1753, when the widow of 
Sjamuel^ married Captain John Williams. 

The will of EHzabeth Nelms, dated December 21, 1760, proved 
March 9, 1761, named her son, Samuel Nelms, her daughter, 
Elizabeth, Jr., and her grandson, William-^ Downing (Sr.) and 
appointed him one of her executors. 

The will of SamuelNelms (son of Mrs. Elizabeth Nelms, Sr.), 
proved February 9, 1761, named wife, Elizabeth, and devised to 
his nephew, William Downing (Sr.) 500 acres of land in Fau- 
quier County. He also named him as one of the executors. 

1766, August II. Mr. William"^ Downing's account against 
(his nephew) Wm.^ Downing, Jr., and Anne*"' Downing's estate, 
and on December 26 of this year, a settlement was made between 
W^illiam Downing, former guardian to William Downing and 
Anne Downing (who married Thomas Shearman) and present 
guardian to William® Downing, orphan of Samuel' Downing, 
deceased. 

The will of Thomas Cockrill, dated January 9, 1768, named his 
daughter, Sarah Downing, and her husband, William Downing. 

Mr. Wm. Downing, Sr., was commissioned Captain of militia 
on 'April 9, 1770. j 

1 77 1, March 12. Ann Cotrell, guardian of Ann Cotrell, pos- '' 

sessed with her estate in the hands of Captain William Downing. 

There are frequent references in the records to Captain Wil- 
liam^ Downing as a militia officer during the Revolution. April C 
15, 1783. Elisha Harcum was recommended for captain of miHtia ^ 
whereof William Downing, Gent., deceased, w^as captain. An 
inventiory of the estate of William^ Downing was made November ^ 
10, 1783. I 

On October 13, 1784 (as before mentioned), William*^ Down- 2 

ing of Accomac County, made a deed to Sarah and Hannah Down- 
ing, daughters to William^ Downing, late of Northumberland 
County, Gent., for 209 acres of land in St. Stephen's parish. 

June 9, 1788, there was a settlement of the estate of (Captain) 
William^ Downing: and Sarah Downing, Geo. Blackwell and 
John Cotrell, Gents, to be possessed with their parts of same. 



William and Mary Quarterly 99 

The will of Sarah Downing, dated June 25, 1792, proved 
July 9, 1792, names her daughter, Hannah Downing. 

Captain William^ Downing died intestate. He seems to have 
had.no sons. 

The daughters of William^ and Sarah (Cockrill) Downing 
were : 

i. Elizabeth'^ Downing, born November 6, 1771,* married John 
Cottrell. 

ii. Sarah^ Downing, born June 2, 177 — , married George Black- 
well. 

iii- Hannah^ Downing. She is mentioned in deed from William'^ 
Downing of Accomac County. May 30,t 1805, Richard. M. Ball and 
Hannah, his wife convey by deed to John Hull land ... being 
the land whereon the late Captain William^ Downing, father of the 
said Hannah, resided. 

13. Thomas^ Downing (Samuel/ Samuel,^ John,- William'^) 
son of Samuel"* and Elizabeth (Dameron) Downing, was born May 
23, 1744, and married Sarah Ann Rogers, daughter of Edward 
Rogers, before 1764. He died November 14, 1799. 

July 4, 1777. Thomas Downing, gent., and his company of 
militia. Sept. 8. Bridgar Haynie is second Lieut, in Captain 
Thomas Downing's company. 

March 14, 1785. Lease for life from Thomas Downing, gent., 
and Sarah his wife, to (his sister) Betty Downing. 

February 8, 1796. Deed from Thomas Downing and Thomas 
Dameron Downing and Betsy, his wife, to John Heath. The 
land deeded was part of the original patent first granted to John 
Hughlett and Captain John Haynie. It descended from Thomas 
Hughlett to his grandchildren Thomas and Elizabeth Dameron 
(will d^ted November 7, 1724, proved February 18, 1729) and 
from Thomas Downing through his mother, by deed of indenture 
dated April 16, 1771. 

Captain Thomas Downing was sherift for several years. On 
January 9, 1797, Thomas Dameron, his cousin, was sworn his 
deputy. 



* The names and dates of births of Elizabeth and Sarah Downing are 
from the Register of St. Stephen's Parish, Northumberland County. 



loo William and Mary Quarterly 

The will of Captain Thomas^ Downing was dated August 27. 
1799, and proved December 9, 1799. Captain Downing left a hr^c 
part of his estate to his son, Thomas Dameron Downing. To his 
son, Edward Downing, his homestead on Wicomico river and 
"all the land I have against Presly Thornton to stand as bar 
against a bond of my father's for land sold to old Col. Presly 
which I now have in my possession which is called 'The Folly.' " 
To his son Samuel ; to sister Betty Downing. Daughters, Cath- 
erine Blackwell, Elizabeth Cox and Sarah Downing. Executors 
sons, Thomas, Edward and Samuel 

Captain Thomas'^ and Sarah Ann (Rogers) Downing, had 
issue^ 

18. i. Thomas Dameron^ Downing married Betty Cox. 

19. ii. Edward^ Downing married Hannah Ball. 

20. ill. Samuel^ Downing married Mary Edwards. 

iv. Katherine® Downing married Captain William Blackwell. 

V. Elizabeth^ Downing married Cox 

vi. Sallie^ Downing married Cundiff. 

14. John^ Downing (Samuel,'^ Samuel,^ John,- William^), 
was born May i, 1755, the son of Samuel* and Elizabeth (Dam- 
eron) Do waning. He married Elizabeth Nutt. 

I 1795, January, John Downing and Betsy, his wife, deed for 
land in Wicomico parish, which descended to said Downing in 
right of his wife, Elizabeth (daughter of Colonel Wm. Nutt). 
1799, January 14. John Downing and Betty Downing (sister of 
John) deed of gift to Wm. Downing for negro woman, a part 
of their mother's dower. 1804, June 11. Deed for land from 
John Downing, Sr., to son John Downing, Jr. 1807, May 2. 
John Downing, Sr., deed, to Wm. Downing, trustee of William 
H. Downing, Betty N(utt) Downing, son and daughter of said 
William and grandchildren of aforesaid John Downing, Sr. 

To John Downing, Jr., son of aforesaid John Downing, Sr., 
for all right and title which he hath in and to the estate of Colonel 
Wm. Nutt, deed., in consequence of the marriage of the said 
John Downing, Sr. With the daughter of Col. Nutt. 

1809, Aug. 14. Deed of trust from ToHn Downing, Jr., and 
Alice L., his wife, to W. B. Nelms. 



William and Mary Quarterly - loi 

John^ Downing and Elizabeth Nutt had issue: 

i. William^ Downing. 
ii. John^ Downing. 

15. Charles-^ Downing (John,* John,^ John,- William^), son 
of John* and Kannah (Fallin) Downing was born July 4, 1738. 

1789, February 6. William Wildy, Jr., of Northumberland 
County, deed to Charles Downing, planter, for 90 acres in St. 
Stephen's parish, part of 50 acres sold by Charles Downing, de- 
ceased, to Motley Wildy, deed bearing date October 6, 1739. 
1800, April 12, Charles Downing and W^inifred, his wife. 1805, 
February 4. Division of estate of Chas. Downing, deceased : 

To John Downing, 150 acres; To Hannah Sherman 165 acres; 

To Nancy Downing 125 acres; To John B. Kenner 160 acres; 

To Edward Downing 155 acres. 

1805, February 6. Edward Downing deed to John Downing 
of Louisa County, for 150 acres of land in Northum.berland 
County and also his share of land of Charles Downing. (John 
Downing of Louisa County then was evidently son of John, whose 
inventory was returned to court 1793.) 

1805, June 24. Hannah Sherman of Northumberland deed 
for negro girl to her niece Elizabeth Kenner, daughter of John 
B. Kenner and Sarah, his wife, who was Sarah Downing, sister 
to Hannah (Dow^ning) Sherman. Witness: John Downing and 
Thomas Sherman. 

16. Edward'^ Downing (John,* John,^ John,- William'^), son 
of John* and Hannah (Fallin) Downing, was born April 22, 1750. 

1789, September 14. William Hayes deed for land to Edward 
Downing of St. Stephen's parish. 1795, June 8. Deed from 
Edward Downing to John Downing. 1804, June 10. John 
Downing, of Louisa County, deed to John Hull and W'illiam 
Lampkin for 400 acres which said John Downing bought of 
Edward Downing. 1805, February 4, Division of the estate of 
Charles Downing, deceased: to Edward Downing, 155 acres. 
On February 6, Edward Downing made a deed to John Downing, 
of Louisa County, for this 155 acres, his share of Charles Down- 
ing's estate. 1810, October 8, deed from Edward Downing to his 



102 William and Mary Quarterly 

children, Sally M., Betsy E., Hannah and Thomas Downinjr 
1815, March 25. Deed from Edward Downing and Elizabeth, hi^ 
wife. 1818, March 10.. Deed from Edward Downing to Bel- 
shazzar Downing and Sally Downing for all his property. 
The children of Edward^ Downing were : 

i. Sally M.^ Downing. 
ii. Betsy E.^, Downing. 
iii. Hannah^ Downing, 
iv. Thomas^ Downing. 

V. Belshazzar'5 Downing. (Some of these may have been chil- 
dren of Edward^ Downing, Jr., No. 21, of this pedigree.) 

17. John^ Downing {John,^ John,^ John,- IVilliam^) of 
Louisa County, Virginia, was probably the youngest son of 
John"^ and Hannah (Fallin) Downing. 

1782, July 8, John Downing, Sr., of Northumberland County, 
deed of gift of negroes to his son, John Downing, Jr. 

John Downing, Jr., was probably the youngest son of John 
and Hannah Downing, and served in the Revolutionary war. He 
moved to Louisa County as several records at Heathsville, North- 
umberland County show. 

1801, August 17. John Downing of Louisa County, Virginia, 
deed to Jesse Alexander of Northumberland County for a certain 
tract of land granted by the Commonwealth of Kentucky, to said 
John Downing by virtue of military land warrants by him pro- 
duced . . . (said tract) in district set apart for officers and 
soldiers of the Continental line. 

1804, June 10. John Downing of Louisa County deed to John 
Hull and William Lampkin for 400 acres of land which said 
Downing bought of Edward Downing, etc. 

1814, November 22, Deed from John Dow^ning, Sr., of Louisa 
County, Virginia, to Hannah Sherman for life, for 152 acres of 
land in St. Stephen's parish which said John Downing, Sr., in- 
herited from his brother, Charles Downing, deceased, and the 
same whereon his sister Nancy Downing, deed., lately lived. 

18. Thomas Dameron® Downmg (Thomas,^ Samuel,* Sam- 
uel,^ John,^ William^) y son of Thomas'^ and Sarah Ann (Rogers) 



William and Mary Quarterly 103 

Downing, was born about 1765, died 181 6. He married Betsy 
Cox. 

On October 10, 1785, Thomas D.*^ Downing ensign in the 
militia. June 11, 1786, Thomas Dameron (his cousin) ensign 
in the company of George Ingram-. September 13, 1791, Thomas 
Dameron® Downing recommended for captain of militia in room 
of George Ball, deceased. August 12, 1794, Thomas Dameron*^ 
Downing commissioned captain of a company in the 37th Regi- 
ment of Virginia Militia. June 24, 1796, he was sworn a justice 
of the peace, an office he held for years. November 11, 1805, he 
was sworn as sherift. September 8, 1806, he took the oath as 
Commissioner for the County. December 14, 181 3, Thomas Dam- 
eron^ Downing was lieutenant colonel of the 37th Regiment, 
Virginia Militia. 

Thomas Dameron® Downing was evidently a strong advocate 
of "military preparedness." For more than thirty years he was 
an officer in the militia and several of his sons were enlisted in his 
regiment. On October 10, 1808, his son Thomas Fleet^ Downing 
presented a list of the names of fifty persons associated for the 
purpose of forming a company of Light Infantry to be attached to 
the 37th Regiment, and the said Thomas F." Downing was recom- 
mended for the captaincy of the company. August 14, 1809, 
Thomas Fleet^ Downing was promoted to command of a company 
of Light Infantry in 2nd Battalion, 37th Regiment. On August 
14, 1809, William Root was recommended for captain in place 
of Thomas F. Downing, deceased. On March 14, 1814, George"^ 
Downing (another son of Thomas Dameron® Downing) is men- 
tioned as lieutenant of Light Infantry. Septimus (another son 
of Thomas Dameron® Downing) was also an officer in the militia 
in 1818 and 1819. The Northumberland County Records show- 
that Colonel Thomas Dameron® Downing and his three sons, 
Thomas Fleet," George' and Septimus^ were all enrolled for the 
defense of the country at a critical time in its history. 

In November, 1798 (as is evidenced by deeds on record), 
Thomas Dameron® Downing, together with Thomas Gaskins, 
Walter Jones, John Heath, Catesby Jones, John Cralle and 
Thomas W. Hughlett, were trustees of the town of Heathsville in 
Northumberland County. 



5» 

104 William and Mary Quarterly | 

April 3, 1804, John Heath of the city of Richmond conveyed 
to Thomas Downing, 649 acres of land. May 15, 1805, Thomas 
D.^ Downing and Betsy, his wife, confirm to his aunt, Bettie' 
Downing a hfe interest in land deeded to her by Captain Thomas 
Downing. 

The will of Thomas Dameron® Downing, a lengthy document, 
disposed of much property. This document bears date March 29, 
1816, and was probated July 18, 1816, names wife, Betsy, sons, 
George, Richard and Septimus ; daugters, Sarah, Betsy and Mary 
Downing ; brother Edward Downing. Executors : wife Betsy, 
brother Samuel Downing and the testator's sons George and 
Septimus. 

Thomas Dameron^ Downing and Betsy Cox, his wife, had 
issue : 

i. George^ Downing, who on May 8, 1815, was recommended 
for captaincy in the Light Infantry, In March, 1814, he had been a ' 
lieutenant in the same branch of the service. 
ii. Richard'^ Downing. 

iii. Septimus^ Downing, who on March 10, 1818. was recom- 
mended for office of ensign in a company of riflemen attached to the 
37th Virginia Regiment. On April 12, 1819, he qualified as Heu- 
tenant of riflemen. 

iv. Thomas Fleet' Downing, born March 30, 1789, died 1809. 
Held various offices in the militia (see above). 

V. John Calvin" Downing, born August 23, 1793. 
vi. Betsy'^ Downing, 
vii. Mary7 Downing. 

viii. Sarah" Downing, married first, Henry Cundiff; second 
Elin Paterson; third, Thomas Sydnor. 

Sarah^ Downing and her first husband, Henry Cundiff, had 
issue : 

i. Henry Fleet^ Cundiff, born October 26, 1822, died November 
4, 1880. He was a minister in the Baptist Church. He married,, 
January 31, 1841, his cousin, Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Isaac 
and Mary Ann (Dameron) Brent, and had issue: (a) Thom^s^ 
Cundiff, d. unm. ; (b) William Pinckney'-^ Cundiff, born April 3, 
" 1845; died July 15, 1890; (c) Ogle Brenf* Cundiff, born November 
8, 1846; died April 23, 1908; (d) Mary Elizabeth^ Cundiff, born 
December 2, 1850, married, March 13, 1878. Thomas Gaskins, issue: 
(i) Thomas Fleet^^ Gaskins; (ii) Rayphael^o Gaskins, (e) Sarah 
Downing^ Cundiff', born April li, 1853; married June 1881, A. R. 
Morrison. (These dates were furnished by Mrs. Thomas Gaskins.) 



William and Mary Quarterly 105 

Sarah^ (Downing) and her third husband, Thomas Sydnor, 
iiad issue: 

ii. * Sydnor; iii. Eudora^ Sydnor ;-uir Richard Beard- 



man^ Sydnor 

.^ 

19. Edward^" Downing {Thomas,^ Samuel,^ Samuel,^ John,^ 
William'^), the second son of Thomas-^ and Sarah Ann (Rogers) 
Downing, was mentioned in 1796, July 12, as the late deputy 
sheriff, with Thomas Downing, bondsman. December 13, 1802, 
he, and Hannah, his wife, made a deed for land to Presly Cockrell. 
The following abstract identifies his wife : May 15, 1802, a record 
states that George Ball married Molly Webb, administratrix of 
John S. Webb. Said Ball left two daughters, Hannah Downing 
and Lucy Blackwell. Edward Downing married daughter of said 
Ball. December 27, 1809, Edward Downing and Hannah, his 
wife, of St. Stephen's parish, deed for land which Captain Thomas 
Downing, by his last will, gave to (his sister) Elizabeth Downing, 
during her life, and then to his son, Edward Downing, forever. 

Issue of Edward and Hannah (Ball) Downing: Maria, 
Hannah, Betsy and Jane. 

Note. 1810, October 8. Deed from Edward Downing to children, 
Sally M., Betsy E., Hannah and Thomas Downing. 

1818, March 10. Deed from Edward Downing to Belshazzar and Sally 
Downing for all his property. These may have been the children of 
Edward^ Downing, Sr., No. 18 of this pedigree. 

20. Samuel® Downing {Thomas,^ Samuel,^ Samuel,^ John,^ 
William^), third son of Thomas^ and Sarah Ann (Rogers) 
Downing, was born January i, 1778; died March 12, 1839. He 
married, January 16, 1800, Mary (died November 27, 1838), 
daughter of Robert Edwards, Sr., whose will dated November 10, 
1802, probated December 13, 1802, names sons-in-law William 
Eskridge and Samuel Downing, daughters, Elizabeth, Sarah, Ann 
Eskridge and Mary Downing. 

August II, 1804, Samuel® Downing qualified as a justice of the 
I peace; December 12, 1814, he was recommended for major of 
2nd Battalion, 37th Regiment of Virginia Militia and on ]May 13, 
181 5, qualified for that office. On May 10, 181 8, he qualified as 
lieutenant colonel of militia. 



io6 



William and Mary Quarterly 



On April 8, 1805, Samuel Downing and Mary, his wife, gave 
deed to land which was given to the said Samuel by his father, 
Thomas Downing. 

Samuel^ Downing and Mary Edward, his wife, had issue : 

i. Sarah Ann'" Downing. 

ii. Mary^ Downing. 

iii. and iv. Thomas'^ and Robert^ Downing, twins. 

V. Samuel' Downing. 

vi. Elizabeth^ Downing. 

vil. Frederick Beverley^ Downing. 

viii. Joseph''' Downing married Carolina Blackwell. and had 
issue: (a) Samuel Blackwell^ Downing, born February 19, 1844; 
(b) Joseph Ferdinand^ Downing; (c) Julian Eugene'^ Downing; 
(d) Sallie Ann^ Downing. These dates are given by Mrs. WilHam 
H. Blackwell, who was Elizabeth,^ daughter of Samuel Blackwell' 
Downing.) 

It is the aim of the writer of these Northumberland County 
notes to preserve the records in available form with the hope that 
they may serve as a foundation for more extended family his- 
tories. Corrections and additions wnll be welcome. 



William and Mary Quarterly 107 

THOMAS AND WILLIAM BRANCH OF HENRICO 
AND SOME OF THEIR DESCENDANTS 

By William ClaytOxN Torrence 

(Continued from Volume XXV, page 70) * 

A communication from Doctor Thomas Hart Raines, of 105 Jones 
Street, Savannah, Georgia, makes the following valuable additions to the 
Branch-Mitchell descent. On page 66, volume XXV, of the Quarterly, 
the statement is made that "Tabitha Branch (daughter of Thomas and 

Elizabeth Archer Branch) married Mitchell." Doctor Raines 

writes as follows : 

Henry Mitchell, of Sussex County, Virginia, married Tabitha Branch 
prior to 1727. Her death is recorded in the Register of Albemarle Parish 
(Surry, later Sussex County) as occurring 14 January, 1752. ' Henry 

Mitchell then married his second wife. Sarah , who survived him. 

He died 27 March, 1754; his will dated 2 March, 1754, was proved 8 
April, 1754, in Surry County. 

Henry Mitchell and his first wife, Tabitha Branch, had issue : 

i. Henry Mitchell, of Albemarle Parish, Sussex Co., estate 

administered 1771. He married Priscilla . 

ii. Nathaniel Mitchell, of iMbemarle Parish, Sussex Co.. estate 

administered 16 May, 1771. He married Elizabeth . 

iii. Thomas Mitchell, of Albemarle Parish, Sussex Co., will 
dated 20 October, 1761, proved 18 March, 1762. He married Amy. 
daughter of John Goodwynne, of Sussex Co., by his wife Winifred, 

daughter of Tucker. Thomas and Amy (Goodwynne) 

Mitchell had issue*: (a) John Mitchell; (b) General Henry Mitchell. 
of Hancock Co., Georgia, married Frances Hobbs ; (c) Thomas 
Mitchell, of Thomas Co., Georgia, married Ann, daughter of Cap- 
tain Nathaniel Raines, of Prince George Co., Virginia; (d) Tabitha 
Mitchell; (e) Winifred Mitchell. 

7. John^ Branch (IVilliam,' Christopher'^), of Henrico 
Count>% Virginia. The date of John- Branch's will is stated to 



* Owing to an unavoidable delay in getting certain data, which are 
necessary to completing the lines descending through Matthew^ and James^ 
Branch (sons of Thomas^ Branch), who arc numbers 5 and 6 of this 
pedigree, it is thought best to carry out the lines descending through 
John^ Branch (son of William- Branch) and complete what may be said 
of his descendants in this number of the Quarterly, leaving the male lines 
for the January, 1917, issue of the Quarterly. 



1 



io8 William and Mary Quarterly 

have been January 17, 1687 [1687/8] ,t though a careful search in 
the remaining records of Henrico has failed to reveal either the 
original, or a recorded copy, of this document. "Upon the peticon 
of Martha y® relict of Exec'^ of John Branch deed, order for 
Probate of y^ last will & testament of y'^ decedt is granted unto her 
the same being this day proved in Court p> y^ oaths of y^ three 
witnesses subscribed." Henrico Court, April 16, 1888. (Henrico 
Records, Vol. 1678-93, p. 266.) 

John-^ Branch married Martha (whose surname is unknown) 
(See Note i.) Mrs. Martha Branch married, second, Thomas 
Osborne, of Henrico County; third (October, 1692), Thomas 
Edwards. 

John-^ Branch and Martha, his wife, had issue: 

i. Obedience-* Branch, born ; died 1746; married first, 

1696, John Cocke, of Henrico County; second, Alexander Trent, 
of Henrico; third, Thomas Turpin, of Henrico. 

ii. Priscilla* Branch born ; died post 1750; married. 

first, 1699, Edward Skerme, of Henrico; second, 1701, Joseph Wilkin- 
son, of Henrico. 

Obedience* Branch (John,^ William,- Christopher'^) born 

; died 1746; married first (November, 1696), John 

Cocke, of Henrico;* second, Alexander Trent, of Henrico ;t 
third, Thomas Turpin, of Henrico. $ 



t Henrico Records, Vol. 1714-18, p. 75. This statement is made in a 
deed from Thomas Turpin and Obedience, his wife, (a daughter of John 
Branch) to James Branch, dated April 2, 1716. 

* Henrico Records, Vol. 1688-07, p. 710. See also a deed, dated Decem- 
ber I, 1696, from Jane Gcwer, of Henrico County, to John Cocke, Junior, 
(son of Richard Cocke, Senior) of the parish and county of Henrico, who 
had married Obedience, eldest daughter of John Branch, late of Kings 
[Kingsland?] in Henrico County, son of the said Jane Cower. Henrico 
Records, Vol, 1688-97, p. 670. 

tThe proof that Obedience Branch married Alexander Trent, is 
derived from the fact the Mrs. Obedience (Branch) Cocke-Trent-Turpin 
in her will recorded in Goochland County June 17, 1746, mentions her 
son Alexander Trent. This fact taken in connection with the will of 
Alexander Trent, probated in Henrico 1703 (quoted above) furnishes the 
evidence of this marriage. 

$The proof that Obedience (Branch) Cocke-Trent, married {third) 
Thomas Turpin is derived from several deeds recorded in Henrico Court, 
notably one in Vol. 1714-18, p. 75, and one in V^ol. 1725-37, Part H, p. 655; 
See also Quarterly, XXV, p. 69. 



William and Mary Quarterly 109 

October 2, 1699. Obedience Cocke relict of John Cocke late of this 
[Henrico] County, deed, granted administration on her deceased husband's 
estate. Mr. Richard Cocke, Senior, surety (Henrico Records, Vol. 1694- 
1701, p. 237). 

August 2, 1703, was probated the will of Alexander Trent of Henrico. 
The will devised to son Alexander Trent, all my lands, but if he should 
die before of age my wife to are [heir] and enjoy all my lands forever; 
son Alexander Trent, personalty, and all the legacies to be delivered to 
him when he is 21 years of age; all other goods, chatties, etc., bequeathed 
to wife Obedience Trent, towards bringing up my son ; said Obedience 
Trent named as executrix (Henrico Records, Vol. 1697-1704, p. 342). 

May 4, 1724, Obedience Turpin (with Thomas Randolph and Henry 
Randolph, sureties) gave bond in the sum of £500 sterling as executrix of 
the will of Thomas Turpin, deceased, of Henrico County. (This bond is 
preserved among the original papers in Henrico Court. The will seems to 
have entirely disappeared.) 

The will of Mrs. Obedience* (Branch) Cocke-Trent-Turpin, 
dated January 6, 1745/6, was probated in Goochland County, 
June 17, 1746. 

The will of Obedience X Turpin, of Goochland County, dated January 
6, 1745/6, probated June 17, 1746, son John Cocke i negro boy and i 
farthing ; daughter Martha Friend, 5 shillings ; grandson William Moseley, 
negro boy Pompey to be delivered next Christmas; grandson Benjamin 
Moseley, at age of 18 years, i negro Frank; grandson Alexander Trent, 
I negro boy Dilcey; son Alexander Trent, 5 shillings, daughter Obedience 
Branch, 5 shillings; granddaughter Mary Goode, i negro Matt ;o daughter 
Obedience Turpin, 3 negros, Amy, Lucy, Harry, feather bed, etc. ; son 
Thomas Turpin, 3 negros Pompey, Simion, and Hannah; daughter Mary 
Goode, 5 shillings ; residue of estate to son Thomas Turpin and he 
executor. 

Obedience* Branch and her first husband, John Cocke, had 
issue : 

i. John^ Cocke, of Henrico and Albemarle Counties who died 
in 1759* 



1 



♦John Cocke of Henrico County, planter, will dated June 12, 1753, 
probated in Albemarle Co. August 9, 1759 (Will Book 2, p. 52), to brother 
Thomas Turpin, 400 acres in Cumberland County on branches of Muddy 
Creek, where my plantation now is and nine negros towit : Charles, Toby, 
Will, Farthing, Nan, Patt, Sarah, little Pat and Little Salley; nephew 
William Moseley, 560 acres in Albemarle Co, on branches of Vv'illis 
Creek, being land and plantation I now live on and occupy ; also 8 negros. 



1 



no William and Mary Quarterly 

ii. Obedience^ Cocke married Benjamin Branch, (See Note 2.) 
iii. Martha^ Cocke married first, Arthur Moseley, Junior, of 

Henrico County; second, Edward Friend of Henrico County. (See 

Note 3.) 

Obedience'* (Branch) Cocke and her second husband, Alex- 
ander Trent, had issue : 

iv. Alexander^ Trent, who lived in Cumberland County, Vir- 
ginia. The will of Alexander Trent of Southam Parish, Cumber- 
land County, dated December 9, 1750, probated July 22, 175 1, men- 
tions sons Peterfield Trent and Alexander Trent; daughter Eliza- 
beth Trent, wife Frances Trent. (Cumberland County records.) 

Obedience* (Branch) Cocke-Trent, and her third husband, 
Thomas Turpin, had issue : 

V. Thomas^ Turpin (born May 9, 1708, died June 20, 1790), 
of Goochland, later Cumberland and, still later, Powhatan County; 
magistrate in Goochland 1735 and sheriff of that county 1741-43 ; 
magistrate in Cumberland 1749 and lieutenant-colonel of Cumber- 
land militia August 31, 1754; will dated March 11, 1789, recorded 
September 16, 1790, in Powhatan County. He married Mary Jef- 
ferson, daughter of Thomas and Mary (Field) Jefferson, and a 
descendant of Christopher^ Branch, the first of his name in Virginia. 



viz.: Ben, York, Rubin. Cesar, Bridgett and young Bridgett, Beck and 
Iris. Stocks of horses, cattle, hogs on Willis Creek plantation to said 
William Moseley, also 2 feather beds and furniture, my desk, chest and 
chest of drawers. Brother Thomas Turpin, all stock, cattle, etc., on planta- 
tion at Muddy Creek. Niece Mary Goode, negro Sukey. Sister Mary 
Goode and her husband Robert Goode, seven negroes, viz. : Pompey, Tom, 
Harry, Moll, Betty, Fanny, Marca and if said sister die before her hus- 
band then said slaves to their children, viz. : Robert, Francis and Mary, 
on equal division at death of their father. Niece Obedience Bass. £50 
currency. Nieces Prudence Branch, Mary Branch and Elizabeth Trent. 
i50 currency each. Thomas Turpin, Robert Goode and William Moseley, 
respectively each of them to pay 1/3 of the £200 bequeathed to my four 
nieces, out of and in consideration of legacies given to them. Residue 
of estate to be equally divided between my brother Thomas Turpin and 
Robert Goode and they are appointed executors. Witness: Theodorick 
Carter, John Hales, Joseph Carter. ' -^ 

November 7, 1760. Robert Goode of Chesterfield County conveys 2 
negros to Richard Clark, infant and reputed son of John Cocke of Albe- 
marle County and if said Clark dies then said negros to my sons Thomas 
and Samuel Goode (Chesterfield County, Deed Book 5. p. 18). 



William and Mary Quarterly hi 

Thomas^ and Mary (Jefferson) Turpin, had issue ;(a) Martha*', 
d. young; (b) Thomas^, d. young; (c) Obedience/^ married August 
24, 1754, John Harris, of "Norwood," then in Cumberland, now in 
Powhatan County, (d) Thomas,^ married Martha Ward Gaines, (e) 
Mary« married March 9, 1761, Richard James, (f) WilHam,^ mar- 
ried June 22), 1773, Sarah Harris, (g) PhiHp,^ d. young; (h) Lucy,^ 
d. young; (i) Philip,^ married Caroline Rose; (j) Peterfield,^ who 
never married; (k) Horatio,*'' married March 30, 1803, Mary Ban- 
croft. 

VI. Mary5 Turpin, married Robert Goode (son of Robert 
Goode and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth 
[Archer] Branch*) and had issue: (a) Mary,^ married Seth 
Ward; (b) Robert,^ married Sally Bland; (c) Obedience,'' (d) 
Bettie.6 (e) Francis,^ married Alice Harris; (f) Thomas, ""^ mar- 
ried Eliza Prosser; (g) Samuel,*^ married Mary Burwell.f 

vii. Obedience^ Turpin, of whom nothing further is known. 
viii. William^ Turpin, d. young. 

Priscilla* Branch {John,^ William,'^ Christopher'^) born , 



died post 1750; married, first, 1699, Edward Skerme, of Plenrico 
County; second, 1701, Joseph Wilkinson, of Henrico County. 
Edward and Priscilla* (Branch) Skerme had no children. (See 
Note 4.) 

Joseph and Priscilla* (Branch) Skerme-Wilkinson had issue: 

i. Joseph^ Wilkinson, Junior (See Note 5) of Henrico Count}-, 
who died in 1733. He married Mary , and had issue : 

(a) Priscilla^ Wilkinson, who married first, Henry Embry, 
Junior, of Lunenburg and Brunswick County; second, William 
Hill. (See Note 6.) 

(b) [probably] Mary*^ Wilkinson; since Joseph^ Wilkin- 
son, Junior, of Henrico, in his will dated October 21, 1733. pro- 
vides for the possibility of an unborn child, and Joseph Wilkin- 
son, of Chesterfield, in his will dated October 19, 1750, names a 
granddaughter Mary Wilkinson. 

ii. Edward^ Wilkinson, of Henrico and Chesterfield Counties,^ 



* See Quarterly, XXV, page 66. 

1 1 am indebted to Mr. James Branch Cabell for the names of the 
children of Thomas*' and Mary (Jefferson) Turpin, and of Robert and 
Mary« (Turpin) Goode. 

$ Edward Wilkinson, of Dale Parish, Chesterfield County, will dated 
March 29, 1771, to grandson Edward W'ilkinson, land in Amelia County 
also Yz stock of horses, cattle, hogs, sheep and all plantation utensils; 



I 

112 William and Mary Quarterly k 

married a daughter of Lewellin Epes of Charles City County ,t an.J 
had issue: 

(a) Angelica^ Wilkinson married Peterfield Trent. (M?.r- 
riage Contract, March 2, 1770, Chesterfield Co., Deed Book 6, 
p. 360.) 

(b) ^ Wilkinson (a son) who was father 

of (i) Edward^' Wilkinson ; (ii) Joseph' Wilkinson, 
iii. Martha' Wilkinson married Howlett. 

NOTE I 

Branchiana, pp. 32 and 138, states that John Branch married Martha, 
daughter of Thomas Jones, of Bermuda Hundred, Henrico County, and 
that the said Martha married second, Thomas Osborne, of Henrico whose 
will dated February 27, 1730, was probated June, 1733. This is an error. 
Thomas Osborne (will probated June, 1733) married Martha Jones, 
daughter of Thomas Jones, of Bermuda Hundred, and married her prior 
to February 19, 1688/9, ior Mrs. Martha Osborne (daughter of said 
Thomas Jones and his wife Mary [who married, second, Edward Skerme. 
Senior], is mentioned as "sister Martha Osborne" in the will of Repps 
Jones, of Henrico, dated February 19, 1688/9, probated August i, 1689 
(Henrico Records) and is again mentioned as "daughter Martha Osborne" 
in the will of her mother, Mrs. Mary Skerme, of Henrico, dated Novem- 
ber 16, 1707, probated October 5, 1710 (Henrico Records). By this evi- 
dence we see that Martha, daughter of Thomas Jones was the wife of 
Thomas Osborne during the whole period covered by the dates February 
19, 1688/9 and November 16, 1707, and therefore the Martha, who mar- 
ried, first, John Branch; second, Thomas Osborne, third (in 1693) Thomas 
Edwards, could not possibly have been Martha, daughter of Thomas Jones, 
of Bermuda Hundred. ; 



daughter Angelica Trent, use of plantation I now live on, the mill, and old 
plantation whereon my father lived and all my lands adjoining until my 
grandson Joseph Wilkinson is 20 years of age; grandson Joseph Wilkinson, 
plantation I live on, my mill, my old plantation whereon my father lived and 
lands adjoining, seven negros and y? stock of cattle, horses, hogs, sheep, 
in Amelia Co. also 14 household and kitchen furniture, stock, etc., and 
plantation utensils in. Chesterfield Co., my still to be delivered him at age 
of 21 years and in case of his death before that time then estate to his 
brother, my grandson, Edward Wilkinson. Residue of estate to my daugh- 
ter Angelica Trent, during life, then to her children, but should she die 
leaving no child at her death, estate to be equally divided between m.y 
grandsons Edward and Josph Wilkinson. Executors : Peterfield Trent. 
Joseph Bass, Benjamin Branch and Thomas Howlett. (Chesterfield 
County, Will Book 2, p. 359.) 

tSee Quarterly, XXIV^ p. 143. 



William and Mary Quarterly 113 

Martha (widow of John Branch, wlio died in 1688) did certainly 
marry, as a second husband, Thomas Osborne, of Henrico County, and 
this Thomas was no other than Thomas Osborne, Senior, whose will 
dated October 20, 1691, probated June i, 1692 (Henrico Records) was 
the father oi Thomas Osborne [Junior] who married Martha Jones, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Jones, of Bermuda Hundred. This Thomas Osborne 
[Junior] was certainly of age in 1691 when his father made his will, there- 
fore he was certainly born as early as 1670, and as Thomas Osborne, 
Senior, did not marry Martha, widow of John Branch, until sometime 
between April, 168S (date of administration on John Branch's estate) 
and October, 1691 (date of Thomas Osborne, Senior's will mentioning 
wife Martha) therefore Thomas Osborne [Junior] was not the son of 
his father by his marriage to Martha, widow of John Branch, but by a 
former wife, whose nam.e is as yet unknown. 

. This whole matter is further confirmed by the following entry in the 
orders of Henrico Court under date of August, 1693 '• "Mr. Tho Ed- 
wards who married the relict of Mr. Thomas Osborne, Sen^ who mar- 
ried the Rellict of Mr, John Branch, deed., doe appear at next court to be 
held and enter security for saving this court harmless." (Henrico Records, 
Vol. 1677-1739, p. 34.) 

NOTE 2 

It is a very difficult matter to "place" Martha^ and Obedience^ the 
daughters of Mrs. Obedience* (Branch) Cocke-Trent-Turpin, and men- 
tioned in her will as "Martha Friend" and "Obedience Branch." The 
only thing very certain about their paternity is that they were not daugh- 
ters of Obedience* Branch, by her second husband, Alexander Trent. 
I have looked carefully among the remaining records of Henrico Court 
for a distribution of the estate of John Cocke (on w^hose estate his wife 
Obedience qualified as administratrix in October, 1699) arid for appoint- 
ment of guardians for his children, but have been unable to find any 
records thereof. I have also looked carefully for the will of Thomas 
Turpin (who died in 1724), the third (and last husband of Obedience* 
Branch) but have not found any copy thereof. The reason for "placing" 
Obedience^ as a child of Obedience* Branch by her first husband, John 
Cocke, is that Mrs. Obedience* (Branch) Cocke-Trent-Turpin. in her will 
(see ante) dated January 6, 1745/6, makes bequest to daughter Obedience 
Branch and also a bequest to daughter Obedience Turpin. The inference 
is that Obedience-5 Branch was not a Turpin, and I think that it may 
be safely said that she was not a Trent; therefore I have "placed" her 
as the child of Obedience* Branch and her first husband, John Cocke. No 
one should consider this as final, however, for a chart of the Turpin family, 
prepared many years ago (a copy of which is in the possession of Mrs. 
Elizabeth Ward Doremus, of New York City) gives this Obedience^ 
(who married Branch) as a child of Obedience* Branch and her third 



114 William and Mary Quarterly 

husband, Thomas Turpin, though the chart gives no authority for the 
statement. There are instances given in the records of two children of the 
same person having been given the same baptismal name: though it mu^jt 
be admitted that close scrutiny of such cases develops the fact that the two 
children bearing the same baptismal name were, in at least ninety per cent. 
of the cases, children by different marriages (either the paternity or 
maternity was different). This of course would tend to strengthen the 
circumstantial evidence that the Obedience in question, was Obedience 
Cocke. These are merely suggestions thrown out to any one who may 
be desirous of working out this problem to a positive conclusion. 

Benjamin Branch, of Chesterfield County, will dated December 31, 
1760, probated 1762; son Thomas Branch; son Benjamin Branch; son 
Edward Branch ; daughter Obedience Bass ; daughter Prudence Thweatt ; 
daughter Mary Branch. By comparing ,the wills of Mrs. Obedience^ 
(Branch) Cocke-Trent-Turpin (given ante), of John Cocke, of Albemarle 
(given ante) and that of Benjamin Branch (dated December 31, 1760) 
this connection will be readily seen. Benjamin Branch may have been 
married twice — in fact, Mr. Cabell in Branchiana, p. 42-3, states that Ben- 
jamin Branch married Mary Osborne; she may have been a first wife — 
but, there can be no doubt that this Benjamin Branch certainly married 
Obedience (Cogke or Turpin?) and that several of the children mentioned 
in his will were by the said Obedience. 

NOTE 3 

In regard to "placing" Martha,-^ daughter of Mrs. Obedience-^ (Branch) 
Cocke-Trent-Turpin, as a child of Obedience* Branch by her first husband. 
Jo}in Cocke, I wish to say that the only evidence so far discovered is 
purely circumstantial. The chart of the Turpin family (referred to in 
Note 2 above) states that this Martha^ was the daughter of Martha* 
Branch and her first husband, John Cocke. It is an established fact that 
this Martha^ married first, Arthur Moseley, Jr. of Henrico, and second, 

Edward Friend, of Henrico. Mrs. Martha ( ) Moseley- 

Friend is given above as a child of John and Obedience* (Branch) Cocke 
simply because from all the circumstances it seems most improbable that 
she was a child by either the second (Trent) or third (Turpin) marriages. 
Shou|d any one who is interested in this matter be able either to prove or 
disprove this assumption from the circumstances the editors of the Qu.\R- 
TERLY would welcome any facts which may be communicated. 

The proof that Martha^ (the daughter of Mrs. Obedience* [Branch] 
Cocke-Trent-Turpin) married first Arthur Moseley, Jr., and second 
Edward Friend comes in this way: Mrs. Obedience Turpin in her will 
dated January 6, 1745/6 mentions (among others) her daughter Martha 
Friend and grandsons William Moseley and Benjamin Moseley. 
(See Mrs. Turpin's will ante.) A petition made to Henrico Court, 
February 7, 1742, shows that Edward Friend married Martha, the execu- 



William and Mary Quarterly 115 

trix of Arthur Moseley, deceased (Henrico Records, Vol. 1737-46, p. 206) 
and Arthur Moseley's will, dated July, 1735 (Henrico Records, Vol. 1725- 
37) appoints wife Martha, an executor. 

NOTE 4 

On July 6, 1699, license granted for marriage of Edward Skerme with 
Priscilla Branch (Henrico Records). Edward Skerme, of Henrico Co., 
will dated March 21, 1699 [1700], probated August i, 1700, mother Mrs. 
Mary Skerme, Yz tract of land I now live on, ^ my orchard and 
1/2 my 40 foot tobacco house and all my corn house which is 20 feet long 
and 15 feet wide; wife Priscilla Skerme, other >^ land, housing, orchard 
and movables and she is named executor. 

9 Dec, 1699, a receipt from Edward Skernie, of Varina Par., Henrico 
Co., and Priscilla, his wife, daughter of John Branch, late of said parish 
and county, to Thomas Edwards who was executor [sic] and guardian of 
his daughter, in right of Martha, our mother, wife of said Edwards. 
(Henrico Records, Vol. 1697-1704, p. 102.) 

On February 7, 1700 [1701] license granted Joseph Wilkinson for 
marriage with Priscilla Skerme, widow. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1697- 
1704, p. 243.) 

The will of Joseph Wilkinson, of Dale Parish, Chesterfield County, 
dated October 19, 1750, bequeathed to wife Priscilla Wilkinson, use of 3 
negros during life also Yz stock cattle, sheep and hogs belonging to planta- 
tion I now live on also a Bay Stallion and my great black mare ; also ^ 
of household goods and to be furnished out of my estate given hereafter 
to my, son with 500 weight good net pork and one beef every year during 
life, also use of my mulatto girl Cloe, and at her death said Cloe to my 
granddaughter Angelicia Wilkinson ; to granddaughter Priscilla Embry, 
240 acres in Amelia County to be laid off on Ward's line on Knibb's 
Creek so as not to take in any of my cleared ground on condition she shall 
take it in full satisfaction of all demands she has against my estate other- 
wise said land to my son Edward Wilkinson ; granddaughter Mary Wilkin- 
son, negro girl; daughter Martha Howlett, one negro; all lands possessed 
with, with all other estate to son Edward W^ilkinson and he named execu- 
tor. Witnesses, J. Boiling, James DeSear, Mary Reade. (Chesterfield 
Records, W. B., p. 467.) 

NOTE 5 

Joseph Wilkinson, Junior of Henrico Co., will dated October 21, 1732, 
probated September, 1733 ; debts and funeral charges to be paid ; wife 
Mary Wilkinson, two negros and use and benefit of another negro during 
her widowhood and in case of remarrying then to my daughter Priscilla 
Wilkinson. To the child my wife goeth with, if she is with child, the first 
two children my negro woman Bess may bring, but in case my daughter 



ii6 William and Mary Quarterly 

Priscilla and tlie child wife goes with die without issue, then said negros to 
my brother Edward Wilkinson. To my daughter Priscilla Wilkinson my 
negro Bess with remainder of her issue. Wife Mary, half of my movall" 
estate and other half to my daughter Priscilla. My troopers arms to 
my brother Edward Wilkinson. My father Joseph Wilkinson, executor, 
and guardian of my daughter Priscilla, and my brother Edward Wilkinson. 
in case of death of my father in Priscilla's minority. Negro boy Chance 
to my daughter Priscilla when she comes of age of 21 years and in 
case of her death and that of the child my wife goeth with, to return to 
my brother Edward Wilkinson. Witnesses : Field Jefferson, John Osborne, 
John Green. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1725-37, p. 406.) 



NOTE 6 

Joseph W^ilkinson, Junior, of Henrico, in his will dated Oct. 21, 1732, 
names daughter Priscilla Wilkinson, and Joseph Wilkinson, of Chesterfield 
County, in his will dated Oct. 19, 1750, bequeaths to granddaughter Priscilla 
Embry, land in Amelia County (see abstracts of these walls, ante.) 

On December 24, 1753, Priscilla Embry, widow, of Brunswick Co., to 
Edw^ard Wilkinson, of Chesterfield Co. (for ±100 currency) conveys tract 
of 240 acres land in Raleigh Parish, Amelia Co, on south side Knibbs 
Creek ... it being part of a tract given said Priscilla Emhry by her 
grandfather Joseph Wilkinson in his last will and testament, and father to 
the said Edward Wilkinson (Amelia Records, Deed Book 5. p. 125). 

Henry Embry, Junior, was a member of the House of Burgesses from 
Lunenburg County, 1748-1749. He died in 1753. He was a son of Henry 
Embry, Senior, of Brunswick County, colonel of miUtia and member of the 
House of Burgesses from Brunswick County 1736-1740. He died in 1763. 
Henry Embry, Junior, and Priscilla Wilkinson, his wife had issue: (i) 
Mary Embry married John Coleman. (2) Sarah Embry married first, 
Isaac Read; second, Thomas Scott. See Virginia Magazine of History and 
Biography, XVH, p. 100, and 272; also Baskerville's, The Baskcrville 
Family, p. 117 et seq. 

The family name of Priscilla, wife of Henry Embry, Junior, and 
later of William Hill, had not been discovered up to the summer of 1914- 
when, for an entirely different purpose, the compiler of this article was 
reading, page by page, through the will books of Chesterfield Count}'. 
and discovered the item in the will of Joseph Wilkinson, recorded in that 
county. The deed of December 24, 1753, made by Priscilla Emhry, zindozv, 
of Brunswick County (quoted above) and recorded in Amelia County, 
positively identifies the Priscilla, wife of Henry Embry, Junior. 

(To be continued) 



William and Mary Quarterly 117 



ARMISTEAD FAMILY* 

Note. — It is the intention of the Editors of William and Mary Col- 
lege Quarterly to reprint, from, time to time, those sections of genealogies 
which originally appeared in numbers of the Quarterly now out of print. 

(To the data at the conclusion of the paper on this family in July 
[1897] number add from Abingdon, Gloucester county Register: Ro : 
Armistead mar. to Catherine Gwathmey, Sept. 24, 1743.) 

4. JoHN^ (IVilliani,' Anthony^) , settled in Gloucester county, 
where his father had patented a considerable quantity of land. 
In 1697 he made a deed (which is on record in Elizabeth City 
county), in which styHng- himself "brother and heir" of William 
Armistead, deceased and "son and heire," of William Armistead, 
late of Elizabeth City county, Gent., "he confirms to his brother 
Anthony all land on Back River, in said county, of which his 
father died seised." In 1680 he was lieutenant-colonel of horse in 
Gloucester and one of the justices. On October 18, 1688, he was 
sworn one of the council. — MS. Council Journal. His wife was 
Judith ; but though John Armistead is called "brother" by Robert 
Beverley, it is impossible to say whether one married the other's 
sister or sister of the other's wife. Major Robert Beverley mar- 
ried Mrs. Catherine Hone in Gloucester, March 28, 1679, and in 
March, 168^, Beverley was administrator of Major Theophilus 
Hone,t o^ James City county. I think it almost certain that this 
second wife of Major Beverley was the widow of Major Hone, 
and not his daughter, as stated in the introduction to Beverley's 
History of Virginia. His first wife was Mary (See Va. Mag. 



* This section of the genealogy of the Armistead Family is reprinted 
from Quarterly, Vol. VI, pp. 97-103, which is out of print. This section 
is in continuation of the genealogy from Vol. VI, p. 31, reprinted in Vol. 
XXII, 64-67. 

t Theophilus Hone was burgess for Elizabeth City in November, 1652, 
and for James City, June and October, 1666, with rank of Major. In 1675. 
Theophilus Hone, Jr., and Thomas Hone patented land in James City 
adjoining Sir John Ayton's land. Theophilus Hone, Jr., died February 3, 
1686 {Middlesex Register). 



ii8 William and Mary Quarterly 

Hist, and Biog.). Issue of John Armistead and Judith his wife: 
5, Judith, married Robert Carter. Her tombstonq calls her "eld- 
est daughter of the Hon. John Armistead, Esq., and Judith his 
wife. She departed this life the 23rd day of Feb., Anno 1699, in 

the year of her age, and in the nth of her marriage, having 

borne to her husband five children, four daughters and a son, 
whereof Sarah and Judith Carter died before, and are buric-l 
near her" (See Keith) ; 6, Elizabeth Armistead married, first. 
on February 16, 1687, Ralph Wormeley, Esq., secretary of the 
colony, whose will is dated Feb. 2, 1700; and she married, sec- 
ondly, on October 5, 1703, William Churchill, Esq. (See Keith, 
Hayden and Middlesex Register) William Churchill's will was 
proved March 6, 1710, and names as overseers of his will "my 
brothers, Mr. William Armistead and Mr. Henry Armistead ; and 
friends, Mr. Nathaniel Burwell, Mr. John Holloway, and Viv. 
John Clayton." Elizabeth Churchill died November 16, 1716, 
and her will was proved January i, 1716. It names "my brother, 
Mr. Henry Armistead." (For children, see Keith) ; 7, William,^ 
8, Henry.* 

7. William^ Armistead {John,^ William,- Anthony^) was 
born 1 67 1, and died at Eastmost River, in Mathews county, June 
13, 1 711, where his tomb still stands. (Quarterly, III, p. 255.) 
He married Anna Lee, daughter of Hancock Lee and Mar>', 
daughter of William Kendall, of Northampton county. (Hening, 
VI, p. 443.) They had issue : 9, John; 10, Mary, married, first, 
James Burwell (who died in 1718) ; secondly, Philip Lightfoot. 
of the council; 11, Judith, married George Dudley; 12, xAnna, 
married x^pril 4, 1725, Anthony Walke and died February 14. 
1732 (see Walke chart Va. Mag,, July, 1897); 13, Joyce; 14, 
Frances (see will of James Burwell;* will of Mrs. Mary Light- 
foot, Quarterly, III, p. 107). 



*WilI of James Burwell, proved September 15, 1718, at Yorktown. 
names wife Mary, daughter Lucy, son Nathaniel Bacon, sisters Mrs. 
Johannah Bassett, Mrs. Elizabeth Harrison and Mrs. Martha Armistead. 
Brother John Armistead, sister Martha Burwell, mother Mrs. Ann 
Armistead, sister Judith, wife of George Dudley, sister Elizabeth 
Armistead, sisters Ann, Joyce and Frances Armistead. Makes brotliers 
Nathaniel and Lewis Burwell, and William Bassett executors. 



Ill 



William and Mary Quarterly 119 

In Barradall's Reports occurs the following suit : "April court, 
1737. Robinson vs Armistead, et als." "John Armistcad and 
Robert Beverley deced jointly purchased 100 acres of land in Co. 
Glouc. which was conveied to them by Deed Jan. 17, 1680 for the 
cons, of 5o£. That Beverley by his will Aug. 20, 1686, devised his 
half part to his Dau. Catherine in tail & soon after died. After 
which Armistead became solely possessed of the Premes & died 
possessed. And after his death John Armistead, his eldest son 
& heir, entered and was possessed, after whose Death his son & 
heir John Armistead entered and died possessed, leaving the De- 
fendant John Armistead his son & heir an infant. That the said 
Catherine at the Death of Beverley was an Infant and before 21 
married John Robinson Esq. the Pit's Father now living and died 
in 1726, leaving the Pit her eldest son & heir, then an Infant, and 
since the death of Armistead the grand son the defts. Burwell, 
Armistead, & Dudley in Right of the Defendant Armistead, an 
infant, have entered into the Premeses claiming the whole by sur- 
vivorship & refuse to make partition with the Pits. Praying, there- 
fore, that the defts may answer premes and the Pit be relieved 
according to Equity," &:c. 

A comparison of this case with the will of James Burwell and 
the act in Hening, VI, p. 403, makes it plain that Barradall was in 
error in the name of the eldest son of Col. John Armistead. His 
name was William and not John. Otherwise Mrs. Churchill, his 
sister, might have mentioned John. According to this, the line 
ran, John^ Armistead, the councillor (died before 1703), Wil- 
liam* died in 1711, John,^ who made his will in 1734, and John,* 
who was under age in 1734. Mistakes of this kind by a jury or 
court are not infrequent in the records. The volume of Barra- 
dall's Reports, preserved in the Law Library, is, moreover, only 
a copy of the original manuscript. 

9. JoHN^ Armistead {William,*' John,^ William,^ Anthony^), 
Captain, etc., married first, Elizabeth (Gill?), mentioned as sister 
Elizabeth Armistead in the will of James Burwell, and second, 



I20 William and Mary Quarterly 

Susanna, daughter of Thomas Meriwether,* of Essex who made 
his will in 1708, when Susanna was not then baptized. (Heninj^, 
VI, p. 405.) As Nicholas Meriwether, the uncle of Susanna 
Armistead, had lived in New Kent, I feel certain that the Captain 
John Armistead, who in 1722 was vestryman of Blissland parish 
was this John, the husband of Susannah Merriwether.f The New 
Kent John had sons John and William, and this last William had 
an only daughter, Susannah. Issue by first wife, Elizabeth 
(? Gill), 15, Gill^ Armistead; issue by second wife, Susannah 
Meriwether, 16, John,^ I'j, William,^ who was Major in 1772 and 
1775, and a vestryman of Blissland parish. (See vestry book.) 
He married Mary, widow of Baker, who kept ordinary at the 
Brick House for Bassett, the niece of James Nicholas, who left 
her 50oi in the event of the death of Abraham Nicholas, son of 
his brother Abraham Nicholas, as also a specific legacy of £1,000 
(letter of William Nelson, 1767; see the Nelson Letter Book at 
Episcopal Seminary). He had issue an only daughter, 18, 
Susanna, who married first, William Dandridge, son of Bar- 
tholomew Dandridge, the brother of Mrs. Washington, and sec- 
ond, about 1805, David Dorrington. Major William Armistead 
died before 1784. 



* The will of Thomas Meriwether, son of Nicholas Meriwether, of 
Surry, the immigrant, names brother Francis, of Essex, Nicholas, of New 
Kent, sister Jane Brown, wife of William Brown, of Surry, wife Susan- 
nah; nephew William Meriwether, son of brother Nicholas, to have his 
land in Surr>' ; nephews William, David, and Francis sons of brother 
Nicholas; Ralph Shelton; land to child unbaptized; Nicholas and Francis 
Meriwether executors. Dated Jan. 7, 1708, proved Feb. 10, i7g8-'o9. 
Thomas Meriwether was one of the feoffees of Tappahannock. He mar- 
ried twice. Henry Williamson, gent., bequeathed lands in 1699, given to 
him by Captain Richard Loes and Mr. Abraham Weeks and Milicent his 
wife, of Rappahannock, to his 3 daughters, Elizabeth, Katherine. and 
Frances. Afterwards, in 1707, William Young, of Essex, and Katherine. 
his wife, one of the daughters, confirmed to Thomas Meriwether half of 
the lands devised by said William unto his daughter Elizabeth Meriwether, 
deceased, and in case of his death to said Katherine Young and Frances 
Bird, his other daughter. (Essex Records.) 

t But see Vol, VI, p. 164, where this conclusion is declared to be 
erroneous. 



William and Mary Quarterly 121 

15. GiLL^ Akmistead (John/' William/ John/ William/ 
Anthony'^) lived in Blissland parish. New Kent; sheriff in 1751 ; 
colonel in 1758; died in 1762. (Vestry Book.) On May 23, 
175 1, he married Betty Allen* (who married, 2ndly, John Lewis, 
of Williamsburg), and had issue: 19, Betty, born March 9, 1752, 
died April, 1833, ''married, on March 27, 1774, at Mr. John 
Lewis' in Williamsburg, Miles Selden, Jr." (Selden Family 
Bible) ; 20, Susannah, who married Colonel John Gary; 21, Mary 
or Molly, died 1825, who married Thacker Burwell ; 22, Frances, 
who married Col. John Ambler ; 2^^, Martha, who married Colonel 
Green, and had Abraham and Elizabeth; 24, Gill. (Seldon et 
als vs Armistead's Adm'r. 7 Grattan's Rep'ts, page 264.) 

16. JoHN^ Armistead (John/ William/ John/ William/ 
Anthony'^) was a resident of St. Peter's parish. New Kent, colonel 
of militia, and State Senator from New Kent in the first Senate of 
Virginia. "Col. John Armistead departed this life May 2, 1779." 
(Register.) Issue by first wife, Agnes: 25, Williayn/ born June 
5, 1754. By his second wife, Mary Burbage, whose mother is 
said to have been a Dandridge, he had, 26, Robert B.,' administra- 
tor of his mother, who died in 1792 ; and 27, Lucy B., who, on 
December 24, 1801, married Aylett Waller, and removed to Ten- 
nessee. (See Waller vs Armistead, 2 Leigh's Reports.) 

25. William^ Armistead, son of Col. John^ Armistead, of 
New Kent, was agent of the State for providing arms, cloathing, 
and other necessaries," during the Revolution. (Hening, XII, 
p. 420.) He died in June, 1793, leaving a son, 28, W^illiam 
Armistead, living in 181 3. (Papers in chancery suit of Dandridge 
vs Armistead.) 

26. Robert Burbage" Armistead, son of Col. John^ 
Armistead, married Mary Semple, sister of Judge James Semple. 
He died in 1811. He had issue: 29, John Dandrige Armistead, 
died, aged seventeen, while a student at William and Mary; 30, 
WilVmm} 



* From her daughter's Bible. 



122 William and Mary Quarterly 

30. William® Akmistead, son of Robert B/ Armisteafi. 
born in New Kent in 1797, and attended William and Mary Col- 
lege in 1816. He married Lucy Boyd, and with his family, re- 
moved to Alabama in 1833. He died in 1856. Issue : 31, Robert.' 
educated at William and Mary College, where he studied law 
under Judge N. B. Tucker; major of the twenty-second Alabama 
regiment; killed at the battle of Shiloh, He has children living 
in Texas. 32, Wiliam B., student at William and Mary ; married 
Mrs. Eliza Knox, and had issue, Elliott and George. 33, Rosalie 
Virginia, married Elmore G. Fitzpatrick ; both dead, leaving issue. 
34, Mary, who married Philip Gayle, of Montgomery, Alabama, 
and has issue. 35, Lizzie Rowe, married Paul Tucker Sayre, and 
has issue. 36, Herbert,^ lieutenant-colonel of the twenty-second 
Alabama regiment ; mortally wounded at the battle of Franklin, 
Tennessee. 2^"], Lucy Boyd, married Richard Goldthwait, and has 
issue. 

The following letter is a worthy tribute to the gallantry of 
Robert Armistead, major of the twenty-second Alabama regiment: 

Near Corinth, Miss., April 11, 1862. 

My dear Mrs. Fitzpatrick : You have doubtless heard of your 
sad loss in the death of your brother. Major Armistead. I write 
to claim the privilege of a friend of yours and his : that of sharing 
in your sorrow. I was with him after he was wounded for 
some time, giving him all the attention in my power. He was 
struck by a grape shot in the right side, the shot passing through 
the surface on the opposite side. He was conscious that his wound 
was mortal, but was calm and resigned. Feeling assured that he 
could survive but a short time, I asked him if he wished me to do 
anything for him. He said nothing except "Tell my dear sisters 
how I loved them, and that my last hours were spent in thoughts 
of them ; I know how they will suffer when they hear this." 

He frequently reverted to this, and it seemed to be the only 
thought that troubled him. When the surgeon came to him, he 
said : "Doctor, I have great confidence in your opinion, examine 
my wound and give me a candid answer ; I do not fear death : 
I know I must die, but I wish to know how long I have to live." 



William and Mary Quarterly 123 

The surgeon examined the wound, but remained silent. IMajor 
Armistead understood him clearly, but no trepidation was visible, 
no alarm expressed. He remained calm as if merely reclining- 
to rest. He frequently spoke of the grief his sisters would feel. 
Me said to me, "I have died in the right place, I hope at the right 
time, I know in the right cause." I am thus circumstantial, be- 
cause I know every word and incident of his final hour will inter- 
est you. I did all I could to make him comfortable under the cir-. 
cumstances, while I remained with him. 

Our cause has lost a noble and gallant defender, our State 
an intellectual man, society a chivalrous and polished gentleman, 
his friends a true and beloved companion, and his sisters a brother 
who lov^d them better than his own life and who grieved only for 
them in his death hour. 

I never saw such calm heroism before, and desire to emulate 
him should it be my fate to die, as he did, in defence of our 
country. 

I was agitated while he was placid ; I wept over his wounds, he 
sorrowed only for his sisters. 

I hope you may find some consolation in the circumstances at- 
tending his end. He died for his country, and in the hour that 
tries men's souls gave the strongest proofs of the nobility of his 
own. Rest assured that I sympathize deeply with you and yours 
in this sad bereavement, and only regret that I can do nothing to 
palliate your sorrow. Ivlay God give you and your sisters the 
strength to bear your loss with resignation. 

Accept my kindest regards and believe me, your friend. 

Thos. W. Oliver. 
Mrs. E, G. Fitzpatrick, 

Montgomery, Ala. 



124 William and Mary Quarterly 



THORNTON FAMILY 
By W. G. Stanard 

(From Quarterly Volume VI, No. i, pp. 53-57, which is out 

of print.) 

79. William'^ Thornton (Francis,* Anthony,^ Francis,- 
IVilliam^), of "Society Hill," King George county, born . 



died 1800, the year in which his will was proved in King George 
Co. He was a member of the House of Delegates in 1784, 1785. 
and 1786, and of the Convention of 1788. He married Elizabetli. 
second daughter of George Mason, of "Gunston," the distin- 
guished statesman. Issue: 137, George Francis,^ died unmar- 
ried, in Alexandria, in 1824. In September, 1818, he sold to 
Henry Lee, guardian of Elizabeth McCarty, the ''Society Hill'' 
estate, 700 acres ; and on July 29, 1822, when a resident of Wash- 
ington city, he sold to John Stith, of King George, a tract of land 
in that county called "The Cottage." His will, dated September 
I, 1823, arid proved in King George July i, 1824, gave his whole 
estate to his "friend William Herbert, of Shooter's Hill." ]Mr. 
Herbert qualified as executor, giving bond in $20,000. 138. 
William Mason,® died, unmarried, at Princeton College. 

In October last, the compiler of this genealogy, being in King 
George paid a visit to "Society Hill." The house is reputed to be 
(and it bears every evidence of the truth of the belief) the oldest 
house in the county. It was probably built by Anthony^ or 
Francis- Thornton. The house stands on a high hill near the 
"Brick-house Landing," on Potomac Creek, and commands a beau- 
tiful view of the river. The thick walls, heavy chimneys, and 
narrow windows, all show its age. No sign of its former occupa- 
tion by a family of wealth and standing exist around it, except 
traces of terraces on the steep hillside in front. The building it- 
self, with the exception of the walls and chimneys, is a mere 
wreck. Most of the doors have disappeared, and the vacant places 
have been supplied by planks nailed to the door frames. The first 
floor, four or five feet from the ground, was originally reached 



William and Mary Quarterly 125 

}»y semi-circular stone steps ; but these have been broken down, 
.i:i(I entrance can now be obtained on one side only, by a pile of 
fragments. The interior, which is in such wretched condition 
that one feels surprise at finding a family poor enough to occupy 
it, yet retains evidences that it was once a costly and handsome 
house. The walls of the high-pitched rooms on this floor are 
panelled to the ceiling ; the windows are closed with solid inside 
shutters ; and the corner fireplaces retained until lately hooks, 
which showed that they had once been surrounded by tiles. Sev- 
eral steps have fallen away from the staircase leading to the sec- 
ond story, and with a gap in the floor, open to the cellar, make 
the ascent difficult to any but a boy or a cat. In the second story 
are several rooms of good size, but in some of them the floors have 
fallen, and in all it is dangerous to walk. From this story stairs 
ascend to a large garret, which formerly derived its light from 
circular windows at each end, but now receive rain as well as 
sunshine through broken places in the roof. From the garret a 
shaky ladder leads to an opening in the roof, from which there is 
a most striking view of the surrounding country, the wide Poto- 
mac, and the Maryland shore. 

80. James Bankhead^ Thornton (Peter,* Anthony,^ 
Francis,^ William^), of "Mount Zephyr," Caroline county, born 
1770, died March 29, 1843. He was justice of the peace for 
Caroline from 1802. He married Mildred Rootes, daughter of 
Colonel Anthony Thornton, of "Ormsby." In 1845, Anthony, 
Peter R., James B., Charles W., and R. B. Thornton advertised 
for sale "Mount Zephyr," "the seat of the late James B. Thornton, 
and of the family for several generations." Issue: 139, 
Anthony f 140, Ellen,® married Thomas Rowe ; 141, Peter f 142, 
James Bankhead;^ 143, Dr. Rootes,® according to one account, died 
unmarried; according to another married Miss Buckner; 144, 
Charles;^ 145, Mary Rootes,® died young; 146, Mildred,® died 
young. 

81. Peter'^ Thornton (Peter,* Anthony,^ Francis,- IVil- 
liam}), of "Rose Hill," Caroline county, born 1774; died Septem- 
ber, 1833. He married Taylor. Issue: 147, Edmund; 

148, Taylor. 



126 William and Mary Quarterly 

84. Anthony^ Thornton (Anthony,* Anthony,^ Francis;- 
William^), of "Ormsby," Caroline county, born February i, 174S; 
died December i, 1828. He was a member of the Caroline coin it v 
committee of safety, i775-'76; was appointed lieutenant-coloiR-i 
of the militia in that county in 1777, and county lieutenant ii. 
1779 or 1780. He held the latter office until 1789, or later, and 
rendered throughout the Revolution, useful and efficient service. 
The Calendar of Virginia State Papers contains several letters [>> 
and from him, as follows: (i) ''Hanover Town, January 16, 
1781. Col: Anthony Thornton informs the Governor he ha^ 
been ordered by Gen : Nelson to march his troops back to Caro- 
line, and hold them in readiness until further orders. He judgc:^ 
from this he will be sent to Potomack, and begs to be supplied 
with two hundred and fifty muskets, as he can do nothing v;ith- 
out arms." (2) "August 21, 1781. Col: Anthony Thornton in- 
forms Col. Davies of the condition of the militia, (Sec, in his county. 
He has so arranged the Muster Rolls as to get rid of useless men. 
and to keep at least one-fourth of his force always in the field. 
Mr. Higgins has sixty-five stand of arms repaired, and can have 
no more done without Salt. He has always sent the six-months 
men to the field, and the county now has only these and the men 
w^ho have served their time in the service. The clothing has been 
collected, and delivered to Major Nelson." (3) Col: Anthony 
Thornton, Jun : to Col: Davies, Caroline Co., Sept. 6, 1781. Re- 
gretting his inability to give correct returns of the number of men 
remaining in the County, owing to the fact that the entire Militia 
and Officers capable of making returns were in the field. At the 
time of the Semi- Annual report required he was too ill to attend 
to business. The entire force of the County, 644 men. On this 
account, the demands upon them have been 'exceeding burthen- 
some,* compared with those of other Counties. Instead of one- 
fourth, one half are required to go to the field at once. He is de- 
termined, however, to meet the v/ants of the Service by Keeping 
the full quota on duty." (4) Governor Nelson to Colonel Anthony 
Thornton, Jr., Caroline county. "Williamsburg, Sept. 12, 1781. 
Sir : A large body of troops being expected in a few Days down 
the Bay, under his Excellency Genl. Washington, which will 
probably land in Gloucester, I beg that you will have all the Flour 



William and Mary Quarterly 127 

vou can procure at Port Royal, or in any part of Caroline or the 
adjacent Country, sent in Vessels round into Pianketank with all 
possible Dispatch. I have the Liberty of giving you this Trouble 
from a conviction that your zeal for your Country's Good will 
incline you to undertake a Business so serviceable to it, & that your 
Influence will enable you to execute it with the greatest success." 
Colonel Thornton commanded the Caroline militia during the siege 
of Yorktown, and his force took part in the attack on Gloucester 
Point. The following letter was written from that place: (5) 
'*Col: Anth. Thornton to Governor Nelson. Gloucester, Oct. 
2 1st, 1 781. On his way to that place he was taken ill, and con- 
sequently did not arrive until Wednesday evening. Has been for 
two days trying to see Governor Nelson, but *the French General 
positively forbid my crossing over to York, tho' I informed him 
I had particular business with you.' Requests directions as to 
his proceeding *to collecting the Grain, Pother, &. Hay, &c.* ; con- 
cludes, 'Permit me to congratulate Your Excellency on the happy 
end of the Siege, & believe me to be, with the greatest Esteem.' " 
(6) "Col: A. Thornton to Col: Wm Davies, Caroline Co. Dec. 
24, 1781." His letter in regard to the British prisoners, said to 
be hiring themselves out in this county, has been received. He 
hears of not more than six or eight in that neighborhood, but 
learns that they are scattered about in almost all the counties "be- 
tween this and the Ridge." He will at once order his ofiicers "to 
attend to this matter, and to dispose of them as directed." (7) 
"Caroline Co., May ist, 1782." Colonel Anthony Thornton in- 
forms Col : Davies that the clothing due from that county has been 
ready at the Bowling Green for some months. He adds : "I 
sincerely lament with you the languor of every measure attempted 
to be taken ; but unless the Legislature will make Salutary Laws, 
it is impracticable for them to be effectually executed." (8) 
"Col: Anth. Thornton to Governor Beverley Randolph, Caroline 
County, May 14, 1789. Not having received a single shilling for 
the Militia fines, thought it unnecessary to make any report about 
it, until urged to do so by a notice yesterday from the Solicitor 
that a motion be made against me for neglect of duty." He hopes 
that the executive will direct the solicitor to waive the intended 
motion. "Nothing but the present deranged state of the Militia 



128 William and Mary Quarterly 

and my great wish to see them in better order, would keep me a 
single day in commission," etc. 

Late in life Col: Thornton removed to Kentucky with all of 
his children except his son Philip. Col: Thornton married, May 
8, 1772, Mary, daughter of Philip Rootes, of ''Rosewall," Kiii,^ 
and Queen county, and his wife, Mildred Reade, of Gloucester 
county. Mrs. Thornton died December 21, 1828. Col: Thornton 
and his wife were involved in lengthy litigation in attempting to 
recover a legacy left to her by her father. The case came twice 
before the Court of Appeals. 

Issue: 149, Mildred Rootes, born ; died ; mar- 
ried James B. Thornton; 150, Katherine Taliaferro, died young; 
151, Anthony; 152, Philip; 153, Charles Taliaferro; 154, Mary 
Reade, married Judge Benjamin Mills, of the Circuit Court of 
Kentucky; 155, Lucy, died single at an advanced age; 156, Eliza- 
xbeth Edmondson, died young; 157, Judith Presley, born June 
28, 1788; died December 29, 1851 ; married, September 6, i8c3, 
her cousin, WiUiam Thornton (son of Sterling and Winifred 
Thornton), who was born January 17, 1789, and died IMay 7, 1871. 
They lived at various times at Bourbon and Montgomery counties, 
Kentucky,- and removed to Sangamon county, Illinois, in 1834. 
They had issue: (a), Mildred R., married Rev. Duly Whitney; 
(b), Emma D., married John R. Duryee, of Strathan, Logan 
county, Illinois; (c), William, married, January i, 1838, Roxanna 
Lyman, and died January 11, 1838; (d), Eliza W., unmarried; 
(e), Lucy D., married ist, Francis Conway Thornton, and had two 
children; she married, 2ndly, William K. Hardee, of Virden, 
Illinois. William Thornton served in the war of 1812 as a lieu- 
tenant in the Kentucky troops. 158, /. Rootes; 159, Leuns; 160, 
Walker. 

Note by the Editor 

Among the papers preserved in the Virginia Historical So- 
ciety is a very old manuscript, certainly not later than the year 
1700, which may serve to indicate the origin of the Thornton 
family of Virginia. It was, perhaps, once in possession of some 
member thereof. It reads as follows : 



William and Mary Quarterly 129 

"In the Cemetery of St. Giles in the ffields, Inscription on 
Tombstone : 

" *Jo^^^""^^ Thornton, in Memoriam clarissimae Uxoris Mar- 
garitae, fiHae Georgeij ColHns, hujus parochiae Sancti Agidii in 
Campis, hoc monumentum posuit. 

" 'Under this sad Marble Sleeps 
She for whom ev'n Marble weeps ; 
Her praise liveth still, tho' here she lyes. 
Seeming dead that never dyes ; 
Religion, Love in suffering breast, 
Her Charity, Mildness, and the rest, 
Have crowned her soul ; all mourn with fame 
Her husband's loss and Midwifes blame. 
She dyed in Childbed, 70 times blest & seven. 
Her Child & she delivered both in Heaven. 
Ob: 8 Jan: 1611.' 

Round y® Margent of the Stone these Words : 

" TuU south this Stone 4 feet doth lye 
His ffather John & grandfather Henry 
^ Thornton, of Thornton, in Yorkshire bred, 

Where lives the ffame of Thornton, being dead.' " 



130 



William and Mary Quarterly 



ALEXANDER FAMILY 

(From Volume VIII, No. 4, pp. 262-263, which 
is out of print.) 

This family claims descent from Sir William Alexander, Earl 
of Stirling, but the claim has not yet been substantiated. The 
ancestor of the family in Virginia was i John^ Alexander, who 
in company with Littleton Scarburgh and Tabitha Smart, chil- 
dren of Col. Edmund Scarburgh, obtained a grant for 1,500 acres 
in Northampton county on March 24, 1659. In 1664 John Alex- 
ander obtained a grant for 1,450 acres formerly granted to John 
Bagnall and John Walter, and by them assigned to Edmund Scar- 
burgh 13 Aug. 1656, and by Scarburgh assigned to John Alex- 
ander March 10, 1659. In 1664, as John x\lexander, Sr., he 
patented land in Westmoreland on Attopin Creek. He had issue 

2 John- Alexander, Jr., mentioned in a patent ]\Iarch 3, 1664, for 
land in Westmoreland to "Robert Alexander, John Alexander, Jr., 
and Christopher" {Lunn). He appears to have died without issue. 

3 Robert,^ of whom hereafter ; 4 Philip,- of whom hereafter. 
{Birch V. Alexander, Washington's Reports.) 

It would seem as if John Alexander was a connection of Col. 
Scarburgh, The following letter to John iMexander, Jr., is 
recorded in Accomac court : 

Letter to Mr. John Alexander 

Exon this 18^^ of September, 1663. 

M"" John Alexander and Loueing fifreind our kind Respects to 
you and yo" wee reed ^ M'" Samuel Stokes y^ Tobb. you sent vs 
in y® shipp Samuell, as also tw^enty hhds ^ M^ Thomas Sheppard, 
though far worse than y® former, w^^ letters of Incouragement 
from y® Coll* for a future trade, what trade you finde wee know 
not, but here it hath proved so bad this yeare that we are Re- 



It 



♦Was not Col. Scarburgh meant? 



William and Mary Quarterly 131 

solved unlessc y^ trade do mend to desert and to that end have 
sent y® shipp another way, otherwise should have an- 
swered y® Collonells desires and yours. Therefore what goods you 
have left in y^ country you may send either to Plymouth or Top- 
sham as you can best freight with y® planters of y"" Accompt, and 
either charge bills on vs, for what shall be more du or order what 
goods y" will have sent and by whome, and it shall bee honestly 
paid or sent upon receipt of yo'* acco*^; wee would have sent some 
goods now, But haueing noe order by what shipp we doe omitt it, 
likewise their was a Bill charged upon vs of twenty pounds by y^ 
Coll payable to !^P Tapley wee did not pay it for want of an order 
from you, haveing no dealings w^^ him, but offered ye money unto 
M^ Tapley provided hee would give vs a discharge as from you 
w'^^ I hope hee will inform you of, when hee speakes w^^ you who 
parted from Buy the ford about five weeks since. Likewise wee 
entreat you as from vs to give yo"" ffather our harty thanks w^^ 
satisfaction for his charge and trouble, and charge it likewise on 
vs in y® accompt when you send y® particulers, and if wee may 
any way prove serviceable to him here, hee may freely command 
vs. Tobacco here this yeare was worth from 3*^ to 4"^^ best. Duty 
being paid and freight, you may conceive what Encouragem^ wee 
haue. However nothing shall hinder but that wee are 

Yo'" assured Lo : ff rinds, 

EDWARD HICKMAN, 
SAMUEL CALLE, 
JOHN MANNINGTON. 

ffor jVP John Alexander M''chant. 
These p^'sent at Potomack in Virginia. 
Recorded y^ 16^^ of April, 1664. 

%^Mr Rob*^ Hutchinson CI Cur Co : Accomk. 
(To be continued) 



1 



132 William and Mary Quarterly 



BRETT-ISHAM-RANDOLPH 
By W. G. Stanard 

(From Quarterly, Volume i, No. 2, pp. 108-109, which 
is out of print.) 

In the Nezv England Historical and Genealogical Register for 
July, 1890, was published, in Mr. Waters' most valuable series of 
English Gleanings, the Will of Sir Edward Brett of Blendenhall, 
parish of Bexley, County of Kent, England, dated Dec. 22d, 1682, 
and proved March 17th, 1683. Among his legatees were the chil- 
dren of his niece Ann, daughter of his sister Mary Isham ; and 
£200 apiece to the two daughters of his nephew Henry Isham, late 
of Virginia, deceased, by Katherine his wife. 

The following pedigree is compiled from the Visitation of 
London, 1568 (published by the Harleian Society) : 

Alexander Brett of Whitstanton in Devon married , 

daughter of Rosemaderos and had issue, I. John ; II. Robert, of 
Lincolnshire, Gent, married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Bush, 
of Sison, 3rd brother of the Bushes of Hobun ; III. Symon. 

Robert and Elizabeth (Bush) Brett had issue: Robert, first 
son, citizen and Merchant-tailor of London, married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Reginald Highgate (arms: gu. two bars arg. 
over all on a bend or a torteaii, between tzvo leopards' heads as.) 

Margaret married Veale of Lincolnshire. 

Robert and Elizabeth (Highgate) Brett had issue: I. John, 
oldest son; 11. WilHam (of Toddington, Bedfordshire); III. 
Robert ; IV. Richard ; V. Elizabeth ; VI. Catharine. 

William Brett, of Toddington, just named, had with other 
issue, Sir Edward, born 1608, whose Will has been quoted, and 
Mary who married William Isham {Bloyde's Genealogia Bed- 
fordiensis) . 

Their son, Henry Isham, came to Virginia, settled at Bermuda 
Hundred, married Katherine, widow of Joseph Royall, of Hen- 
rico County, and dying about 1675, ^^^^ issue : I. Henry, "of Vir- 
ginia and London," died unmarried ; II. Mary, married William 



William and Mary Quarterly 133 

Randolph of "Turkey Island;" III. Elizabeth, married Francis 
Eppes, of Henrico. 

The Brett arms are ''arg. seme of Crosses Crosslets fitche, a 
lion rampant gules." 

In notes appended to Sir Edward Brett's Will in the Register, 
it is stated that he was knighted by the king, 31st August, 1644, 
after a gallant charge on the Parliamentary forces at Lootwithiel, 
Cornwall ; was in the military service of William of Orange, and 
died, Feb. 12th, 1682-3, aged seventy-five years. His tomb, with 
an elaborate epitaph, is at Bexley. 

A fine impression of the Isham arms, on a red wax seal, is at- 
tached to a paper at Henrico Court House. 



VIRGINIA RANDOLPHS— ARMS AND 
ENGLISH DESCENT 

(From Quarterly, Volume I, No. 3, pp. 158-159, which 
is out of print.) 

A letter recently received from an esteemed correspondent, 
Rev. Henry Isham Longden, Shangton Rectory, Leicester, Eng- 
land, gives some interesting facts as to the English descent of Vir- 
ginia families. Data collected by the erratic John Randolph of 
Roanoke has furnished the basis of all later deductions from the 
emigrant ancestor of the so- widely distinguished Randolph family. 
Colonel William Randolph, of "Turkey Island." His record, pre- 
served in a MS. memorandum book, in the possession of Mrs. 
Cynthia B. T. Coleman, Williamsburg, Virginia, thus commences : 
"There was found among the papers of Sir John Randolph of 
Virginia an antique black-letter pedigree as follows : William,^ 
son of Robert^ and Rosa (Roberts) Randolph, died 1670, aged 
88 years; married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Smith. Of 
their issue was Thomas,*^ the poet and William.^ The last mar- 
ried, fourthly, Dorothy, daughter of Richard Law, and widow of 
Thomas West. Of the issue of WiUiam,'^ and Dorothy Randolph, 
was William,"^ born 27'^ November, 1623, the emigrant to Vir- 
ginia.' " 

This statement it appears is somewhat inexact. Mr. Longden 
writes : "Am^ong the many treasures in the library of my cousin. 



134 William and Mary Quarterly 

Sir Charles Isham, Bart, at Camport, I have found a MS visita- 
tion, which demonstrates that there are mistakes in the received 
pedigree of the Randolphs of Virginia. 

There were, as you know, two emigrants, Henry Randolph and 
William Randolph. In the Visitation it appears that Henry was 
the uncle of William, and the baptism of the former is given as 
2/^^ November 1623. Thomas Randolph, the poet, was half- 
brother of Richard Randolph, and Richard was the father of 
William, the emigrant to Virginia. Another brother of the poet 
was William, who died 1689, and on his will I find a seal, with 
these arms, (tinctures of course not being given) a diagram thus 
to be described: a cross four mullets pierced in its extremities). 
I know that five mullets ought to be there, but on this seal there 
are but four and some other device in the centre, which I could 
not make out. There was also a crest, upon a helmet over the coat 
of arms, being the head of some animal. This I apprehend to be 
the oldest instance of a wax impression of the Randolph coat and 
crest now preserved." 

The Randolph arms are : "Gules on a cross argent, five 
mullets pierced, sable. Crest — An antelope's head erased or." A 
well preserved iinpression in wax of their arms appears on a docu- 
ment in the records of Henrico County, Virginia, executed by 
William Randolph, in 1698. He succeeded Captain Henry Ran- 
dolph, as clerk of Henrico County, in 1673. -^"^s testified by him- 
self, Feb. 3, 1705, in proving the will of William Byrd of "West- 
over" (the first of the name in Virginia), he was born in 165 1. 
He died April 11, 171 1, and, according to his Epitaph, was of 
Warwickshire. Possibly, the earliest preserved example of an 
engraved armorial book-plate of a native Virginian is that of Sir 
John Randolph — the arms being as described above. John Ran- 
dolph "of Roanoke," in early Hfe, and Ryland Randolph used 
book-plates with the same arms. The first, however, used latterly 
a book-plate which violated the laws of heraldry, in that the field 
was or (gold) and the cross argent (silver) — thus placing metal 
on metal. 

I await with interest further promised communications from 
Mr. Longden, as to the Randolphs and Ishams, he being of the 
latter lineage. 

R. A. Brock. 



WlLLIAiM AND MarY QUARTERLY I35 



AGES OF LOWER NORFOLK COUNTY PEOPLE 
By Charles F. McIntosii 

(Continued from Page 40) 

Abstracted from depositions found in Book E (1666- 1675) 
in the Norfolk County Clerk's Office. 

Chamber Sarah aged 30 years 1666 

ffowler George " 33 " 1666 

Greene John " 58 " 1667 

Bowers Eliz " 17 " 1667 

Ward John " 25 " 1667 

Man Thomas " 26 " 1668/9 

Stephens ElHs " 35 " 1668 

Ambros John " 25 " 1668 

Raymond Lemuel " 25 " 1669 

fanshaw Mary " 21 " 1669 

Tucker Robert "23 " 1669 

/locker Susanna " 15 " 1669 i.,- 

Cockro ft William " 26 " 1669 

Martin Ann ,. . " 38 " 1669 

Welch John . . A ' " 2y " 1669^ 

Sherpeles ivlargere " 43 " 1669 

Wedecke Mary " 30 " 1669 

Rowe Richard " 34 " 1670 

Rowe i.\nne " 26 " 1670 

Sparkes John " 30 " 1671 

^lorton Ann " 45 " 1671 

fouler George " ^7 " 1671 

Collins Giles "36 " 1671 

Langley Joyce " 50 " 1671 

Lewis Alice " 30 " 1671 

Eyers Hannah v " 46 " 1671 

Miller Laurence " 24 " 1671 

Batchelor Richard " 26 " 1671 



13^ . William and Mary Quarterly 

Slow John " 

Macoy daniel " 

Heathrington Thomas " 

Hargrave Rich " 

Peeters Simon " 

Jordan Robt " 

Queen John " 

Harris Richard " 

Memon Wm " 

Carver Richard " 

Thomas Wm " 

Thomas Jan " 

Norsworthy Geo " 

dun grace " 

Saw^well Richard " 

Queen AHce " 

Low Mary " 

Memon Dorathy " 

Smith Jacob " 

Harris AHce " 

bridg Thomas " 

bray Plumer " 

Woodward ff rancis " 

Szt'ellavant Jno .% " 

Crosier Ann " 

Rouse Jno " 

Hart Wm " 

Edmonds Jno " 

Jackson James " 

Randle Giles " 

fenford Sarah " 

dollard Adam " 



27 ' 


1671 


40 ' 


' 1671 


30 ' 


' 1671 


60 ' 


1672 


62 ' 


1672 


40 ' 


' 1672 


42 ' 


1672 


34 ' 


* 1672 


55 ' 


1672 


23 ' 


' 1672 


43 ' 


1672 


53 ' 


^ 1672 


40 * 


' 1672 


24 * 


' 1672 


28 ' 


' 1672 


24 * 


^ 1672 


36 ' 


1672 


40 ' 


1672 


47 ' 


1672 


25 ' 


* 1672 


57 ' 


' 1^7 ?> 


42 ' 


' 1673 


36 ' 


' ^^73 


33 ' 


' 1673 


35 ' 


' 1673 


24 ' 


* 1673 


33 ' 


' 1673 


40 ' 


' 1673 


26 * 


' 1673 


24 * 


' 1673 


26 ' 


' 1673/4 


28 ' 


' 1673^^4 



William and Mary Quarterly 137 



"ABOLITIONISM AND SOUTHERN INDEPENDENCE" 

In Volume XXI, page 221, under this title, was published a 
correspondence between Moncure D. Conway and James M. 
Mason. 

In a letter dated June 10, 1863, Conway assured Mason that 
i he had the authority of the "leading anti-slavery men of America" 
I to say that if the Confederate States would consent to emancipate 
I their slaves in a reasonable time, the abolitionists would oppose 
the further prosecution of the war on the part of the United 
States, and ''since they held the balance of power, would certainly 
cause the war to cease by the immediate withdrawal of every kind 
of support from it." 

The following letter, the original of which is the property of 
Miss Maud Washburn, of Portland, Maine, shows probably the 
occasion of ^Ir. Conway's presence in England at the time. The 
copy from which the publication is now made was furnished to 
the Editors by Dr. Gaillard Hunt, Chief of the Manuscript Divi- 
sion of the Library of Congress, who had the original in his per- 
sonal possession. He writes : "There is no year given for the 
date, but it is doubtless 1861." 

(Copy) 

Moncure Daniel Conway to Washburn 
Commonwealth Office 
Boston, April 6 

Hon. Israel Washburne : 
My dear Sir ; 

As everything in England just now, as concerns our Country, 
turns upon the Slavery question — which lots of Southerners are 
trying to smother over there — the friends of our cause (particu- 
larly P. A. Taylor, M. P. for Leicester, F. W. Newman and S. D. 
Collett) think they could make much of their side if they had 
me over there to give my lectures on Slavery as it is. This has 
been responded to by some gentlemen over here who have given 
something towards paying my expenses for spending 4 or 5 
months over there, speaking at union and Emancipation meetings 



138 William and Mary Quarterly 

&c. on all occasions. On diligent inquiry we find that I shall nee! 
upwards of a thousand dollars (the way gold is now selling). U 
is thought best not to make any public call on the subject but to 
solicit subscriptions from a few persons who, it may be suppose'l. 
would be interested in the matter. 

We have already raised here about $600. Can you or any 
friends near you in any way swell the amount? If so please send 
what you can give to Wendell Phillips, Esq., or to 

Yours cordially 

M. D. Conway. 

P. S. I shall probably go next Saturday per "City of Wash- 
ington" from New York, but whatever is sent will be sent out to 
me as I need it. Kind regards and adieus to Mrs. W. 



"A TREATISE ON GARDENING BY A CITIZEN 
OF WILLIAMSBURG" 

Communicated by A. J. Morrison/ Hampden-Sidney, \'a. 

There has been some question as to the authorship of this inier- 
esting treatise, "the oldest Virginian work on cultivation." The 
following is submitted as proof : 

(i) Thomas Jefferson recommending titles for an agricul- 
tural library in 181 7 mentions "A Treatise on Gardening. Rich- 
mond. i6s. By John Randolph." [America^i Farmer, II, (1S20,) 

P- 94-] 

(2) The Library of Congress printed catalogue for 1840 lists : 
"John Randolph, Treatise on Gardening. Richmond, 1793. 

i6s." 

(3) Edmund Ruffin in 1839 reprinted the whole of the 
original Treatise, in the January number of the Farmer's Register 
(Vol. VII, pp. 41-54), Mr. Ruffin says at p. 41, "The author was 
John Randolph of Williamsburg, attbrney general under the 
Colonial government. The date of the work is not shown by any 
thing in the oldest edition which we have seen, which is as late as 
1794 * * * The latest edition has many modern additions." 
So Mr. Ruffin omits those added recipes, how "To make veals," 



William and Mary Quarterly 139 

•*To make champagne wine of gooseberries," "To make Tomato 
Ketchup." 

None of the authorities cited attributes this work to Sir John 
Randolph. The evidence goes to show that the Treatise on Gar- 
dening was the work of his son, Attorney General John Ran- 
dolph,* of "Tazewell Hall," Williamsburg, who died in 1784. It 
is of interest to note that the original text says nothing about the 
tomato. 

Mr. Ruffin, in his introductory remarks, says, "The value of 
this unpretending little treatise has been so generally acknowl- 
edged that it has passed through several editions." The book 
edition seen by me is in the form of an appendix (pp. 268-348) to 
Gardener and Hepburn's American Gardener, Georgetown, D. C., 
PubHshed by Joseph Milligan, 1818. The editor of that edition 
observes, p. 268. "The annexed little Treatise was written many 
years ago by a learned and eminent Citizen of Virginia, who de- 
lighted in directing under his own eye the cultivation of his 
garden ; and who printed it for the use of friends, by whom it has 
been long and highly prized for the useful information it conveys 
in a small compass, and without the introduction of a useless word. 

The residence of the author, and his garden, from which he 
drew his observations were in Williamsburg, Virginia. 

Thbse who consult the Treatise will know from this hint how 
to make a proper allowance, according to variance in cHmate, for 
the seasons and times of sowing, planting, &c." 



♦John Randolph, son of Sir John Randolph, was born in Williams- 
burg about 1728, was educated at William and Mary College, was admitted 
a student of law at the Middle Temple, London, April 8, 1745, returned to 
Virginia in 1749, and became eminent as a lawyer, was clerk of the House 
of Burgesses, from 1752-1766, burgess for Lunenburg County in 1769 
and for William and Mary College in 1774 and 1775. He was the last 
attorney general of Virginia under the royal government, and when the 
American Revolution broke out he went to England, not approving of the 
separation of the colonies. He died there January 31, 1784, and his body 
was brought back to Virginia and buried by his father in the College 
Chapel. By his wife Arianna, daughter of Edmund Jennings, Attorney 
General of Maryland, he had Edmund Randolph, who,^s his father was the 
last attorney general under the royal government, was the first attorney 
general of Virginia and the Republican government— Editor, 



140 William and Mary Quarterly 

IN MEMORIAM HENRY FAIRFAX 
Communicated by Robert L. Preston, Leesburg, Va. 

It is seldom that the death of an individual man marks the end of 
an era in the political or social history of any country or community. 
But when a type that was once universally prevalent in a section of coun- 
try has gradually dwindled in numbers until only a few examples of it are 
left scattered here and there, and several of these disappear in rapid suc- 
cession, the painful realization is suddenly aroused as one more repre- 
sentative of the type vanishes from this earth, that the race has practically 
become extinct, the few that are left adding emphasis by their very fewness 
to the finality and swiftness of the fate' that has overtaken them. The 
reign of the Old Virginia gentleman is over, but the world is richer for 
his dynasty of three centuries and nature, the careful and ever-jealous 
tiller of that garden of rare and beautiful flowers, whose fragrance will 
ever permeate the life of coming generations, exhausted by her efrorts. 
may well rest with folded hands and dim and tearful eyes and let the weeds 
grow. She has triumphed and hers is the imperishable garland of victory. 

The revolution in this country of 1861-5 had many features in com- 
mon with the French Revolution. The hostility of the masses to the 
landed proprietors had been steadily increasing for many years until it 
finally reached the stage when it could no longer be controlled. As this 
feeling originated in no possible sense of oppression, the two castes of 
society occupying different and distinct sections of the country, the masses 
assumed the task of relieving the fancied wrongs of another class of 
labor with whom they were not even in contact, of whose conditions they 
were entirely ignorant and whose desires for such relief had not only 
not been expressed but as a matter of fact didn't exist. They were per- 
fectly content with their station and condition, and a gradual change 
in both was going on, which, if allowed to mature would have been of in- 
calculably greater and more permanent benefit to them than the violent 
movement which burst their bonds at one blow and left them stranded and 
helpless on the shores of a world they had never known. 

'Every popular movement must have some battle-cry inscribed on its 
banners. 'Abolition of Slavery" for many years found feeble response. 
rallied no great number to its standard, and even repelled the thoughtful 
and serious elements of the section where it originated. At a crucial point 
in the controversy, however, which had now become acute the landed 
proprietors made the fatal mistake of furnishing their enemies with the 
shibboleth they needed to rouse the people and the "Preservation of the 
Union" was at once taken up and flashed over the land with the rapidity 
of the flaming beacons that called the Highland clans to war. All rallied 
at this cry, the Holy Sepulchre was about to be desecrated and the 



William and Mary Quarterly 141 

crusade was on. Any Peter the Hermit could have led it. It carried itself 
to its goal with an impulse its opponents could not stop, and its issue was 
never for a moment in doubt. Then was ushered in the regime of the 
tanners and the rail-splitters, the cobblers and the tailors. It is true no 
guillotines were set up and no heads rolled into the basket as in France, 
but in other respects much the same senseless and bitter persecutions went 
on. As in France, "Down with the aristocrats" was a common cry. After 
the war they were the target for every insult, all forms of degradation, and 
every conceivable indignity that the rabid, vindicative violence of a 
triumphant mob is capable of. Their homes were burned, their property 
confiscated, their women insulted, their rights as citizens taken from them, 
their fair name slandered and held up to scorn and ridicule, and those 
that had been their slaves the moment before, the only great race on 
earth habitually sunk in servitude to every other race for centuries — this 
lowest of the races of mankind, was made in the twinkling of an eye the 
social equals and the political masters of the former lords of the manor. 
This regin of terror continued for nearly ten years after the last shot had 
been fired in the great upheaval. Its tragedies were numerous and hor- 
rible — too sickening and disgusting to describe in words. 

As this fearful blast from the North swept over the land, carrying 
havoc in its train and leaving desolation in its wake, a solitary figure stood 
erect and unflinching mid the ruin of all that earth held dear to him and 
even of earth itself. The tall, blue-eyed, fair-haired scion of the manor, 
as he saw the blackened ruins of his ancestral home and gazed at the 
wasted forests and trampled fields of his paternal domain, felt arise 
within him the spirit of the indomitable, the stern resolve to conquer 
misfortune that has always been a salient instinct of the Anglo-Saxon 
race, all clothed in the calmness and composure that only the culture and 
refinement of the class he represented can produce. And as he went out 
from his ruined home, casting behind him the glorious and tender mem- 
ories of the past, he met the world on the hard-tramped field of the toiling 
millions of the proletariat. The history of one is the history of many 
thousands. They w^on their way to riches and honor and power. They 
saw the envy of their enemies turned to wonder and their sneers to admira- 
tion. He and his kind had made this country and ruled it for sixty years, 
adding one principality after another to the empire till a mighty ocean 
lapped its shores on the east and on the west the snows girdled it on the 
north and the palm-tree decked its southern lands. The forces that were 
attempting to disintegrate the rule of this master hand were no novelty 
in the history of the world. The question at issue was whether the broad 
vision of the landed proprietor whose life was spent in solving the prob- 
lems of nature, and his leisure in contemplating and communing with her 
and in reflecting and meditating on the history of her dealing with man 
imbued with the philosophy and culture of humanity — whether this mind 
should rule this country or whether it should fall under the dominion of 



142 William and Mary Quarterly 

the man whose vision was blurred by the smoke of the factory as he 
peered through the brazen gratings of the counting-house. That was thr 
conflict, the manor or the counting-house — and that alone. Let no man 
cherish any illusions about freedom or slavery, union or disunion, and all 
the cheap froth and foam that dances before the eyes of the smug Uriah 
Heeps who nurse these tender offspring of their pious imaginations. 
These infants have left their swaddling clothes long ago, have grown up 
and grown old and are slowly but stubbornly yielding up their Hfe. 

What then is a gentleman that in many lands from time to time the 
wrath of the millions should blaze out against him and he be consumed in 
its flame? St. Augustine said when asked to define Time and Space, 
"When not asked, I know; when asked, I know not." Nature in many 
of her moods baffles the imitator and defies the artist but Cardinal Newman 
essayed the role of painting this picture and has drawn it with a master 
hand. 

"It is almost a definition of a gentleman to say that he is one who never 
inflicts pain ♦ * ♦ He is mainly occupied in merely removing the ob- 
stacles which hinder the free and unembarrassed action of those about 
him ; and he concurs with their movements rather than takes the initiative 
himself. His benefits may be considered parallel to what are called com- 
forts or conveniences in arrangements of a personal nature ; like an easy 
chair or a good fire which do their part in dispelling cold and fatigue. 
though nature provides both means of rest and animal heat without them. 
The true gentleman in like manner carefully avoids whatever may cause 
a jar or a jolt in the minds of those with whom he is cast; all clashing of 
opinion, or collision of feeling, all restraint, or suspicion or gloom, or. 
resentment ; his great concern being to make every one at his ease and at 
home. He has his eyes on all his company; he is tender towards the bashful 
gentle towards the distant, and merciful towards the absurd ; he can recol- 
lect to whom he is speaking; he guards against unseasonable allusions, or 
topics which may irritate; he is seldom prominent in conversation and 
never >yearisome. He makes light of favors while he does them, and seems 
to be receiving when he is conferring. He never speaks of himself except 
when compelled, never defends himself by a mere retort, he has no ears for 
slander or gossip, is scrupulous in imputing motives to those who interfere 
with him, and interprets everything for the best. He is never mean or little 
in his disputes, never takes unfair advantage, never mistakes personalities 
or sharp sayings for arguments, or insinuates evil which he dares not say 
out. From a long-sighted prudence, he observes the maxim of the ancient 
sage, that we should conduct ourselves towards our enemy as if he were 
one day to be our friend. He has too much good sense to be affronted at 
insults, he is too well employed to remember injuries, and too indolent to 
bear malice. He is patient, forbearing, and resigned on philosophical 
principles; he submits to pain because it is inevitable, to bereavement be- 
cause it is irreparable, and to death because it is his destiny." 



-■■, 

I 



William and Mary Quarterly 143 

This then was the guilt of the South — that she bore this rare and 
beautiful flower, nourished it on her broad and fertile bosom, cherished it 
as a priceless jewel, bathed it with her bright sunshine and watered it with 
her dews and showers, felt her heart throb with maternal pride and joy 
as she beheld it increase and multiply and dissolved in bitter tears as she 
saw the iron heel of the Goth and the Vandal trample it in the dust. 

Such was the Old Virginia gentleman and as the last scion of those 
lordly halls, in the gathering gloom of the twilight of his life with the 
shadows of the tomb deepening round him, gazes into the dying embers of 
the soft, pure flame kept brightly burning for three hundred years on his 
ancestral altar by the Vestal spirit of his race, well may he feel one last 
proud throb of his feeble heart, one faint, Hngcring flush of his wasted 
cheeks as he looks around on the walls of the vast halls and spacious cor- 
ridors of the manor of his dynasty and sees them covered with the 
escutcheons of that noble order of knights of the human heart, each and 
all emblazoned in letters of pure and shining gold with the legend, 
'vlthout fear and without reproach/' 

Robert L. Preston. 



144 William and Mary Quarterly 



HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL NOTES 

Tyler.— "On page 283, Volume XIX, it is stated that 'William Tyler 
had a son William Scott Tyler, whose widow married a second time- 
Joseph A. Wherry and is now living at 308 Benton Avenue, Marshall, 
Missouri.' Now Captain William Tyler never had a son named William 
Scott Tyler, but he did have a grandson named William Scott Tyler. 
whom I married and had five children by — three sons and two daughters. 
My husband's father was named John Tyler and he married Anne Dorsett. 
She died when my husband was only three years old. Then John Tyler 
married the widow of George Stevens, who was a Miss Judith Goodwin of 
Virginia. Captain William Tyler married Miss Scott and my husband, 
his grandson, was named William Scott Tyler. He was born July 3, 
1840." — Mary Lanham Wherry, Farmington, Missouri. 

Patman-Bigger. — "Polly Patman, the wife of Samuel Weaver was the 
daughter of William Patman, born about 1760 in Henrico County, Va., died 
and left his will in Oglethorpe County, Ga., in 1819; and his wife, Susannah 
Bigger, born about 1760, (supposed to have been born in Prince Edward), 
and married there about 1780. 

'T want to get proof that she was the daughter of John Bigger, Sr., 
of Prince Edward County, Va., and to know for sure if Elizabeth Gary 
was the wife of this John Bigger, Sr. 

'Wanted proof that this John Bigger, Sr., is the Captain Bigger men- 
tioned in McAllister's Book, 'Virginia in the Revolution,' page 124." — 
Mrs. A. L. Porter, Sylacauga, Alabama. 

Religious Freedom. — (From a Council Book in the Library of Con- 
gress 1698-1700) Saturday, April 29, 1699. M^ Francis Mackemie a Dis- 
senting minister by his Peticon to His Excellency having prayed that a 
Proclamation may Issue declaring the freedom and Liberty of Conscience 
that is allowed by the Laws of England and forbidding all persons what- 
soever [to interfere with?] any sect of dissenters in the free and open 
exercise of religion according to their severall persuasions, the said 
' Mackemie was called into the Council Chamber an his Excellency by the 
advice of the Council was pleased to let him know that all Dissenters 
under his government shall have such liberty allowed them as the Law di- 
rects — provided they use it civilly and quietly and do not disturb the Peace 
of the Government, which is all the Encouragement they can, or ought to 
expect from him, that if he on his Parte had complyed with the Law, 
he was free to Prosecute such as molested him contrary to Law. 

The Colony Seal. — (From a Council Book in the Library of Con- 
gress 1698-1700). June 22, 1699, His Excellency having upon the eighth 
day of the Instant caused his Maj*-® Royall commands (for the using of 



William and Mary Quarterly 145 

tlie new seal) to be published and having accordingly at that time affixed 
the said seal to a proclamation for a solemn day of thanksgiving and to 
severall Acts of Assembly which he then gave his assetit unto and haveing 
caused the old seals to be delivered to him that they might be broken 
according to his Maj^^ comands, this day the said old seals to wit: one very 
large silver seal given by the late King James the second which was never 
used and the small steel seal given by King Charles which was in constant 
use were in the presence of his Excellency and the Council defaced and 
broken. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Daniel Gookin, 1612-1687, Assistant and Major General of the Massachu- 
setts Colony. His life and Letters and some account of his Ancestry. 
By Frederick William Gookin, Chicago. Privately printed. 

The Gookin family forms a link between early Virginia and early 
Massachusetts which is very interesting. The author throws much light 
upon this early connection. Daniel Gookin, of Carigaline, County Cork, 
Ireland, arrived in Virginia, November 22, 1621, and a month earlier had 
arrived his friend. Sir William Newce, of Newce's Town, Ireland. Newce 
soon died and the grant that was made to Gookin of 2,500 acres, covering 
a portion of the site of the present Newport News, had doubtless been 
intended for his friend from the same county, Sir William Newce, and was 
certainly given his name. New Port Newce. Captain Gookin appears first 
to have settled on a portion of the tract called "Marie's Mount" some dis- 
tance above the present city, and this tract containing 150 acres he sub- 
sequently alienated to his manager, Thomas Adison. The legend that New- 
port News obtains its name from Captain Christopher Newport rests on no 
plausible foundation. When he was most active in colonial affairs the 
place had the name of Point Hope, and Robert Beverley who wrote nearly 
a century later clearly confuses him, so far as Newport News is concerned, 
with Daniel Gookin. See "Newport News" (William and Mary Quar- 
terly, Vol. IX, pp. 232-237), Daniel Gookin, the immigrant, died in the 
City of Cork in Ireland in February or March, 1632-1633. His son 
Daniel, who was a Puritan remained in Virginia till 1644 when he re- 
moved to Maryland and finally settled in Massachusetts, where he was a 
leading citizen. The book is printed in excellent taste. 

A History of Education in Virginia. By Cornelius J. Heatwole, B. S., 
A. M., New York. The-Macmillan Company, 1916. 

The plan and scope of this work is excellent. There are some pretty 
bad hypographical errors, but it contains much that is really admirable. Mr. 
Heatwole, however, makes a terrible error when he writes on classes in 
Virginia. He appears to make society in colonial times a composition of 



146 William and Mary Quarterly 

aristocrats and poor people who did their bidding. At least, this is wh.n 
I understand him to mean when he says that there was no middle cla-: 
in Virginia till two hundred years after the settlement at Jamestown. A: 
a matter of fact, there were no classes at all in the sense of persons hav- 
ing exclusive privileges as prevails to-day in Germany and even England. 
There were social distinctions not recognized by law, but during the 
Colony these distinctions were never so powerful as those that existed in 
New England The aristocrats of Virginia were rulers of negro slaves and 
were supreme on their plantations, but outside of these limits they had no 
real authority. Thus the Virginia aristocracy, while very spectacular, were 
never so politically powerful as the men who constituted the oligarchies 
that ruled in New England towns. 

One thing alone confirmed the democracy of Virginia and rendered any 
permanent distinctions in society impossible, and that is the prevalence of 
universal suffrage for election to the House of Burgesses throughout 
nearly the w^hole of the colonial life — certainly down to as late as 1736. 
The great distinction in Virginia society was race not class, and the poorest 
white man insisted upon his full equality with the best. Governor Spots- 
wood said as much in 1713, and Spotswood knew. This was the universal 
rule during the i8th century and even during the 17th century when large 
bodies of white servants were imported, the service was brief, and the 
opportunities afforded in the easy acquisition of land contributed to rai-e 
many of the poorer planters in the social scale and to confirm the inde- 
pendence which they enjoyed, so that many of the former servants became 
leading men in the Colony. Nor must it be forgotten that mere service was 
never a stigma in this new country, and it is a fact abundantly shown in 
the records that some of the servants were of better families in England 
than their masters. The ultimate consequences of society in Virginia 
and New England was seen after the Revolution, when for the first time 
the different communities had the opportunity of directing without foreign 
restraint the government of their country. Virginia became the head- 
quarters of the Democratic Republican party of popular ideas, and New 
England that of the Federalist party — the party of aristocratic ideas. 



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(Sluartcrl? Tbietortcal flDagasine. 

Vol. XXV JANUARY, 1917 No 3. 

WILLIAMSBURG LODGE OF MASONS 

There was recently returned to Williamsburg from the Library 
of Congress, by authority of a joint resolution of Congress, dated 
April 19, 1 91 6, an old volume of the minutes of the Williamburg 
Lodge of Masons, running live years from the day of the Feast 
of St. John the Baptist, June 24, 5774 (profanely 1774) to June 
24, 5779, inclusive. A pencil jotting on one of the leaves "Lan- 
caster City, Penn^, Oct. 2^, 1865" probably shows that the Library 
got possession of it from a person in that quarter, who carried it 
off from Williamsburg during the war. 

In 1892 some account was given in this magazine of the early 
history of Williamsburg Lodge,^ and this old book affords some 
further light. The charter of November 6, 5774 is given in full, 
and is shown to have been granted by command of Robert Edward 
Petre, Lord Petre, Baron of Writtle in the County of Essex, 
England, grand master of Masons in England. It was witnessed 
by D. G. M. Charles Dillon and G. S. James Hesseltine. It ap- 
pointed Peyton Randolph as Master, John Minson Gait Senior 
Warden 'and Edward Charlton, Junior Warden for opening the 
Lodge. 

The first meeting recorded in this book is one held June 24, 
1774, on the feast day of St. John the Baptist. John Minson Gait- 
presided, and the accounts of John Turner as treasurer for the 
past year were examined, and a balance found in his hands of 



^Quarterly I, 1-34. 

- He was a surgeo:i in cliary;e of the sick soldiers in Williamsburg. Va., 
during the Revolution. Educated at William and Mary College and at 
Edinburgh and Paris. 



150 William and Mary Quarterly ^ 

thirteen pounds, sixteen shillings & six pence. For the ensuing 
year John Blair was made Master, William Waddill Deputy Mas- 
ter, William Finnie, Senior Warden, Harrison Randolph, Junior 
Warden, John Rowsay, Treasurer, William Russell, Secretary, 
and Humphrey Harwood and James Gait, Stewards. The same 
day brother Gabriel Maupin was paid 20 pds for the use of his 
house as a lodge for the last year, and the officers of the Lodge 
were constituted a committee to draw up a set of regulations. 

August 2, 5774 (1774) the committee of the Lodge w^ere re- 
quired to prepare a petition to the next House of Burgesses for 
permission to hold a lottery to raise money for building a lodge 
room^ and "other conveniences for the same." 

Oct. 4, 5774, Edmund Randolph was requested to revise the 
laws of the Lodge. 

October 5, 5774. "The design of this meeting being to lay 
the Foundation Stone of the stone Bridge to be built at the Capi- 
tol Landing, the Lodge accordingly Repaired thereto, and after 
the usual Libations & having placed a Medal under the corner 
stone and laid the same in due form closed the Lodge. The 
inscription of which medal is as follows : 

Georgio Tertio Rege 4 

' Comite Dunmore Praefecto | 

Peyton Randolph Latomorum praeside Supremo | 

Johanne Blair Praeside A. L. 5774." | 

3 

15 December, 5774. Present Peyton Randolph G. M., John 
Blair D. G. M., William Waddill D. M., William Finnie S. W., 
Edmund Randolph J. W. Pro., John Rowsay Treas., William 
Russell Sect., Hum: Harwood & James Gait Stew'^% John Minson 
Gait' P. M. Measures were taken for a Ball to be held with the 
permission of his Excellency the Governor (Dunmore), who was 
to be invited, at the Capitol Building. Brother Maupin was to 
provide the entertainment on "most frugal terms," and the officers 
of the Lodge were to be a committee of supervision. 



1 The lodge was built on Francis Street, near the powder magazine. 
It was pulled down only a short time ago. (See picture in "History of 
Williamsburg," by Tyler, pp. 244-247.) 



William and Mary Quarterly 151 

Dec. 22, 5774. James Hubard, James McClurg, and James 
Madison were passed to the degree of a Fellow craft and after- 
wards raised to the degree of Master Mason. 

June 16, 5775. "On the Petition of Brother Peal, 

desiring the loan of the picture belonging to this Lodge which was 
taken for our worshipful Pro v. Grand Master, the same was 
granted him upon his giving surety for the safe return of the 
same at the appointed time." 

Nov. 6, 1775. "Ordered that this Lodge go into mourning for 
our Late Worthy Grand Master^ and continue till his corps shall 
arrive and that this Lodge attend in procession and that the order 
be published in the Virginia Gazette." 

December 21, 1775. Brother Rind's children to be supported 
by this Lodge and a committee of charity appointed. Brother 
Wm. Peale to be wrote to return the Speaker's Picture. 

December 27, 5775. "Ordered that the Lodge return their 
thanks for the present made the Lodge by Mrs. Randolph (Pro- 
vincial Grand Master's juel, sash and apron.)" 

Ordered that "the charge delivered by Brother Bland (Rev. 
William Bland) be recorded." His concluding words were : "But 
wherefore was I about to draw the Character of a true Mason? 
For not long since you had a bright Exempler to imitate and 
admire. Surely I am not called upon for his name, for surely it 
can never be forgotten. All North America was under his wing, 
but we his peculiar Care. Write a Virtue which he had not faith- 
fully transcribed into his Practice, or enumerate an Excellence to 
which his Heart was a stranger. If malice could be found within 
these walls, she would be silenced by the contemplation of his 
Memory, and Envy herself bear no Fangs against him. That great 
Man — great let me call him — revived the drooping Spirit of 
Masonry. The few remaining of the Elect he concentred in this 
place, and to him must be ascribed the present numerous appear- 
ance of Brethren. I would dwell, forever dwell, on the Remem- 
brance of him, but T fear that my Short acquaintance with the 



1 Peyton Randolph, Provincial Grand Master, died at Philadelphia, 
October 2:2, 1775. He was the first President of the Continental Congress. 



152 William and Mary Quarterly 

Sublimer Parts of Masonry prevents me from doing Justice to 
him. We all well know how Gracefully he filled that Chair, and 1 
congratulate M. B. that we once had such a head and such a 
Father." 

Jany 2^ 5776. The Lodge takes under its care Brother (Wil- 
liam) Rind's^ two eldest Boys. 

Oct. I, 5776. Doctor Rickman Rented the low Rooms of the 
Lodge from the ist of September at twenty pounds per annum. 

November 26, 5776. "Present William Waddill M., John 
Rowsay S. W., John Dixon J. W., Jas. Gait T., William Finnic 
S. P. T., James Slate & Will Nicholson Stewarts, William Bland, 
John Gait, Humphrey Harwood, Jas. Douglas, A. Williamson, 
A. Diddip, P. Moody, B. Bucktrout, F. Bickerton, Jas. McClurg, 
Will Johnson, Charles Ferguson, Ja^ Wood, George Reid, 
Ja* Kemp, John Clarkson, Edw*^ Ervin & Gabriel Maupin, met 
and agreed on the form of the procession of our late worthy 
Brother Peyton Randolph Grand Master of Virginia, Deceased, 
and then repaired to the CoUedge Chappel, after the corps was 
Interred, returned to the Lodge and adjourned till a Lodge in 
course." 

Dec. 3, 5776. "On motion that Brother Davis be desired to 
preach on Saint John's (Day) and Brother Bland read prayers, 
and we dine and Sup and have a Ball for the entertainment of the 
Ladies at the house of Mrs. Campbell as usual heretofore. Or- 
dered that Ticketts be prepared by the Treasurer and delivered 
and at five dollars to all Regular made Masons." 

"On a motion made Resolved that the Master of this Lodge 
(William Waddill) be directed to WTite to all the regular Lodges 
in this State, requesting their attendance by their deputies at this 
Lodge in order to form a convention to choose a Grand Master 
for the State of Virginia on the first day of the next Assembly." 

Dec. 17, 5776. The Ball called off on account of the critical 
times and that tickets be issued to all regular made JMasons at 
12 and 6 pence each for the Dinner on St. John's Day, to be pre- 
pared by Brother Maupin. 



^William Rind was editor of one of the Virginia Gazettes published 
in Williamsburg at this time. 



William and Mary Quarterly 153 

April I, 5777. "On a Motion Resolved that the present officers 
are appointed to meet the deputies from the other Lodges." 

May 6, 5777. "On a motion Resolved that a committee be 
appointed to consist of Brother J. M. Gait, bros, Edmund Ran- 
dolph, Bland, Rowsay and Waddill to consider & Give an answer 
to the Letters received from the different Lodges in answer to 
one from the Master of this Lodge in consequence of a Resolu- 
tion of this Lodge on the 3** of December, 1776." 

June 3, 5777. "On a motion Resolved that the Master & 
wardens-elect, William Finnic, Doctor James McClurg and J. M. 
Gait, be added to the former Deputation appointed by this Lodge 
to meet in Convention of the Craft on the 23** Instant agreeable 
to a Requisition of the Craft held the 13^^ of May last." 

"On a motion Resolved the Ceiling of the Lodge be removed 
& an arched ceiling Turned in its place & blinds be made to the 
windows for the admission of fresh and cool air." 

"On a motion Resolved that there be an elegant Frame made 
to the Picture of our Late Worthy and Honble Provincial G. M. & 
that the Treasurer be appointed to Employ some person to make 
it." ^ 

"Feast of St. John the Baptist 5777 (June 24?) 

On motion made and seconded (by?) Brother Ed^ Randolph 
Tis ordered that Brother Bucktrout do hand about a Subscription 
among the Brotherhood for the purpose of collecting a sum of 
Money to be laid out in an organ for the use of this Lodge and 
that he report his success at the next lodge in course." 

"The worshipful Junior Warden recommended Major John 
Allison, seconded by Brother Gibson ; Brother Gibson recom- 
mended Captain Windsor Brown & William Payne, seconded by 
the W. J. W. The W. J. W. recommended Lieut. John Sheild sec- 
onded by the Brother Treasurer as proper persons to be initiated in 
the mysteries of Masonry, who were each and Severally Ballotted 
for and Accepted (being transient Persons) and regularly made 
Entered Apprentices." 



* See an account of this painting by Peale, Quarterly I, p. 7. 



154 William and Mary Quarterly § 

? 

"Brother Edmund Randolph discontinued himself a member 
of this Lodge." 

July I, 5777. "The Right Worshipful Master (V/illiam 
Finnie)^ presented a letter to the Lodge from the Convention of 
Five Lodges assembled in the Lodge Room of the City of Wil- 
liamsburg on the 2T^^ of June last pursuant to an adjournment of 
the Deputys assembled in the said Lodge Room of the City of 
Williamsburg on the 13^^ of May last and agreeable to their invi- 
tation to the several regular Lodges of this State was delivered 
to the Secretary, by him read, and on the motion of the Worship- 
ful Junior Warden ordered to be recorded." (But no record 
was made). 

December 6, 5777. "On a motion Resolved that this Lodge do 
meet on the Feast of St. John, the Evangelist, next ensuing and 
proceed in procession to Church to hear Divine Service and a 
Sermon, that the worshipful Junior Warden do bespeak a supper 
on the occasion, that the Ladies in Town be invited as usual to 
spend the evening in Harmony. A committee of the officers & 
Past officers do meet and agree upon a plan to regulate the pro- 
ceedings of the Evening. 

Brother James Gait protested against the proceedings Relative 
to the Ball in the evening, but assigned no Reasons." 

August 4, 5778. Robert Andrews- Master, John M. Gait S. 
W., Humphrey Harwood, J. W., James Gait Treas., Leighton 
Wood Jr., Secry. \ 

"This being the first Lodge that hath been held since receiving 
the melancholy account of our late worthy Brother's death Major 
Edmund B. Dickenson, who gloriously fell in defence of our Civil 
Rights and Liberties, It is Resolved that the usual Ceremonies 
indicating Joy and Pleasure be omitted for the present Evening." 

October 6, 5778. "On a Motion made It is ordered that 
Brothers Robert Andrews, John Blair,. William Waddill, William 



1 Col. William Finnic was Adjutant Quarter Master General of Vir- 
ginia during the Revolution. 

2 Robert Andrews, professor of Moral Philosophy in the College, and 
in 1784 professor of Mathematics. 



William and Mary Quarterly 155 

Finnic, James McClurg, Humphrey Harwood and John Minson 
Gait, or any three of them, attend the Convention of deputies 
appointed to meet the 13^'' instant to Choose a Grand Master." 

December 28, 5778 "Present The Honorable John Blair, Esq. 
Grand Master, Robert x\ndre\vs Master, John Minson Gait S. \V., 
Humphrey Harwood J. W., James Gait Treas., Leighton Wood, 
Jun. Secry. William Finnie P. M., John Rowsay P. S. W^, John 
Dixon P. J. W., William Goodson and George Reid P. Secrys. 
James Douglas and Mathew Anderson — Stewards, Revd James 
Madison Chaplain. Richard Charlton, Philip Moody, Archibald 
Williamson, James Slate, Benjamin Bucktrout, James Innes, John 
Clarkson, Henr>^ Tazewell, David Morton, Nicholas George Moe- 
balle, David Lowe, Foster Webb, Thomas Smith, George Cham- 
berlayne, W^illiam Nicholson, John Farquharson, Gabriel Maupin, 
Beverley Randolph, James Southall, Samuel Beall, Joseph Hay, 
William Hickman, Charles D'Klauman, David Mann, Charles 
Edw** Ferguson, Thomas Russell & William Bland. Visiting 
Brethren Philip Mazzei^ and John Lockley." 

"This Lodge being held pursuant to former Resolutions 
passed for celebrating the high Feast of St. John the Evangelist 
and for the purpose of meeting in order to go in Procession to 
Church, the Brethren accordingly went, when after divine service 
a solemn charge suitable to the Occasion was delivered by the 
Reverend Brother iMadison. 

On return of the Brethren from Church it was Resolved that 
the Thanks of the Lodge be given to Brother Maddison for the 
excellent Charge this day delivered and also Ordered that the 
same be entered on the Records of this Lodge." 

April 10, 5779. The Lodge resolves to attend the funeral of 
Brother Archibald Williamson by going in procession to the 
Church. 



1 An Italian gentleman, who settled in Albemarle County just before 
the Revolution, to cultivate grapes. A letter written to him after his 
return to Italy, by Mr. Jefferson, became famous. 



156 



William and Mary Quarterly 



June 24, 5779, being the Feast of the Holy St. John, the Bap- 
tist. Present The Honourable John Blair, Esq.,^ Grand Master. 
Robert Anderson Master &c.. The Lodge celebrated the day by 
the election of officers and proceeding to Brother Southall's ^ at 
six o'clock for supper. 



ijohn Blair, Past Master of Williamsburg Lodge, was made first 
Grand Master of the State October 13, 1778. He was son of John Blair, 
President of the Virginia Council. He was appointed by Washington 
Associate Justice of the United States. Born in 1732; died August 31, 
1800. , 

2 James Southall, who kept the Raleigh Tavern. 



v^^i 




FESTIVAL OFST.JOILX. I 



^^Sr^^?^.^P^ ^^_y THR Members of Lodci No. 6, request J 



the pleasure of your company, at a Ball to 
be given at the Capitol, on PniDXT the 27lh 
inst al 6 o*clock, P. M. 

SAMUEL TRAVIS, 
JESSE COLE, 

LF.O'D. HENLEY, ^s ; 

RO. McCANDLlSff, 
LARKIN SMITH, 
FRANCIS TEl EREL, 



' hi 

EL, J • I 



I WiixTAMSBtnwj, December 20, A. D. 1816. A. L. 5816. 



JPKLNVSU Bit SHIKXJ)?* CHA1U.T0X &. CO. — >011iOJ.K.. 



Invitation to a ball given by Williamsburg Lodge in honor of the 
Festival day of St. John, the Evangelist, December 27. A. D. 1816. A. L. 
5816. From an original framed, and hanging on the walls of the Lodge 



William and Mary Quarterly 157 



SEAL OF WILLIAMSBURG 

Qn April 2^, 1699, an act provided for the laying out of Wil- 
liamsburg at Middle Plantation, and for the building of a new 
government house. On July 8, 1722, the place was made an in- 
corporated City by a charter granted by Governor Alexander 
Spots wood and signed by him. Unlike the charter of the College, 
it was a royal charter only in the sense that it ran like all official 
documents — court summonses, land grants &c. — in the name of 
the King (then George I.) 

The Charter provided for a seal which the authorities were 
authorized "to break, change and make anew from time to time as 
to them should seem expedient." ^ 

It is to be presumed that a seal was soon adopted, but I have 
no records which would enable me to give any account of the 
designer or engraver. Indeed, it is not till thirty-six years later 
that we have any special evidence of the design. When Governor 
Robert Dinwiddie left the Colony in 1758, he was presented by 
the Common Council of Williamsburg with a manuscript address, 
which was extant in London in 1884. The paper had a seal at- 
tached which was seen by the distinguished genealogist, R. A. 
Brock, of Richmond, and described by him as follows : "City of 
Williamsburg, around an indistinct figure standing enclosed with 
scroll work, seemingly that of Minerva, with helmet, and holding 
a spear." ^ 

Through certain depositions attested by the Mayor, Henry 
Edloe, under the Seal of the City, and dated May 17, 1837, sent 
to the writer some years ago by a gentleman in Baltimore, Mr. 
Brock*s description is confirmed. These papers, now in the Col- 
lege Library, contain two well preserved impressions of a seal 
on wax which may be described as follows : City of Williams- 
burg, around a figure enclosed with a scroU work, her right hand 
holding a spear and her left holding a shield with a Gorgon's head 



^Building of Williamsburg, Quarterly X, 73*92. 
2 See Brock, Letters of Robert Dinwiddie, II, p. 724. 



158 



William and Mary Quarterly 



(very indistinct) embossed upon it, and at her feet what appears 
to be an owl's head. (See Illustration No. i.) The figure is that 
of Minerva in her double character as goddess of war and wis- 




Illustration No. i. Charter Seal of Wiluamburg, 1722 

Copy of a drawing made from two wax seals attached to a manuscript 
dated May 17, 1837, and mentioned in the text as attested by Henry Edloe, 
Mayor. The Gorgon's head on the shield and owl's head are rather imagi- 
native, as the wax impressions are too vague for the features to be easily 
determined. The Gorgon's head, however, is unlike that of the hag de- 
picted on the shield in Illustration 2. > 



dom. The spear, shield and Gorgon's head, which, according to 
Grecian mythology, turned to stone any one beholding ii, sug- 
gested the former character, while the owl's head (?), emblem- 
atic of wisdom, sus:s:ested the latter. 



During the War between 










^ 






X 



o. 




Illustration' X'o. 2. Revolution' arv Seal of Williamsburg 

(The impression from the original negative gives the figures and 
letters reversed. Here the}- are represented in their correct relations.) 




Illustration Xo. 3. Present Seal of W'illiamsburc 



William and Mary Quarterly 159 

the States, it is believed, the metal stamp from which the impres- 
sions were made, disappeared, necessitating a new stamp, and the 
stamp now in use bears a simple "City of Williamsburg, Va.," in 
the perimeter, encircling "James City County." (See Illustration 
No. 3.) 

That a change was contemplated in the seal at the time of the 
American Revolution is made plain by some facts recently come to 
the knowledge of the writer. Among the negatives owned by 
H. P. Cook, photographer, in Richmond, are those of a seal of 
Williamsburg showing two pictures. This negative (see Illustra- 
tion 2), by giving the letters and figures reversed, was 
evidently taken directly from a die, which cannot now be found, 
and the negative itself was purchased about 1888 by Mr. Cook's 
father from the "Lee Gallery," of Richmond, of which J. W. 
Davies and W. W. Davies were proprietors. Here we have what 
was evidently an obverse side and a reverse side. The obverse 
is strikingly like the impressions already described, but the scroll 
work is different and much inferior, and the owFs head (?) is 
absent. In the perimeter in addition to the words "City of Wil- 
liamsburg" are the words Virtiite et Lahore Florent Respiiblicae. 

But there is also a reverse which is very interesting. We 
have no knowledge of the design for a reverse on the original 
Colonial seal, but it is probable that one existed and that it repre- 
sented the royal quartering of England, Ireland and Scotland, 
with the familiar motto En Dat Virginia Qitartam (Lo! Virginia 
gives the fourth Crown). The reverse under notice has a truly 
revolutionary character. A giant figure clad in armor, evidently 
representing Virginia in arms, is thrusting its spear into a rather 
diminutive lion with a crown upon its head and rearing upon its 
hind feet (representing Great Britain) and underneath are the 
words En Dat Virginia Primum (Lo! Virginia gives the first 
thrust), referring doubtless to the initiative taken in Williams- 
burg in 1765 against the Stamp Act. Above the figure are the 
words In Hoc Signo Vinces, doubtless defined by the thirteen 
stars just beneath, representing the thirteen original states. 

I have seen no instance of the use of the obverse or reverse of 
this Revolutionary emblem, and, as already shown, the device used 



i6o William and Mary Quarterly 

in 1837, although very similar to the obverse, differs from it in 
some particulars, and was doubtless struck from the original 
stamp made after the charter of 1722. 

It is to be hoped that the city will revert to the use of the beau- 
tiful old seal, now that its character has been determined. 





Medal of Flat Hat Club, formerly owned In- Cohwel James Innes. aiK 

now in possession of Harold Randoli">h. of Baltimore. Maryland. 

Photograph from original. December, 1916. 



William and Mary Quarterly i6i 

THE FLAT HAT CLUB 
See Quarterly XX, p. 146, and The Flat Hat, Vol. i, No. i. 

Among the earliest collegiate societies the Phi Beta Kappa 
Society established at William and Mary College, in 1776, takes 
precedence as the first Greek letter fraternity. Its object was both 
literary and social. It was not, however, the first club or society 
of students. In 1769 the "American Whig Society" was founded 
at Princeton University, and contained such members as William 
Bradford and James Madison. Much earlier was the Flat Hat 
Club, or F. H. C, established at William and Mary in 1750, and 
which continued in existence till after 1772. This was also a 
secret society. It contained such members as Thomas Jefferson, 
James Innes, St. George Tucker, Rev. Thomas Gwatkin and 
Robert Baylor. 

The memory of this fraternity had entirely died out at William 
and Mary, but was suddenly revived by the discovery in Richmond 
of a photograph of the medal worn by one of the members and 
handed over to the President of the College in 1909. This was 
foUovr^ed by the discovery of certain manuscript material in the 
correspondence of St. George Tucker, who was a student of the 
College in 1772 and afterwards was a distinguished judge of the 
State Supreme Court. These manuscripts consist of (i) a letter 
of Mr. Jefferson, written to John D. Taylor, of Maryland, giving 
some account of the club at the College, stating that he was a 
member, and that out of this club the Phi Beta Kappa, founded 
in 1776, might have arisen; (2) a list of the books described as 
compiled for the club's library, in 1772, by Rev. Thomas Gwatkin, 
Professor of Mathematics; (3) the credentials of Robert Baylor 
as a member in abbreviated Latin. These manuscripts were seen 
and read by the Editor, while in the possession of Mr. George 
P. Coleman, of Williamsburg. 

The history of the medal is interesting. A short time ago 
the negative of the photograph referred to above was traced to 
H. P. Cook, photographer, in Richmond, Va., whose father ob- 
tained it about thirty years ago from the Lee Gallery, of which 



1 



1 62 William and Mary Quarterly 

J. W. Davies and W. W. Davies were proprietors. Further in- 
vestigation showed that the drawing was originally made by Mr. 
R. A. Brock, late deceased, the distinguished antiquarian, who had 
the photograph taken by the Lee Gallery. The descriptive words 
at the bottom "Flat Hat Club, Williamsburg, Virginia," were fully 
identified by Mr. Brock's daughter, Miss Elizabeth C. Brock, as 
in his handwriting. This led to an investigation of Mr. Brock's 
copious note books with the result that the following entry was 
discovered in one of them: 

"Flat Hat Club, Williamsburg, Va., — Medal belonging to Maj. 
Innis Randolph, Corner Lexington and Calvert Streets, Balti- 
more, Md. Tt belonged to my great-grandfather. Col. James 
Innes, attorney-general of Virginia. His only daughter, Anne, 
married Peyton Randolph of Wilton. My father was their only 
son and this branch of the Innes family is extinct in us. The 
medal was worn at the watch guard. My grandmother remem- 
bers it. It was a club at Williamsburg, perhaps semi-political. I 
fancy that the rose and thistle were on the obverse. The clasped 
hands and the motto indicate that it was more than a social club. 
It may, however, had been a mere college club or whist club. The 
tradition is that they met in the upper room of the tavern and that 
their laughter shook the house. I fancy that there was a punch 
bowl near about.' " 

This entry was made in 1881 or 1882. Acting on the hint con- 
tained in this memorandum, the Editor made inquiries in Balti- 
more and finally located the medal in the family of Mr. Harold 
Randolph, of that city. Mr. Randolph wrote as follows : 

"My mother has referred to me your letter of October 26th in 
regard to the "Flat Hat Club." The medal of which you speak 
belonged to my father, Innes Randolph, who died in 1887, and it 
is now in my possession. In your letter to the Maryland His- 
torical Society of October 21st you mention a photograph of this 
medal, adding that you would like to see the original. I shall be 
very glad indeed to show it to you, together with some papers 
and letters concerning Col. Innes, but am reluctant to let them 
go out of my possession — unless there is positively no other way 
of your seeing them. Is there not a possibility of your coming to 
Baltimore some time in the near future ? 



William and Mary Quarterly 163 

Col. Innes was my great-great-grandfather and the medal, 
& accompanying documents — altho' they refer in no way to the 
medal or the "Flat Hat Club" — are highly prized family heir- 
looms." 

Since the receipt of this letter, Mr. Harold Randolph has sent, 
direct from the seal itself, a photograph which has been used to 
illustrate this paper. The obverse shows a monogram, F. H. C, 
with the date of foundation, November 11, 1750; and the reverse 
a heraldic representation : a chevron with a rose in the apex, and 
underneath two clasped hands. 

A word may be proper in regard to James Innes, the original 
owner of this most interesting relic — probably the most interesting 
connected with student life existing in this country. He was a 
son of the Rev. Robert Innes, a Scotchman and graduate of Ox- 
ford, and was born in 1754. On November 22, 1770, he was ap- 
pointed a Foundation Scholar in the College of William and Mary, 
and on May 27, 1772, he was appointed Assistant Usher of the 
Grammar School. On June 25, 1773, he was appointed Usher of 
the College, and the same year joined the Masonic Lodge in 
Williamsburg. Innes shared in all the excitement of the coming 
Revolution, and on May 27, 1774, he was one of the signers of 
the Association entered into by members of the House of Bur- 
gesses and distinguished private citizens to prevent the importa- 
tion of British merchandise into the Colony. In 1775 he was 
elected Captain of the Williamsburg Volunteers, and in February, 
1776, he marched against Dunmore's troops at Hampton. Pre- 
vious to this he was removed from his office as Usher by the Tory 
Faculty of the College. In November, 1776, as Lt-Col. he be- 
came an aide to Washington and served at Trenton, Princeton, 
Brandy wine, Germantown and Monmouth. In October, 1778, he 
was appointed a navy commissioner. In 1 780 he entered the house 
of delegates. At the solicitation of Washington, he raised a regi- 
ment for home defense, and commanded it at the siege of York- 
town. He was a member of the convention of 1788, and elo- 
quently supported the Constitution. He then engaged in law 
practice and attained high rank at the bar, and later succeeded 
Edmund Randolph as the second attorney-general of Virginia. 



164 William and Mary Quarterly 

Governor Tazewell pronounced him "the most classical, the most 
elegant and the most eloquent orator" to whom he ever listened. 
Washington held him in highest esteem, and tendered him i\v: 
attorney-generalship of the United States, which his state of health 
obliged him to decline. He died August 2, 1798, before complet- 
ing his forty-fourth year, in Philadelphia, while discharging his 
duties as commissioner under Jay's treaty, and was buried in that 
city, in Christ Church burial ground, not far from the grave of 
Franklin. He was a brother of Harry Innes, attorney-general of 
Kentucky. 

Col. James Innes married Elizabeth Cocke, daughter of James 
Cocke, at one time Mayor of Williamsburg, and had a daughter 
Anne Browne, who married Peyton Randolph, of Wilton, Virginia. 
Peyton and Anne (Innes) Randolph had two children — Lucy and 
James Innes. The latter, James Innes Randolph, married Susan 
P. Armistead, and had issue with other children Innes Randolph, 
Major C. S. A. ; noted for his literary talents and author of a 
number of well-known poems ; married Anne King and had 
Armistead, Harold, Clare and Maud. 

In this connection it may be mentioned that there appears to 
have been another society previous to the American Revolution 
at Wilham and Mary besides the "Flat Hat Club." In a letter 
written by Hon. William Short to Edward Everett, of Harvard, 
in 1 83 1, is the following: 

"There had existed for a long space of time another societ>' at Wil- 
liam and Mary. The initials on its medal, (P. D. A.), were understood 
to indicate Latin words. There was at the same time at College a youth 
whose reputation as a Hellenist was so far beyond that of others, that he 
valued himself, as I remember well, exclusively on it. The P. D. A. So- 
ciety had lost all reputation for letters and was noted only for the dis- , 
sipation and conviviality of its members. Whether they h .d refused to 
admit our Hellenist, or he was unwilling to johi them I do not now 
recollect, but so it was that he determined to get up anot!:er Society in 
opposition — and in conformity with his own reputation formed and 
adapted the Greek phrase indicated by the initials. Whether it be pure 
I would not now say. But at that time none of us supposed anything 
more pure could have been formed in Athens, such was our opinion of the 
great learning of our founder." (See Phi Beta Kappa Key, Vol. I, No. 
7, page 12.) 



William and Mary Quarterly 165 



ROYAL COLLEGES IN THE UNITED STATES 

Columbia University, New York, had its beginning in King's 
College, founded in 1754, and Rutgers College, New Jersey, had 
its beginning in Queen's College, founded in 1766. They are 
often referred to as "Royal Colleges," but, as a matter of fact, 
they obtained their charters from colonial governors. These 
charters were only royal in that they ran like all official docu- 
ments — court summonses, land grants, &c. — in the name of the 
King. They were signed by the Governor. 

The only really royal College in the colonies was the College 
of William and Mary in Virginia. Its Charter was formally 
authorized by Queen Mary in Council, September i, 1692, was 
prepared by Seymour, the Attorney General of England, and on 
February 8, 1693, received in writing the special sanction of King 
William and Queen Mary. The Charter concluded : "Witness 
ourselves at Westminster the 8th day of February, 1693, in the 
Fourth year of our reign. By zvrit of the Privy seal. Pigott." 

Indeed, it is believed that, apart from the royal charters 
granted to the colonies themselves, the Charter of William and 
Mary is the only instance of a royal charter in the American 
English colonies of any character. 



i66 William and Mary Quarterly 

THE GARDENER OF WILLIAMSBURG 
By A. J. Morrison, Hampden-Sidney, Virginia. 

In the year 1818 there was published by Joseph MilHgan, at 
Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, a second edition much 
enlarged of *'The American Gardener, containing ample direc- 
tions for working a kitchen garden every month in the year, and 
copious instructions for the cultivation of flower gardens, vine- 
yards, nurseries, hop yards, green houses and hot houses." This 
work, in 348 pages 16 mo., was composed largely by John Gar- 
diner, and by David Hepburn, "late gardener to Gov. Mercer and 
Gen. Mason." 

The editor of this edition, doubtless the publisher himself, 
said in his prospectus : "The recommendations v/ith which this 
work came forth in the first instance to the American public were 
these: At a time when no work of the kind, adapted to the 
climate of the United States, had fallen from the American press, 
Mr. David Hepburn, a gardener of forty years experience — 
twenty in England and twenty in this country — aware of the in- 
convenience and frequent loss of crops sustained all over the 
Union, by the want of some book of methodical instructions, in 
company with Mr. John Gardiner, a person of skill and experi- 
ence in horticulture, prepared the work in question for the press, 
and it was published at Washington in the year 1804 with a certi- 
ficate from General J. Mason, which stated that the said Hep- 
burn 'had been for six years employed by him on Mason's Island, 
Georgetown ; that he had for that time conducted all the improve- 
ments at that place ; that he parted with him with great regret ; 
that he could with truth say, Hepburn was well skilled in all the 
branches of gardening, and that as a practical man in the culture 
of vegetables and fruit trees he could not be excelled. ' " The 
editor added that the first edition of 1804, had been of incalcul- 
able benefit to this country. Indeed, Publisher Milligan's seven 
page prospectus forms most interesting reading, and cannot but 
lead to the conclusion that the American Gardener shaped from 
Washington many gardens at that time. The agricultural press 
was not doing much business then, and there was necessarily little 
standardization in kitchen or other garden methods in America. 



William and Mary Quarterly 167 

But the title page of the second edition, of 1818, runs further. 
"To which is added a Treatise on Gardening by a citizen of Vir- 
ginia." This treatise, by captions, Artichokes, Asparagus, Beans, 
Cabbage, &c., &c., with a brief calendar at the end, covers pages 
268 to 331 inclusive. The final observations, from page 332, On 
Making Veals, To Make Champagne Wine of Gooseberries, &c., 
seem not to have been the work of the Citizen of Virginia, whose 
recorded knowledge of kitchen gardening shows little of the local 
color. Under Cauliflowers, he mentions "Col. Turner, of King 
George, who was eminent for Cauliflowers," and that is about all. 
The material shows a constant, discriminating use of the cele- 
brated Philip Miller's Gardener's Dictionary, which went through 
so many editions after 1731. 

Nevertheless, the Treatise by the Citizen of Virginia (who 
says nothing at all of Tomatoes, unless the directions for tomato 
ketchup at the last end are his), is important now from the time 
of its first, and even second, appearance. Of the Treatise the 
Editor says, at page 368, — "The annexed little Treatise was 
written many years ago, by a learned and eminent Citizen of 
Virginia ; who delighted in directing under his own eye the culti- 
vation of his garden ; and who printed it for the use of friends, 
by w^hom it has been long and highly prized for the useful in- 
formation it conveys in a small compass, and without the intro- 
duction of a useless word. 

The residence of the author, and his garden, from which he 
drew his observations were in Williamsburg, Virginia. 

Those who consult the Treatise, will know from this hint, 
how to make a proper allowance according to variance in climate, 
for the seasons and times of sowing, planting, &c." 

In the last magazine it is shown that the eminent citizen of 
Virginia who delighted in directing under his own eye the culti- 
vation of his garden was John Randolph, the last Attorney Gen- 
eral of Virginia under the Crown, son of Sir John Randolph of 
Williamsburg and father of Edmund Randolph, Secretary of 
State under Washington. 

The resort to Bulletins from Bureaus is so general to-day 
that here and there it is a matter of surprise to learn that there 
was no agriculture before there was a Department of that name. 



l68 William and Mary Quarterly 

ASSESSORS BOOK FOR 1778 FROM ISLE OF 
WIGHT COUNTY 

In the clerk's office of Isle of Wight County there is a book 
recording returns from three districts in Isle of Wight County 
made under the tax law of October, 1777. (Hening's Statutes 
at Large, IX., 349-368.) Under this law a tax rate of ten shill- 
ings on every hundred pounds value, or 3^ per cent., was levied 
on lands, slaves, mulatto servants to 31 years of age, horses, 
mules, plate and money in actual possession exceeding ^£. In ad- 
dition, a rate of two shillings was levied on every pound of 
annual interest received on all debts ; ten shillings a wheel upon 
all riding carriages, four pence per head on all neat cattle, and 
five shillings per poll upon all free tithables above the age of 
21. It is noticeable that no tax was laid on any farming utensils 
nor on hogs, sheep or goats or fowl. 

In the three districts there were 216 property owners, of 
whom 138 were land owners. There were 186 free white tithables 
above 21 years which included all the white men perhaps in the 
three districts. Of the land owners only 19 had tracts under 
one hundred acres of land, and 36 land owners were not counted 
in the free tithables on account of being women, or residents of 
other counties. Since it is to be presumed that some of the 
tithables above 21 years of age, who had no land themselves, had 
expectant interests in the same, dependent on the death of a 
father or other near relative, the proportion of land owners to 
the population was very large. 

Twenty of the land owners had 500 acres or more : Thomas 
Scott 500, Samuel Wilson 800, Goodrich Wilson 737 acres and 
lots, John Jennings Wheadon 600 acres, Lawrence Baker 11 75, 
Nathaniel Bur well 1040, James Bering 750, Richard Hardy 
1075, John Harmanson (Eastern Shore) 1260, Joseph Fullgham 
510, Brewer Godwin 752, Tristam Norsworthy, Sr., 522, Tris- 
tram Norsworthy, Jr., 1608, Nicholas Parker 500, John Apple- 
white 525, Jonathan Godwin 532, John Pitt 1200, Joseph Parker 
1200, Mills Wilkinson 910, James Peden 500. 



William and Mary Quarterly 169 

There were 1012 slaves, divided among 164 slave owners, of 
whom 44 owned ten or more. William Barlow 12, Jesse Barlow 
II, Lawrence Baker, Esq., 37, Nathaniel Burwell 41, James 
Dering 17, Jesse Glover 12, Richard Hardy 21, Joseph Hill 13, 
William Hollowell 10, Henry Harrison 13, Timothy Tyne 12, 
Samuel Wilson 17, Francis Wrenn 10, John Jennings Wheadon 
36, Goodrich Wilson 20, Charles Burgess 15, John Driver 10, 
Edmund Godwin 10, Ralph Gibbs 14, Brewer Godwin, gent., 30, 
Martha King 13, Joseph Lawrence 10, Tristam Norsworthy, Sr., 
16, Tristram Norsworthy, Jr., 14, George Norsworthy 12, Thomas 
Parker 14, Nicholas Parker 10, Henry Pitt 12, John Applewhite 
24, John Bridger, Jun., 19, Jeremiah Cutchin 13, Priscilla 
Cutchin 16, Joseph Fullgham 15, Jeremiah Godwin 19, Samuel 
Godwin 17, Jonathan Godwin 24, Richard Jordan 18, John 
Smelly 11, Ralph West 13, James Wells 11, Ann Weston 10, 
Mills Wilkinson 26, James Pedan 18, John Harvey 11. 

Nathaniel Burwell had the largest number of slaves 41, Law- 
rence Baker came next with 37, John Jennings Wheadon came 
third with 36, Brewer Godwin came fourth with 30, John Apple- 
white came fifth with 24 and Richard Hardy, father of Hon. 
Samuel Hardy, of the continental Congress, came sixth with 21. 
No one else had more than 20. 

The following 19 owned riding carriages (all two wheeled) : 
John Jordan i, James Jordan i, Lucy Miller i, Francis WYenn i, 
Goodrich Willson i, Elizabeth Applewhite i, Charles Burgess i, 
John Driver i, Edmund Godwin i, Brewer Godwin i, Hezekiah 
Holliday i, Nicholas Parker i, Henry Pitt i, John Applewhite i, 
Priscilla Cutchin i, Joseph Fullgham i, John Godwin i, James 
Wills I, and James Peden i. 

The following fifteen were returned as owners of silver plate: 
Lawrence Baker, Esq., loi, 12s., Jesse Barlow, loi, 5s., Nathaniel 
Burwell 135^, Richard Hardy, gent., 7£, Henry Harrison 2£, los., 
John Oliff iii, 5s., Samuel Wilson io£, los., John Jennings 
Wheadon i£, 5s-, Goodrich Wilson loi los., Ehzabeth Apple- 
white 7£, I OS., Jeremiah Godwin 8£, los., Brewer Godwin 36£, 
George Norsworthy i5£, Nicholas Parker I4£, Thomas Smith i4£. 



170 William and Mary Quarterly 

The following persons were classed as "recusants," who had 
declined or neglected to take the oath of allegiance to the State, 
and were therefore subjected to double taxes: William Braswell, 
Rev. William Duncan, William HoUowell, William Outland, 
Thomas Scott, George Scott, Josiah Outland, Dick Bowzer, 
James Bowzer. 

The State has a complete set of the different County Asses- 
sors books from 1782 to the present, but this is the only complete 
report known to me for any county, or part of a county, previous 
to that year. 



GENEALOGY OF THE SMITH FAMILY OF ESSEX 

COUNTY, VIRGINIA 

Compiled by C. W. Coleman 

(Copied from Volume VI, No. i, pp. 41-53, which is out of print.) 

It is a somewhat curious coincidence that three men named 
Nicholas Smith, each one a prominent man in his community, 
should appear in the Virginia records of the latter half of the 
seventeenth century, and yet have been unrelated, so far as the 
present evidence will show. In addition, a fourth Nicholas Smith, 
a captain in the Royal Navy, was here in the winter and spring 
of i709-'io in command of H. M. S. Enterprise. 

The first was Nicholas Smith, of Isle of Wight, a justice 

and a member of the House of Burgesses for that county in 

i659-'6o (Heniftg L, p. 528.) His will, dated 19 Nov., 1695, 

mentions his wife, Anne, his granddaughter, the daughter of 

Thomas Powell in Maryland, and her two daughters, who would 

thus appear to have been his only descendants. (Isle of Wight 

Records.) 

» 

The second was Col. Nicholas Smith (born in London 4 
Sept., 1666; died in King George Co., Va., 18 IMarch, 1734), a 
justice and coroner of Richmond Co., 1714 (Va. Mag. Hist, and 
Biog., II., p. 12) ; one of the first justices of the new county' of 
King George, 1720 {King George Records) ; member of the 
House of Burgesses, 1723, 1726, i732-'34. {Va. Hist. Reg., IV., 



William and Mary Quarterly 171 

pp. 66, 74; Journal.) He is buried at Smith's Mount, Westmore- 
land Co., where his tombstone bears the following inscription : 

Here lyeth the Body of 

COLL NICHOLAS SMITH 
Son of NICHOLAS & EFSOBAH SMITH 

born at London the 

4*^ day of Sep*''' in the Year 

of our Lord 1666. 

Married his first wife in the 

23^ Yeare of his Age, by whome 

he had no child. 

Married his Second in the 

Year 1722 by whome he 

had 3 children one Son and 

two Daughters 

Departed this life the 18^^ day 

of March in the Year 1734 
in the 68^'' Year of his Age. 

Administration on his estate was granted 3 May, 1734, to his 
widow Elizabeth, she giving bond in the penalty of ii 0,000 cur- 
rent money {King George Records.) One of the three children 
(a daughter) mentioned on the tombstone seems to have died be- 
fore her father, as the bill in a suit brought in King George Co. 
in the name of Thomas Turner, by Thomas Jett, his guardian, 
recites that Nicholas Smith, of King George Co., died possessed 
of a very large estate, leaving one son named Nicholas, and a 
daughter named Elizabeth ; that Harry Turner (father of the said 
Thomas) made his addresses in 1740 to the said Elizabeth Smith, 
who was then under age, and married her in 1743; that young 
Nicholas Smith died intestate and unmarried; and that Harry 
Turner and Elizabeth Smith, his wife, died leaving the said 
Thomas Turner their only son and heir. Harry Turner, the hus- 
band of EHzabeth Smith, was clerk of King George Co., from 
1742 to 1 75 1, the year of his death. The widow married, sec- 
ondly, Bowler Cocke, Jr., and died in 1752. She is buried with 
her first husband and three infant children at Smith's 2vIount. 



172 William and Mary Quarterly 

(Tombstone; Records.) Thus in 1752 the only living descen- 
dant of Col. Nicholas Smith, of King George, was young Thomas 
Turner of the aforementioned suit. In 1794 Henry Smith 
Turner advertised the sale of Smith's Mount — 1,700 acres,; "the 
dwelling-house out of repair." 

The descendants of the third Nicholas Smith are traced in the 
following pedigree : 

I. Nicholas^ Smith, of Petsworth Parish, Gloucester Co., 
Va., was a vestryman 13 Oct., 1697, church warden in 1700. In 
1714 he conveyed to his son Nicholas- Smith, Jr., land in Essex 
Co., purchased of Richard Cocke, and originally patented by 
Thomas Bowler, Esq. (Petsworth Vestry Book; William and 
Mary Quarterly^ V., p. 220; Meade, I., p. 324; Essex Records.) 

II. Capt. Nicholas^ Smith (Nicholas^), of South Farnham 
Parish, in the county of Essex, was appointed a justice between 
1720 and 1730, and was vestryman in 1739. (Meade, I., pp. 393, 
405.) He gave a bond as sheriff and collector in 1730. By deed, 
dated 15 July, 1729, he conveyed to his son Francis^ 400 acres 
of land in Essex, "being the dwelling plantation of the said 
Nicholas Smith;" and in 1733 conveyed land by deed to his son 
Nicholas^ Smith, Jr, Administration on his estate was granted 
16 August, 1757, to his son Nicholas"^ the petition setting forth 
that he died intestate, and that Francis^ Smith w^as the elder son, 
but resigned his "right of administration" to his brother. (Essex 
Records.) Issue, so far as known: 

1. Francis,^ eldest son, of whom hereafter. (See III.) 

2. Nicholas,^ "of South Farnham Parish, in the county of 

Essex, Gent.," made his will 16 Sept., 1755, the same 
being proved 18 Oct., 1757, son-in-law James Medley 

executor. He married Anne , and had issue 

(named in will): i., Francis;* ii., Nicholas;"* iii., 
Samuel;* iv., Susanna,* married James Medley, Jr., 
and had issue, born before 1755: (i), John Medley^; 

(2), Anne Medley f v., Ruth,* married Saile; 

vi., Lucy,* married Dunn; vii., daughter,* 

married Fisher, and had a daughter, Anne 

Fisher,* born before 1755. (Essex Records.) 



William and Mary Quarterly 173 

III. Col. Francis'"^ Smith (Capt. Nicholas,'^ Nicholas^), of 
South Farnham Parish, in the county of Essex, was vestryman 
and justice, 1740 (Meade, I., pp. 393, 405) ; major of horse, 1753, 
and afterwards colonel (Cal., Va. State Papers, I., p. 247) j mem- 
ber of the House of Burgesses for Essex, i752-'58. {Journal; 
Va. Mag. Hist, and Biog., III., p. 192; Gazette.) His will (dated 
5 Mar., 1760; proved 15 Mar., 1762), disposing of a large estate, 
mentions, besides his children, his wife Anne; who received for 
her life in lieu of dower, "half of all my lands at the lower church 
in South Farnham Parish," other lands then in possession of her 
mother, Mrs. Tabitha Adams, widow of Ebenezar Adams, of 
New Kent Co., eleven designated slaves, riding chair and horses, 
and other horses ; thirty head of cattle, twenty sheep, hogs, farm- 
ing implements, "looking glass in the chamber over the hall; a 
dressing glass which stands in the lower chamber; two of my 
best beds and furniture ; two black walnut tables ; one dozen 
chairs, now^ standing in the hall ; all my plate and china ; half the 
kitchen furniture, and my black walnut desk ;" friend Thomas 
Adams "a mourning ring of the price of two guineas ;" son ]Meri- 
wether "choice of my swords ;" "my books to be equally divided 
among my three sons ;" wife Anne, son Meriwether and friend 
(brother-in-law) Thomas Adams executors. {Essex Records.) 
He married, first, about 1729, Lucy, daughter of Francis and 
Mary (Bathurst) Meriwether, of Essex, who was living 21 Oct., 
1740, and had issue (named in will) : 

1. Meriwether,"^ of whom hereafter. (See IV.) 

2. Mary,* married James Webb, Jr., a signer of the Associa- 

tion of the Northern Neck in opposition to the Stamp 
Act, 2y Feb., 1766. Issue, Francis Webb,^ born ante, 
1760. 

3. Elizabeth,* married William Young, vestryman of South 

Farnham; member Essex Committee of Safety, 
1 774-75. 

Col. Francis^ Smith married, secondly, about 1747-^48, Anne 
(died 1775), daughter of Ebenezar Adams, gent., of New Kent 
Co., and Tabitha Cocke, his wife, daughter of Richard Cocke 
(the third), of "Bremo," Henrico Co., and Anne Bowler, his wife. 



174 William and Mary Quarterly 

(See Adams Genealogy, Quarterly, V., pp. 159-164 ; ante, p. 32.) 
Issue of second marriage (named in will) : 

4. Francis,* of whom hereafter. (See VI.) 

5. William,* of South Farnham Parish, Essex Co. (will 

dated 20 June, 1783; proved 16 May, 1785), was ves- 
tryman and justice, member of the Essex Committee of 
Safety, 1774, and of the House of Delegates for Essex, 
1778. (Meade, L, p. 393; Quarterly, V., p. 254; 
Legislative Lists.) His mother, Anne (Adams) Smith, 
conveyed to him in 1771 her life interest in lands de- 
vised to her by her husband. He married Mary (born 
17 Feb., 1753) daughter of John and Ruth (Sydnor) 
Beliield, who survived him. (For Belfield, see Rich- 
mond Standard, 7 Jan., 1882.) Issue (named in will) : 
i., Francis f ii., William f iii., Anne Adams f iv., Eliza- 
beth f v., Alice.^ 

6. Anne.* 

IV. CoL. Meriwether* Smith (Col. Francis,^ Capt. 
Nicholas,^ Nicholas^), of ''Bathurst," Essex Co., born 1730; died 
at "Marigold," Essex Co., 24 Jan., 1794. {Family Record.) He 
was vestryman of South Farnham and justice; a signer of the 
Northern Neck Association, 1766; member of Essex Committee of 
Safety, 1774; member of the House of Burgesses for Essex, 
i774-*75; of the Virginia Conventions of 1775, 1776, and 1788; 
of the Pri\y Council, 1776, i78o-'8i, i783-'85; of the Virginia 
House of Delegates, 1777, 1782, 1786, 1789; of the Old Congress, 
i778-'82. (Appleton's Cyc. A?n. Biog.; Quarterly, V., p. 254; 
Va. Hist. Col. X., p. 372; Legislative Lists.) Administration on 
his estate was granted 21 Apr., 1794, to his son Geo. William^ 
Smith. {Essex Records.) From contemporary notices it would 
appear that Col. Meriwether* Smith was a man of some eccen- 
tricity of character, but "much conversant with affairs, both public 
and private,'* and in the public councils took an active and con- 
spicuous part. John Augustine Washington, writing 18 May, 
1776, classed him among the five best speakers in the Convention 
of 1776, to which convention he had brought the draught of a 



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Col. Meriwether Smith (1730-1794). of "Bathurst," Essex Co.. Va. 
member of the old Congress. 




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Brigadier General U. S. Army 



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William and Mary Quarterly 175 

constitution for Virginia, of which there are records among the 
papers of his son and grandson, (Gov. Geo. WilHam' and John 
Adams Smith®) the same "sketched constitution" to which Madi- 
son referred in a letter written in 1827. {Post, Note I.) At the 
least, he shared largely in the work of the committee by which 
that important document was finally submitted to the convention. 
He was a member of the Committee of Congress in 1779 to con- 
sider and report on what terms the United States would be willing 
to terminate war, and was a delegate to the Annapolis Convention 
of 1786, but did not attend. He "was undoubtedly," says Rives 
in his Life of Madison, "a man of mark in his day, as is suffi- 
ciently attested by the circumstance of his being named second 
on the committee to prepare the Declaration of Rights and a plan 
of government, as well as by the many public offices .... 
which he afterwards filled." (See Rives' Madison, I., pp. 164, 
166; n., p. 45; Rowland's Life of Mason.) He married first, 
about 1760, Alice, widow of Thomas Clarke and daughter of 
Philip Lee, Esq., of Maryland, third in descent from Col. Richard 
Lee, the emigrant. (Lee's Lee of Va., pp. 96-101.) Issue: 

1. Alice Lee.^ 

2. George William,^ of whom hereafter. (See V.) 

Col. Meriwether^ Smith married, secondly, 3 Aug. 1769, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Col. William Daingerfield, of Essex.* She died 
25 Jan., 1796, and is buried with her husband at "Bathurst." 
{Family Record.) Issue: 

3. Lucy Dangerfield,^ born 10 June, 1773; died 1820; she 

married Francis West Quarles, of Westmoreland Co. 
Issue : i., Anne E. Quarles,® ii., son. 

4. Edward Bathurst,^ born 20 Sept., 1775. He married and 

had issue, with probably others. Dr. Edward Bathurst,® 
of St. Louis. 



*"0n Thursday, the 3rd instant, Mr. Meriwether Smith, of Essex 
county (who has obliged the public through the channels of our paper with 
several spirited pieces relating to the Stamp and other Acts of Parlia- 
ment), was married to Miss Betsy Dangerfield, of King and Queen 
county." — Virginia Gazette, 24 Aug., 1769. 



176 William and Mary Quarterly 

V. Gov. George William^ Smith (Col. Meriwether,* Col. 
Francis,^ Capt. Nicholas,^ Nicholas^), of Essex Co., and Rich- 
mond, Va., born in 1762; lost his life in the burning of Richmond 
theatre, 26 Dec, 1811. He was a lawyer, member of the House 
of Delegates for Essex, iygi-*g4, and for Richmond city, 1802- 
-08; of the Privy Council, 1809; Lieutenant-Governor, 1810; 
Governor of Virginia, 1811. {Legislative Lists; Brock's Virginia 
and VirginianSy I., pp. 108-112.) He married first, 7 Feb., 1793, 
Sarah (born 14 Jan., 1766; died so Sept., 1806), fourth daughter 
of the elder Col. Richard Adams, of Richmond. (Quarterly, 
v., p. 162.) He married, secondly, Jane, widow of Meriwether 

Jones, editor of the Richmond Examiner, and daughter of 

Reade, M. D., of Hanover Co., by whom he had no issue. Issue 
of first marriage (Family Record) : 

1. Richard Lee,® of Columbia, Adair Co., Ky., born 2 Apr., 

1794; married Balldock, of Kentucky, and had 

issue : i., George William,^ of Albany, Gentry Co., Mo., 

married Martha ; ii., Reuben Adams,' of 

M'Comb, McDonough Co., 111. ; iii., John Griffin,^ of 
Albany, Mo., married Letitia L. Witten ; iv. Thomas 
Bowler,^ of Danville, Ky., married Almira Tate; v., 
Elizabeth Adams,"^ married John Waller; vi., Sarah,^ 
married Hart Hayes; vii., Meriwether Bathurst,^ of 
Albany, Mo., married Elizabeth Swann, and had issue 
five sons and four daughters; viii., Benjamin Franklin,' 

of Elenor, Mo., married Dorsam; ix., Martha,^ 

married Bassett Hurt, of Columbia, Ky. ; x., Richard 
Lee,"' of Tippecanoe City, O. 

2. George William,® born 14 Sept., 1795 ; died 30 Sept., 1823. 

He married Anna Stewart Belfield, daughter of John 
Campbell, of "Kirnan," Westmoreland Co., Va., and 
had issue: i., Georgianna,^ married James O. Pollard, 
of King William Co., Va. ; ii., Sarah Adams,^ married 
G. W. Pollard, of King William Co. ; iii., John Camp- 
bell,^ married , and had issue: (i) Georgianna,* 

married Thos. H. Carter, of Baltimore, Md.; (2), 
Archibald,* died unmarried. 



William and Mary Quarterly 177 

3. Elizabeth Griffin,® born 24 Oct., 1798; died 26 July, 1802. 

4. Sarah Adams,® born 7 Mar., 1801 ; died Aug., 1802. 

5. John Samuel® (whose name was changed to John Adams 

Smith), born 12 May, 1802 ; died 24 July, 1864. Banker 
and prominent citizen, of Richmond, Va. He married 
first, Martha B. Woodward, who died s. p. ; secondly, 7 
Nov., 1838, Lucy Page (born 2 Feb., 1808; died 26 
Aug., 1888), daughter of William C. and Alice Grymes 
(Burwell) Williams, of Richmond. (See Williams 
Genealogy in Slaughter's Hist. St. Mark's Parish, pp. 
177-183.) Issue: i., Mary Blair,^ died young; ii., Sarah 
Adams,'' died young; iii., Bathurst Lee,^ (born 26 July, 
1846), of Knoxville, Tenn., married 16 Oct., 1873, Bel- 
vadora, daughter of Dr. S. Murray Stover, of Tenn., 
and has issue: (i) Lucy Page,^ married 11 June, 1896, 
Chas. E. ChambHss, of Tennessee University; (2) 
Bathurst Lee;^ (3) Almena McGhee ;^ (4) Mary 
Blair ;^ (5) Belvadora ;^ (6) Sarah Adams ;^ (7) 
George William;^ (8) Murray Stover.^ 

6. Philip Francis Samuel,® born 22 May ; died Aug., 1805. 

7. Thomas,® born 8 Sept., 1806; died unmarried. 

8. Bathurst,® died unmarried. 

VI. ^Francis* Smith, (Col. Francis,^ Capt. Nicholas,^ 
Nicholas'^), of "Piscataway," Essex Co., Va., and Wilkes Co., 
Georgia, born about 1749; will dated 31 Oct., 1812, proved in 
Wilkes Co:. Ga., 4 July, 1814. The records of Essex show that he 
was married and living in Bedford Co., Va., in 1771. Deed of 
Francis^ Smith and Lucy, his wife, of Bedford Co., and Richard 
Adams, of Henrico Co., passing land in Essex to Newman Brock- 
enborough, 19 Jan., 1771. By another deed of 19 June, 1771, 
Francis* Smith and Lucy, his w^ife, conveyed to the former's 
brother, William* Smith, a tract of land in Essex devised to the 
said Francis* Smith by his father, **Francis^^ Smith, the elder," 
possession to be had on the death of "Anne (Adams) Smith, 
mother to the said Francis, who lives thereon," she having con- 
veyed her life-interest in the estate to her son William,* as before 



178 William and Mary Quarterly 

stated (Ante, p. 46.) Francis* Smith removed to Wilkes County, 
Ga., where he became a large property owner. By his will, dated 
and proved as above, he leaves all property, real and personal, to 
his wife for her life, all personal property and half the slaves to 
be disposed of as she thinks proper ; at her death lands and other 
slaves to be divided among their children ; certain old and trusty 
negroes to be emancipated; wife Lucy and "beloved son-in-law 
Peter Early, Esq.," executors. He married Lucy Wilkinson 
{Family Bible), whose will, dated 3 Feb. and proved 9 March, 
1822, mentions sons Ebenezer,^ William Wilkinson,* and Thomas 
Adams,* daughter Anne Adams* Sherwood, grandson, Thomas 
Early ,^ and granddaughter Lucy Anne,® daughter of son Thomas.^ 
{Wilkes Co., Ga., Records.) Issue (named in wills and Bible 
records) : 

1. Francis,* who left no issue. 

2. John* (who wrote the letter "T" after his name by way 

of distinction), of Missouri, where he had extensive 
land grants. {U. S. Land Office Records.) He was 
a noted duellist, and is "said to have killed twelve or 
thirteen men in his various personal encounters. . . . 
He died in his bed, an old man, on his estate, thirty 
miles below St. Louis." (John F. Dabney's Personal 
Recollections contains a sketch of John* Smith T. He 
married and left issue an only daughter, who married, 
first, Dr. Deadrick, secondly, James M. White, both of 
St. Louis, Mo., where their descendants are yet living. 

3. Ebenezer,* of Wilkes Co., Ga. 

4. William Wilkinson,* of Wilkes Co., Ga. 

5. Thomas Adams* of whom hereafter. (See VH.) 

6. Anne Adams,* born 1783; died 1823. She married, first 

in 1797, Peter Early (born in Madison Co., Va,. 20 
June, 1773; died in Greene Co., Ga., 15 Aug., 1817), 
member of Congress, Governor of Georgia, &c., and 
had issue: i., Thomas Early .^ (Sherwood's Gazetteer 
of Georgia, 1829 & 1837; Appleton's Cyc. Am. Biog; 
White's National Cyc, L, p. 222.) She married, 
secondly, in 1821, Rev. Adiel Sherwood, LL. D. (bom 



William and Mary Quarterly 179 

in Fort Edward, N. Y., 3 Oct., 1791 ; died in St. Louis, 
Mo., 18 Aug., 1879), a distinguished divine and educa- 
tor. (Appleton's Cyc. Am. Biog.; White's National 
Cyc, VL, p. 185.) 
7. Reuben,*^ of Washington Co., Mo. He was 2'^ lieutenant 
of artillerists U. S. Army 15 Dec, 1803; ^^^ lieutenant, 
I Nov., 1805; resigned 31 Oct., 1806. {Army Regis- 
ter.) He married, in 1825, Susan Caroline Horine 
(died 1834) and had issue (Family Bible) : i., Thomas 
M.,® born 28 June, 1826 ; died 24 Oct., 1841 ; ii., Francis 
L.,® born in Washington Co., Mo., 28 Nov. 1827; died 
in Sulphur Springs, Mo., 7 Oct., 1877. Major C. S. A. 
He married first 27 Dec, 1848, Mary Jane Watson 

(born 4 Oct., 1830, died 25 April, 1857), of St. Gene- 
vieve, Mo., and had issue: (i) Francis Meriwether,'' 
bom 25 Dec 1854, of Platin Rock, Mo., only child to 
survive. He married, secondly, 15 May, i860, Ellen 

(born 18 Nov., 1841), daughter of Major Benjamin 
O'Fallon, of St. Louis, and had issue to survive; (2) 
Albert Sidney Johnston,^ born 14 Jan., 1869, physician, 
of St. Louis; (3) Anita Francis Fitzhugh,^ born 5 
Oct., 1872; (4) John O'Fallon Pope,^ born 23 Nov., 
1874. 

Vn. Brig. Gen. Thomas Adams'^ Smith, U. S. A., 
(Francis,* Col. Francis,^ Capt. Nicholas,"^ Nicholas^), born at 
"Piscataway," Essex Co., Va., 12 Aug., 1781 ; died at "Experi- 
ment," his seat in Saline Co., Mo., 25 June, 1844. He entered 
the United States Army as ensign ; was commissioned 2^ lieuten- 
ant of artillerists, 15 Dec, 1803; i^ lieutenant, 31 Dec, 1805; 
captain of Rifles (the crack regiment of the army), 3 May, 1808; 
lieutenant-colonel, 31 July, 1810; colonel 6 July, 1812; brevet 
Brigadier-General, "for distinguished and meritorious services," 
24 Jan., 1814; Brigadier-General, 25 Jan., 1815; resigned his com- 
mission in the arm.y, 10 Nov., 1818. On the opening of hostilities 
in the war of 181 2 his regiment was ordered to the North, taking 
part in the engagements at Plattsburg, Sackett's Harbor, Burling- 
ton, etc. In 181 5 he was stationed at Belle Fontaine, near St. 



i8o William and Mary Quarterly 

Louis, as commander-in-chief of the Territories of Missouri and 
Illinois, which command he held until his resignation from tlu: 
army. In 1817 Gen. William Henry Harrison wrote of him a^ 
"the most accomplished officer in the service." Fort Smith, 
Arkansas, is named in his ho.ior. On his resignation from the 
army he was appointed by President Monroe Receiver of Public 
Monies at Franklin, Mo., the most lucrative position in the West, 
which he resigned in 1826, retiring to his seat, "Experiment," 
where he became "the foremost man in the section." (Hist. 
Register U. S. Army; Original Commissions and Correspon- 
dence.) He married 17 Sept., 1807, Cynthia Berry (born near 
Knoxville, Tenn., 7 Apr., 1786; died at "Aldie," Loudoun Co., 
Va., II Aug., 1855), third daughter of Brig. Gen. James and Mary 
(Lawson) White, of Knoxville, Tenn., and sister of Hon. Hugh 
Lawson White. (Post, note 2.) Issue (Family Bible) : 

1. Lucy Anne,^ bom in Knoxville, Tenn., 11 Nov., 1812; 

died in Williamsburg, Va., 18 Feb., 1867. She married 
13 Apr., 1830, Judge Beverley Tucker (born 6 Sept., 
1784; died 26 Aug., 1851), professor of law in the Col- 
lege of William and Mary, author, etc., and had issue: 
i., Cynthia Beverley Tucker,^ born 18 Jan., 1832; mar- 
ried first, 8 July, 1852, Prof. Henry Augustine Wash- 
ington, issue died in infancy; secondly, 29 Oct., 1861, 
Charles Washington Coleman, M. D., issue; ii., Lucy 
Beverley Tucker,^ died young ; iii., Beverley St. George 
Tucker,^ M. D., born 11 Dec, 1839; ^^^^ 3^ Mar., 
1894; married EHza Christina' Mercer, issue; iv., 
Thomas Smith Beverley Tucker,^ born 22 Aug., 1841 ; 
died 5 May, 1873; married Julia Clarke, issue; v., 
Frances Bland Beverley Tucker,' born 18 Dec, 1843; 
married in 1861, Prof. Edwin Taliaferro, issue died in 
infancy ; vi., Henrietta Elizabeth Beverley Tucker," 
born 9 Jan., 1846; died 25 Apr., 1879; married in 1867, 
John Peyton Little, M. D., no issue; vii., Montague 
Beverley Tucker,^ born Apr., 1848; died 24 June, 1883 ; 
married Ada Lewis, issue. 

2. James White,^ born 5 Sept., 181 5; died unmarried, 14 

Jan., 1851. 



William and Mary Quarterly i8i 

3. Mary Lawson,® born 18 Nov., 1817; died 11 Aug., 1818. 

4. Hugh Lawson,^ born 2 Dec, 1818, died 18 Jan., 1819. 

5. Reuben,® born 6 Nov., 1822; died unmarried, 27 Feb., 

1843. 

6. Crawford Early, ^ of whom hereafter. (See VIII.) 

7. Troup,® born 20 July, 1827; died at sea, unmarried, 18 

Nov., 1850. 

8. Cynthia White,® born 26 Sept., 1829; died in Loudoun Co., 

Va., 13 Mar., 1869. She married, 18 Dec, 1851, Wil- 
liam Noland Berkeley, of "Aldie," Loudoun Co., and 
Charlottesville, Va., major C. S. A., and had issue : i., 
Lucy Beverley,^ married Alexander Moore, issue ; ii., 
Cynthia White Berkeley,^ iii., Edmonia Berkley '^ iv., 
Francis Lewis Berkeley,'' v., Frances Callander Berke- 
ley.^ 

VIII. Crawford Early Smith®, M. D., {Gen. Thomas A.,^ 
Francis,'*' Col. Francis,^ Capt. Nicholas,"^ Nicholas^) of **Ingle- 
side," St. Louis Co., Mo., born in Cooper Co., Mo., 16 Aug., 1825 ; 
died at "Ingleside," 31 Dec, 1886. He married, 13 May, 1852, 
Virginia (born 19 Nov., 1832, died 11 Jan., 1892), daughter of 
Dr. George and Sarah Bella (Chambers) Penn, of St. Louis Co., 
Mo., and had issue: i, Isabella Early ,'^ born i Mar., 1853; 2, 
Mary Cynthia Berry,^ born 2 May, 1855; 3, Georgia Penn,"^ born 
3 Feb., 1857; died 11 Sept., 1858; 4, Thomas Adams,' born 10 
Sept., 1858; married, 12 Oct., 1880; Kate Howard, issue; 5, 
Crawford Early ,^ born 26 Oct., i860; died 14 Apr., 1864; 6, 
George Penn,^ born 12 Jan., 1864; 7, William Noland Berkeley,^ 
born 12 Aug., 1866; died 31 Dec, 1893; 8, Virgi ia Crawford,^ 
born 8 Dec 1868; married, 12 Oct., 1893, Thomas Bryant Hall; 
9, Philip Montague,' born 3 July, 1871 ; marrier, 15 May, 1895, 
Kate Crutcher; 10, Lucy Lawson,^ born 23 Nov., 1873. 

The portrait of Colonel Meriwether"^ Smith reproduced with 
this article is from a crayon portrait by Persico, made from an 
original drawing by his youngest son, Edward Bathurst^ Smith, 
and said to have been a fine likeness. This, the only known por- 
trait of Meriwether-^ Smith, is owned by his great-grandson. 



i82 William and Mary Quarterly 

Bathurst Lee^ Smith, of Knoxville, Tenn., who has also his watch, 
seal, and snuff-box, all marked with his name. The portrait of 
Gov. George William^ Smith is from an oil painting in the Vir- 
ginia State Library. That of Gen. Thomas Adams" Smith is 
from a miniature owned by his grandson, Thomas Adams'^ Smith, 
of "Experiment," Saline Co., Mo. 

NOTES 

Note i. The following extracts are from letters in the possession of 
Bathur§t Lee^ Smith, Esq., of Knoxville, Tenn. 

From an unfinished letter written by Gov. Geo. Wm.^ Smith shortly 
before his death. "Inclosed you will find a copy of the paper entitled 
The American Crisis, which was written by my father (Meriwether* 
Smith) in 1776, and also of the notes enclosed by the proceedings which 
were then moved by himself and adopted by the General Assembly, and 
which may be seen in the Journal of that session. I have also the original 
manuscript of the Bill of Rights as written by him. Besides these, I find 
among his papers many others, that you may choose to peruse at your leisure, 
respecting alliance with France, of which he was in Congress the most 
zealous, and not the least powerful, advocate ; the negotiations for peace ; 
the instructions relative to both, which were drawn by him ; reflections 
upon the report of the Secretary of the Treasury relative to the funding 
system, &c., &c., and which I will with pleasure furnish. The copy in- 
closed is intended for your own persual. However, I should not object to 
your friend Mr. Strode seeing it; but as hitherto I have had, so now I 
have, reasons why I should not show his papers, or speak generally of the 
services of my father in the commencement of and during the Revolution. 
The evidences of his patriotism show that it was not less influential in 
directing and fixing the destinies of his country than it was bold and 
manly and honourable for himself." 

"Col. Smith's patriotism was distinguished at that early period of the 
'Revolution when men's souls were most tried. Judge Marshall remarked 
to me, *I was well acquainted with your grandfather, Meriwether Smith — 
among the first to move forward in the cause of his country.' Mr. Monroe 
said, 'Your grandfather was one of the earliest and most ardent patriots 
of the Revolution. He, from the beginning, struck boldly and confidently 
for independence and nothing less.' " — Dr. Edward Bathurst^ Synith, of 
St. Louis, Mo., to John Adams^ Smith, of Richmond, Va., 10 June, 1858. 

"He (Merri wether* Smith) wore a cocked hat, took much stuff when 
earnestly engaged in conversation, and had great influence and control 
over the people. . . . The likeness of him taken by his son Bathurst, 
and sent you by my sister Ann, is said to have been a most correct like- 
ness.'* — Quarles^ to John Adams^ Smith, 1859. 



William and Mary Quarterly 183 

Note 2. The White Family : I. Moses^ White emigrated to America 
from North Ireland about 1740, settling first in Pennsylvania; married 
Mary, sister of John Campbell, the emigrant, great-grandfather of Gen. 
William Campbell, of King's Mountain fame. (Correspondence of Gov. 
David Campbell and Lyman C. Draper.) They had a son. 

II. MosES^ White, who emigrated with his father and about 1742 
went to Rowan county, North Carolina. Wheeler's History North Carolina, 

II., p. 215.) He married, first, Mary McConnel; secondly, Eleanor , 

who survived him. His will, proved in Rowan county. North Carolina, 14 
June 1783, mentions the following children : i, David ;- 2, William ;3 3, 

John ;3 4, James,^ of whom hereafter ; 5, Jean,^ married Templeton ; 

6, Elizabeth,^ married Peden ; 7, Mary,^ married M'Cree 

(M'Cay?) ; 8, Sarah,^ married Wilson; 9, Penelope,^ 10, Eleanor;* 

II, Margaret.3 

III. Gen. James^ White {Moses,"^ Moses^), born in Rowan (now 
Iredell) county North Carolina, 1747; died in Knoxville, Tenn., 14 August, 
1821. He served in the Revolution and received large grants of land in 
what is now Knox county, Tenn., to which he removed in 1783; founded 
Knoxville, 1792; was a member of the Franklin Convention, 1785; the 
constitutional convention of Tennessee; speaker of the State Senate; 
active in the Indian wars, and in 1812 was commissioned brigadier-general 
of Tennessee volunteers. (Ramsey's Tennessee, pp. 278, 295, 372-'74; 443 
Scott's Memoirs of Hugh Lawson White, etc.) He married {Family 
Bible and Rowan County Records), 14 April, 1770, Mary (born 1742; died 
10 March, 1819), daughter of Hugh Lawson, of Rowan county, North 
Carolina.* Issue: i, Margaret* (born 8 April, 1771 ; died 27 August, 
1827), married Charles McClung, of Knoxville, Tenn., issue. 2, Hugh 
Lawson* (born 30 October, 1773; died 10 April, 1840), justice Tennessee 
Supreme Court, member United States Senate, etc., married Elizabeth 
Moore, daughter of Rev. Samuel Carrick, issue. 3, Moses* (born 22 
April, 1775), married Isabella, daughter of George McNutt, issue. 4, 
Andrew* (born 9 May, 1779; d. s. p. 6 October, 1806), 5, Mary McConnel* 
(born II November, 1782), married, first, Dr. F. May, second, Judge 
John Overton, of Nashville; issue by both marriages. 6, Cynthia Berry* 
(born 7 April, 1786; died 11 August, 1855), married Gen. Thomas Adams 
Smith, U. S. A., issue: (See above); 7, Melinda* (born 15 February, 
1789; died 2 March, 1838), married Col. John Williams, member United 
States Senate, minister to Guatemala, etc., issue. 



* Hugh Lawson's will, dated Sept., 1764, proved in Rowan county, 
Nov., 1772, mentions son Roger, daughter Mary ; son-in-law George Ewing, 
Hugh Barry, James Henderson, and Thomas Irvin. 



184 William and Mary Quarterly 



THE SMITHS OF VIRGINIA . 
By THE Editor 

(From Quarterly, Vol. IV., No. i, pp. 46-52, 
which is out of print.) 

I. Family of John Smith, of Purton. 

Richard Bernard, of Petsworth, Buckinghamshire, was born 
in 1618, and Married Anne Corderoy, born in 1622; they were 
licensed to be married at St. Andrews-in-the-Wardrobe Novem- 
ber 24, 1634.^ Bernard's arms were a bear rampant.- The 
family is found in York county in 1647, ^^<i that year Richard 
Bernard had a lease of Pryor's plantation above Yorktown. In 
1661, "Anna Bernard, now of Purton,^ in Petsoe Parish," Glou- 
cester county (which parish was doubtless named in honor of the 
Bernard family), sold Pryor's plantation, purchased by her in 
1652 of Thomas Edwards, of the Inner Temple, London, gentle-' 
man, and Margaret, his wife, one of the two daughters of William. 
Pryor, deceased ; and the deed is witnessed by Francis Bernard 
and John Smith. i\Irs. Anne Bernard was guardian of the 
orphans of Col. Samuel Matthews, of Warwick county- ; and in 
1670 Major John Smith was a guardian. In 1653 Mrs. Anne 
Bernard wrote to W^alter Brodhurst,* of Northumberland county, 
a letter, in which she refers to her daughter, Anne Smith. 

I. Major John Smith,* first of Warwick county, Speaker of 
the House of Burgesses, had occasion on March 13, 1657, as pre- 
siding officer of the House of Burgesses, to voice the refusal of 
the members to accept the order of dissolution by Governor 
Mathews. They continued sitting and won the case. Their de- 
claration, signed first by "John Smith, Speaker," runs : "That 
we find by the records the present powder of government to reside 
in such persons as shall be empowered by the Burgesses (the rep- 
resentatives of the people) who are not dissolvable by any pov/er 



* But see 'Two John Smiths" Quarterly XXIII, 292, where it i? 
shown that John Smith, above, was not John Smith, of Purton, but John 
Smith, alias Francis Dade. 



William and Mary Quarterly 185 

extant in Virginia but the House of Burgesses." The house 
elected Mathews Governor, and issued orders, over the name of 
John Smith, Speaker, to the sergeant-at-arms, to execute no war- 
rants but those of the Speaker.^ 

In 1663 a conspiracy of, the servants was exposed by "Berken- 
head, a servant of John Smith, of Purton." The Assembly, Sep- 
tember 16, 1663, "Resolved that Berkenhead (the discoverer of 
the 'horrid plot,') have his freedom and 5000 pounds of tobacco 
given him in Gloucester county, and that his master be satisfied 
in said county for his time." It was also resolved that the 
13th of September, the day fixed for the alleged rising, "be an- 
nually kept holy." ^ 

John Smith became Lieutenant Colonel before 1674, and in 
that year he was agent for Mr. Richard Tyler, of London, who 
had lands in Gloucester county, by the courtesy of England.'' 
During Bacon's Rebellion, Smith v/as one of the prominent men 
whom the great patriot compelled to take the oath of allegiance 
at Middle Plantation on August 3, 1676.® He was afterwards 
classed by the king's commissioners among the "eminent suffer- 
ers" by the rebels. 

March 7, 1675-6, Lt. Coll. John Smith, Major John Lewis, 
Capt. Philip Lightfoot, Mr. Thomas Royster, and Mr. John 
Buckner, patented land in Gloucester Co. 

Several seals, bearing three ounces' heads, descended in John 
Smith's family, one of which is still in the possession of the 
Daniel family living at Jacksonville, Florida. 

Mr. J. Smith Davison, late of Warren county, Va., wrote in 
1854 that another heirloom was a cream pot^ which is now (1854) 
owned by Mrs. Anna M. Turner, to whom it was given by her 
great grandmother, Mrs. Anna Smith, bearing the crest of the 
family, a nag's head engraved on it. * * * An old paper now in 
my possession, found among the papers of Gen. John Smith, 
of Hackwood, is endorsed "The ages of my father's children." 
This is a literal copy of the paper, taken itself from the old Purton 
Bible, now. lost : 



i86 William and Mary Quarterly 

2. John Smith^** and Mary Warner^*' were married y* 17-^ 
of Feb^ 1680. 

3. Mildred Smith was bprn y« 20^^ of Fcb^ 1681-2 it being 
Munday about a quarter before nine in y® morning. 

4. Mary Smith was born y® 29th of April 1684 about one 
o'clock in y® morning — it being tewsday. 

5. John Smith was born y^ 18^*^ of July 1685 about a quarter 
after one in y^ morning — it being Saturday. 

Mary Smith dyed y^ 18^^ June 1684. 

6. Augustine Smith was born y^ 16'^ of June 1689 about 
twelve o'clock at night it being on a Thursday. 

7. Elizabeth Smith was born y^ 25*^^ of May 1690 it being Sun- 
day about eight in y^ evening. 

8. Philip Smith^^ was born y^ i^^ of June 1695 ^.t a quarter 
past two in y® morning it being Saturday. 

9. Ann Smith was born y® 2^^ November 1697 about half an 
hour past 5 in y® evening it being Saturday. 

Capt. John Smith Sen^ of Purton died y® 14^^ of iVpril 1698. 

M"" Robert Porteus^^ & Mildred Smith were married y® 17^^ 
of Aug* 1700. 

Mrs. Mary Smith^^ Sen"" of Purton dyed Nov y® 12**^ 1700. 

Henry Harrison and Elizabeth Smith w^ere marryed April i^' 
1708. 

John Smith and Ann Alexander were marryed 8^^" y^ 18^^ 
1711. 

Philip Smith & Mary Mathews were marryed y^ 9**^ of 9^"", 
1711. 

Augustine Smith & Sarah Carver were marryed Feb 9"^^ 171 1. 

5. John Smith owned 'Turton," in Gloucester Co. 

6. Augustine Smith owned "Shooter's Hill," in Middlesex Co. 
8 Philip Smith inherited "Fleet's Bay," in Northumberland 

Co. 



William and Mary Quarterly 187 

The following register of Augustine Smith and Sarah 
Carver of ''Shooter's Hill" was copied by General Smith into 
his niece's Bible along with the "Purton" register. 

Augustine Smith and Sarah Carver, daughter John Carver^* 
of Gloucester, were married November 9, 171 1. Issue. 
9. I. Mary Smith was born 30*^ of July 171 3. 

10. 11. John Smith was born 13^^ of November 171 5 (of 
"Shooter's Hill.") 

11. UI. Sarah Smith was born 8*^ Sepf 1717. 

12. IV. Mildred Smith was born th^ 22*^ of September 1719. 

I. Mary Smith died the 8'^ of June 1720. 

13. V. Elizabeth Smith was born the 8^^ of May 1722. 

14. VI. Ann Smith w^as born 10^^ of February 1724. 

VI. Ann Smith died the 2"^ of June 1724. 

15. VII. Susanna Smith was born the 2"]^"^ April 1725. 

16. VIII. Jane Smith was born the 6^^ of March 1726. 
Sarah Smith Sen"" died the 12^^ of March 1726 age 31 years ip 

months & 7 days. 

VIII. Jane Smith died March 29*^ 1732. 

Mordecai Cook & Sarah Smith were married the 6*^^ of Nov'' 
1735- , 

John Smith and Mary Jaquelin were married the 17*^ Nov^ 
1737- 

John Willis and Mildred Smith were married 26^^ January, 
1743. 

Philip Aylett & Elizabeth Smith were married 16'^ March 1749. 

The following register of John Smith, son of Augustine 
Smith and Sarah Carver, was copied by Edward Jaquelin Davi- 
son from the original Bible register: 

John Smithes and Mary Jaquelin were marrie'd the 17^^ day of Novem- 
ber, 1737, By the Rev°<^ W™ Dawson at James Town. 

17. I. Augustine Smith was born the 3 of Jan^ at 5 o'clock 
in the evening at Yorktown 1739 & Christened on the 15-^ of 
Jan^ by the Rev''^ Mr. Fountain (Fontaine.) 



1 88 William and Mary Quarterly 

i8. II. Martha Jaquelin Smith was born 12^** Nov"" 1740, it 
being on a Wensday about 11 o'clock in the forenoon, her Aunt 
her Godmother & M. S. ( ?) (This was the aunt for whom she 
was named, Miss Martha JaqueUn.) 

19. III. Sarah Smith was born the 11^^ of Nov'" 1742 about 9 
o'clock at night, her Aunt Cook & E. Smith with Mr. Phillip 
Grymes Godfather and Mothers. 

20. IV. Mary Smith was born the 17^^ Sepf 1744 at 6 o'Clock 
in the morning. Richard Ambler Esq"" Maj^ Berkeley Godfathers, 
Mrs. Berkeley and Mill"^ Willis G. M. (Godmothers.) 

21. V. Jaquelin Smith was born the 2"** of July 1746 about 4 
o'clock in the morning and died the 24^^ Feb. 1747. 

22. VI. Elizabeth Smith was born the 29*^^ Dec'' 1747 ab* 3 in 
the morning and died the 10^^ September 1748. 

23. VII. John Smith was born the 7*^ of May 1750 about five 
in the morning. (This is General John Smith, of "Hackwood.") 

24. VIII. Edward Smith was born the 11^'^ of June 1752 
about I in the morning. 

Register^^ of Edward Jaquelin of Jamestown: 

Edward Jaquelin (b. 1668, d. 1739), son of John Jaquelin and 
Elizabeth Craddock of Kent, England, emigrated to Virginia 
about the year 1697, and married for his second wife, 1706-7, 
Martha (b. 1686, d. 1738) dau. of William Gary, Gent., of War- 
wick Co., son of Miles Gary. He was a merchant of prominence 
and wealth at Jamestown. Issue : 

Mathew Jaquelin was born 1707-8 and died 1727. 

Elizabeth Jaquelin was born Oct. 1709 and died 1756. 

Martha Jaquelin was born Jany 1711 and died 1804. 

Mary Jaquelin was born March 1714 and died Oct. 4, 1764. 

Edward Jaquelin was born Dec. 1716 and died 1733-4. 

Elizabeth Jaquelin married Richard, Ambler, the old Colonial 
treasurer, ancestor of all the Virginia Amblers. 

Martha Jaquelin remained single, and died at the advanced 
age of 95. She was known as "Lady" Jaquelin on account of 
her high aristocratic ideas, and it is said she waited for a duke 



William and Mary Quarterly 189 

or a count to come over and address her. At the age of 50 she 
took upon herself the title of "Mistress," a custom. in vogue in 
England amongst aged spinsters at that day, 

Mary Jaquelin married John Smith, a son of Augustine Smith 
and Sarah Carver. The two sons of Edward Jaquelin died in 
youth, so that the name Jaquelin as a surname became extinct 
with the death of their father, they having pre-deceased him. 

Martha Jaquelin and. her son, Edward, gave to the church 
at Jamestown a silver baptismal font in 1733-4, which, after the 
destruction of the church, was returned to Col. John Ambler as 
the nearest representative of the donors, and was by him pre- 
sented to IMonumental church, Richmond (where it now does 
service), on the express condition that it should be retained in 
all time in its present shape. These are the inscriptions engraved 
upon it. This is that around the rim on the upper side : "After 
the church at James City was destroyed, this basin was returned 
to Col. John Ambler, of Jamestown, as the representative of the 
donor, and by him was presented, in the year 1831, to the Monu- 
mental Church, city of Richmond, upon the condition that it 
should be retained in all time in its present shape for the use of 
the church." The following is on the bottom, "Given by Martha, 
the wife of Edward Jaquelin, and Edward, their son, for the 
use of the church in James City. The last Dyed in Hackny — 
Interred in Shadwell church-yard. Aged 18." 

NOTES 

1 Chester's London Marriage Licenses 

2 York Records. 

8 Purton Plantation lies on York River. 

*His widow married Col. John Washington. 

5 Hening Stats. 

^Ibid. 

^ General Court Records MS. 

8 Anne Cotton's "Bacon's Proceedings," Force's Tracts, Vol. I. 

* Mr. Edward Jaquelin Davison (nephew of J. Smith Davison), to 
whom I am indebted for much that follows, says, 'The cream-pot men- 
tioned may have been a Jaquelin relic, as the same design appears in 
both the Jaquelin and Smith crests, with the exception that the former 
had the head, or neck, transfixed by a spear. My uncle was remark- 



igo William and Mary Quarterly 

ably accurate in everything he did, and I am sure General Smith's ver- 
sion was given correctly. The Bible register was copied by General 
Smith, 6th August, 1773, just before he removed to Frederick county, 
as he copied the same data into a Bible for his niece at that time, a copy 
of which I had sent me by her daughter, an old lady now residing in 
Richmond. I have a copy furnished from an entirely different source, 
it having been taken from a copy made from the old Bible itself, which 
was some years since in the possession of Capt. Boyd Smith, of Alex- 
andria, and I presume was destroyed during the late war. This gentleman 
was a descendant of General Smith's eldest brother, Augustine. I am sure 
Augustine Smith was an Episcopal clergyman, at least I have been told 
so. All of these copies of the "Purton" register have been identical, which 
undoubtedly is verification sufficient. 

^** According to a deed dated 1708 in York county, Mrs. Mildred 
Warner bought land of her brother, Thomas Reade. On her death she 
left the same to her son, Robert Warner, who dying childless, the land 
went to her three daughters, Isabella who married John Lewis, Mildred 
who married Lawrence Washington (Grandfather of George Washing- 
ton), and Mary who married John Smith deceased. 

11 Mr. E. J. Davison adds an item here as given by Gen. Smith, of 
Hackwood, and as coming down from one of his correspondents, both 
being identical : "Philip Smith, of Northumberland, died June 4, 1743, 
being 48 years and 3 days old." 

12 Robert Porteus married secondly Elizabeth, daughter of Hon. 
Edmund Jenings, mother of Beilby Porteus, Bishop of Chester. She, 
Elizabeth, died 20 January, 1754, aet 60, and was buried in St. Martin's 
Cony St. York. (Jening's Pedigree from Nev/ York Curio.) 

^3 In the Petsworth Parish Vestry Book, Capt. John Smith appears 
as vestryman in room of Capt. Lightfoot, October 5, 169 1. An order 
was made by the vestry about the iio left by him to the poor. Under 
date of October i, 1701, it is stated that "Madam Mary Smith" left a 
legacy of £5 to be distributed among the poor. 

1* COPY OF A DEED OF JOHN CARVER OF "GLOSTER." 

Know all men by these presentes that I John Carver in Gloster 
County in Virginia, Doe by these presents out of my Love & Affection ,1 
have for my sonn William Carver & opon the Consideration of his being 
joyned in Matrimony with Dionesia Bayley by the will & Appointment of 
Almighty God, Doe give him 8c his heires for Ever the one halfe of the 
seat of Land he now Lives upon with pportion of houseing plantation & 
fencing & one halfe of the Stock of Cattle and hogs now belonging to itt 
& one Mare & Colt & a Bay horse & the household goods there belonging 
& two negroes & one Negroe Boy named Robin, Nan & Jack. & to be in 
possession of all of wich att the time of his Marriage as above said, & 



William and Mary Quarterly 191 

Doe further give the Remainder of the Said Land at my Decease or De- 
parture out of this World, all which premises Above Mentioned I Doe 
p'mise & oblige my Selfe to make an Acknowledgement of the Same in 
Court to be there Recorded after the time of there Marriage. When 
Demanded as Witness my hand this 15^^ Day May i694-'5. 

John Carvtr. 
Test 

Conquest Wyatt 
Richard Bayley 
George Seaton 

At a Court held for Gloucester County the 16'^^ day of 
December 1696. » 

This day came into Court John Carver presented and acknowl- 
edged the above Deed unto William Carver upon whose motion 
y« same is admitted to Record & is Recorded. 

P. Beverley, CI. Cur. 

15 These dates were suppHed by Mr. Davison from other sources : 
"John Smith, Sen., of Shooter's Hill, died November 19^^, 1771, at 3 in 
the morning, aged 56 years, at 'Harewood,' the home of Samuel Washing- 
ton, near Winchester, to which he was on a visit. Mary Smith, Sen^, of 
Shooter's Hill, died November 19, 1754, aged 50 years." 

" 'Shooter's Hill,' the home of the Smiths in Middlesex county, was 
situated on the Rappahannock River, not far from the town of Urbanna. 
The h'ouse was a large three-story brick, covered on the top with lead, 
and had a fish-pond in it, where a mess of fish might be caught at any 
time. John Smith, the proprietor, lived in style, with his coach-and-six, 
and three postillions in livery. The place descended to Dr. Augustine 
Jacqueline Smith, son of Augustine Smith, eldest son of John Smith and 
Mary Jacquelin, and was burned while the owner was in Europe." — Mrs. 
Mary Smith Mutter, granddaughter of Rev. Thomas and Mary Smith. 

1^ "The above register was furnished me from a number of sources, 
and in tl?e main they all agree; there are, however, a few discrepancies. 
One gives the date of the marriage of E. J. and M. C, as 1697, while his 
wife at that time was but nine years of age. A remarkably youthful 
bride. Full investigation gives the above result." — E. J. Davison. 

(To be continued) 



192 William and Mary Quarterly 

THE THRUSTON FAMILY OF VIRGINIA 
(From Vol. IV., No. i, pp. 23-28, which is out of print.) 

Probably one of the most interesting and satisfactory family 
records preserved in America is that of the Thruston family. 
This family came to Virginia from the city of Bristol, which 
contributed so much to the settlement of Virginia. 

1. Generation of i. John Thruston, Chamberlain of Bristol 
(baptized June 8, 1606; d. April 8, 1675), son of Malachias 
Thruston, of Wellington, in Somersetshire. He married Thomas- 
ine, daughter of Peter Rich, minister of Yeatsbury( ?), in Wilt- 
shire, and had issue : 24 children, of whom all died under age 
except 2, Thomasine, who married John Hunt on September 11, 
1653; 3> Justian, who died aged 21 ; 4, Alice, who died aged 26; 
5, Ann; 6, Malachy; 7, Edward; 8, Justian; 9, James. 

The following statement is taken from the contemporary no- 
tices in an old book in possession of Dr. John Thruston, of Louis- 
ville, grandson of Col. Charles Mynn Thruston of the Revolution. 

John Thruston,^ y^ sonn of Malachias Thruston of Welling- 
ton in Somersetshire was Baptized in y® pish Church of Well- 
ington y^ 8^^ of June 1606 being Whitsonday. 

Thomasine Rich y^ daughter of Peter Rich preacher of God's 
word in Yeasbury{?) in the countie of Wiltes was baptized in 
the pish Church of Yeatsbiiry{ ?) the 24^^ of iVugust 1604. 

Memorand My sonne Mathew was borne the 19^^ of ffebruarie 
1622. He was baptized the 24*^^ of the same month in the pish 
Church of St. Nicholas. 

Memorand My son Mathew the second was borne the 17^^ of 
Januarie 1623 and was baptized in the parish Church of St. 
Nicholas the 24*^^ of the same month. 

Memorand My son John Warren 'was born the 15 of May 
'' 1625 and was baptized the 22 of the same moneth in the parish 
Church of St. Nicholas. 

These three above my wife had by Jn° Warren deceased. 



William and Mary Quarterly 193 

Memorandum this 15 day of March 1629 my sonne Robert 
Thruston was borne and was Baptized the 19*^^ day of the same 
mounth. Gosops Edeth Dier, M'" Robt. Rogers, M'" Mathew 
Warren. 

My son Robt died the 22°*^ of May 1641 and was buried in 
St. Thomas Churchyard the 24^^ of the same mounth. 

Memorandum this first day of feb'' 1630 my sonn John 
Thruston was borne and died the 3 day of the same month. 
Gosops — Mr. Leonard Hancocke my brother CallowhilP & mother 
Warren. 

Memorandum this 11 day of feb"" 163 1 'my sone John Thruston 
was Borne and baptized the 15 day of the same monnth. Gosops 
M"" Hollway, M'" Dier and M" Rogers.^ 

My son John died the 13 day of July 1644 & was Buried the 
15 day of y® same mounth in the Church-yeard of St. Thomas. 

Memorandum this 6*^ of feb"" 1632 my daughter Tomson 
Thruston was borne and was baptized the 17 day of the same 
mounth. Gosops — M^ Tyson, M^'es Walcott, and M^'es Thruston. 

Memorancfum this 11 day of September 1634 my daughter 
Justian Thruston was born & baptized the 17 day of the same 
montji. Gosops — My father Rich, my Mother Thruston and 
M^'es Tyson. 

My daughter Justian died the 27^^ May 1645 ^ was buried in 
St. Tho:as Church-yeard. 

Memorandum this 26 September 1635 my daughter Alee 
Thruston was borne and baptized the i^*^ day of October 1635 in 
the pish, Church of St. Thomas in Bristoll and so were all the 
former, Gosops — M'' William Callowhill, my sister Callowhill 
and my sister Wackly. 

My daughter Alee died y® 14 June 1661 about eight of y* 
Clocke in y^ morning and was buried the 15 June in y^ Church 
yeard of St. Thomas. 

This 23 of December 1636 my daughter Ann Thruston was 
borne & baptized y° 3 of January following at the pish Church of 
St. Thomas in Bristoll. M'' Cale, M'"es Culme and M'-es Elliott. 



194 William and Mary Quarterly 

This 19*^ January 1637 my sonn, Malachy Thruston* was born 
& baptized the 28^^ day of the same mounth. M"" Lauender, M*" 
Jackson, M''es Farmer. 

This 30 Janu"" 1638 my sonn, Edw Thruston was born & 
baptized y® 3 ffebruary. IVP Tho : Hook, M"" Robert Yeamons^ 
and M^'es Healer. 

This 14*^ Ap*" 1640 my wife was deleverd of a sonn still borne 
and was buried the 15^^ day of the same mounth at St. Thomas. 

This 26 May 1641 my wife was deleverd of a sonne about 10 
of y® clock in y® nig-ht and christened y^ first of June and named 
Rob*^ by M"" Rob* yeat, Mr Rob* Thomlingson, and my sister 
Callowhill. 

This child died and was Buried in S* Thomas Ch. yard 1650. 

This 11*^ of August 1642 my wife was delivered of a daugh- 
ter about 5 a clock in y® morning w*^^ was christened y® 14*^ the 
same mounth. Gosops — my cousin Tomsin Cogan, my coson 
Grace Thruston & my coson John Thruston & the child was named 
Grace. 

This child died and was Buried in y^ Church-yeard of the 
pish of St. Thomas the 2*^ day of Aug 1644. 

This 8*^ day of Nov'" 1643 ^Y sonn Thomas was borne about 
4 a Clocke in the morning and Baptized y® 14*^ day of y® same 
mounth in the pish Church of St Thomas. Gosops — ^Colonell 
Thomas Colston, M"" Thomas Woodward and M^ Aid: Hook's 
wife who was then M^'es Moris. And was Buried in y^ Church 
yeard of St. Thomas Parish the 16*'^ day of March 1644. 

This 22 Dec 1644 my son Milecious was Borne & was bap- 
tized the 20-'^ of y^ same mounth in the pish Church of St. Thomas. 
Gosops my brother M'' Robert Rich my coson Milecious Callowhill 
and my coson Katherin Dean. 

This child died y® 28 of December 1658 at night & wa's 
Buried y® 30*^ of y® same mounth in St Thomas Church yeard by 
his mother. 

The 28*^ November 1645 ^Y sonn Symon was Borne and 
Baptized the 30^^ of y® same mounth. Gosops, my coson Edw. 
Thruston and his wife, M"" Robt Deane and my coson Twigg. 



William and Mary Quarterly 195 

Simon Thruston died y® 24^^ January 1646 and was Buried y* 
2"^ of y® same month. 

This 17^ Nov'" 1647 rny ^vife was delivered of a daughter 
about 9 of y® Clocke at night & baptized y^ next day about the 
same time it was Borne. Gosops were M'' Mitchell Puxton, M'es 
Boyer and my coson Water Callowhill's wife the child was named 
Justian. 

My wife died y® 30**^ day of y® same mounth about 7 of y* 
Clocke at night and was buried the 2 of Decemb'' in the morning 
at St Thomas. 

The 12**^ January 1648 I was maryed to my second wife. 

The 27'^ ffeb'" 1648 I had my fall into the rever. 

The II May 1650 being Saterday about 4 a Clocke in the after- 
noon, my wife was delivered of two daughters who were Bap- 
tized y® 17^^ of y® same mounth, the eldest named Mary, M' 
Longman, M^'es Pinney and M^'es Yemons, Gosops. Y^ other 
Martha, M*" Peter James, coson Loyd and cosson Rainestox 
Gosops. 

Martha died 6 September 1650. 

My daughter Mary died y^ 19 December 1652 and was buried 
the 21 of the same mounth. 

This 2 June 1651 my wife was delivered of a daughter about 
4 a Clock in y® morning & was baptized y® 11 of y^ same mounth 
and named Grace by M"" George Heller, M^'es Cole and M*" Will 
Colston's® wife. 

This 6 May 1652 my wife was delivered of a daughter about 
9 of y® clock at night being Thursday who was Baptized y^ next 
day in the afternoon & named Rachell by M'" Jacob Brint IMind- 
ister M^'es Hay ward midwife and sister Redby Gosops being my 
20^^ child. 

This II day of Sep*" 1653 my daughter Thomasine was mar- 
ried to John Hunt at the Parish Church of ... in Bristol by 
Mr. Jacob Brint minister. 

This 16'^ day of Sep"" 1653 my wife was delivered of a daugh- 
ter, being friday between one & two of y* Clocke in y* morning 
and w*^^ was baptized Saterday being the 17 day of Sep'' and was 



196 William and Mary Quarterly 

named Mary the Gosops M'' James Berkin, M'"es Gray M" John 
Birkin's wife. 

My daughter Mary died Tuesday the 28^^ of April 1668 be- 
tween seven and eight of the clock in the morning & was Buried 
in the Church yeard of St. Thomas the first of May following 
and left me for a legazie a piece of gold of ten shillings. 

This 24*^ day of January 1654 between 8 & 9 of the Clocke in 
the morning my wife was delivered of a son and the 25th day of 
y® same month between 6 and 7 of y® Clocke in y® morning she 
was ill of another son. Both were baptized y^ 28^^ day of the 
same mounth the eldest named John M'" John Broadway M^ John 
Loyd^ and M^es Harper Gosops. 

The second named James — Mr. Willi Cole Mr. John Stibbins 
and Mr. Leonard Handcockes wife Gosops. 

My sone John one of the children died y® 26 May 1656 & was 
buried y® 28"^^ of y^ same month in the churchyeard of St. Thomas. 

The first day of June 1656 about 12 of y® Clocke at noon being 
Sunday my wife was delivered of a daughter w^^ makes my 24'^ 
child 12 sons and 12 daughters. Shee was baptized the 6*^ day of 
the same mounth and names Sara, my coson James Thruston my 
coson Sara Bridges and M''es Bringdon Gosops. 
1 This 8*^ day of April 1675 my ffather M'' John Thruston 
(being Chamberlain of this City of Bristol 11 years and 11 
months) departed this life and was buryed the 12*^ instant in S^ 
Thomas Churchyard on the South side of my mother who de- 
parted this life the 30*^ November 1647 as before specified.^ 

NOTES 

'1 A recent visitor to the church of St. Thomas, the Martyr, in Bristol, 
read in the register the announcement of the death of John Thruston, the 
Chamberlain of Bristol. The vestry book show that he was vestryman and 
warden for many years, and his signature to the minutes is unusually firm. 
The old church was destroyed in 1787, and the present church is severely 
plain. Very few of the old tomstones remain. Bristol abounds in 
churches. 

2 Francis Callovvhill was an early resident in York county, Virginia. 
and left numerous descendants. 



William and Mary Quarterly 197 

•Mrs. Ann Rogers was the wife of Robert Rogers, of Bristol, Esq., 
one of the commanders of the city of Bristol, to whom the book was 
dedicated. 

* A deposition of Malachi Thruston, on record in Norfolk county, 
Virginia, i6th March i697-*98, makes him then sixty-one years old, which 
agrees with the family entry. He was for many years clerk of Norfolk 
county, and his will was proved there November 15, i698-'99, and dated 
14*'* March, i698-'99; witnesses, Francis Sayer, Roger Howeson, Sam' 
Boush. It mentions sons, John, Malachy and James ; daughters, Sarah, 
Jeane, Martha; and brother-in-law, Florentius Porter; and sister-in-law, 
Jeane Porter; wife Martha. 

5 Mr. Robert Yeomans was a distinguished merchant of Bristol, and 
had the title in 1651 of Lt. Col. On Aug. 22, 1653, he obtained a warrant 
for a private man-of-war, being bound to Virginia on a trading voyage. — 
Calendar of Colonial State Papers, 1574-1660. Le Neve has, "1660 Sir 
Robert Yeomans, Alderman of Bristol, dead." Again, "Sir Robert 
Yeomans of Bristol, Alderman, kted at Bath, 7 Sept., 1663, baronet after." 
The latter was probably son of the first named Sir Robert Yeomans. Burke 
in his "Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies" describes Robert Yoemans, 
alderman of Bristol, as a prominent merchant, who was executed in 1643 
for attempting to surrender Bristol to King Charles. He had two sons — 
John, who settled in Barbadoes and was created a baronet in 1664, and 
Robert created a baronet in 1666. Both baronetcies are now extinct. In 
the Isle of Wight County Records : "Sir John Yeomans baronet, now 
resident in y^ Island of Barbadoes, long since adventured goods to Vir- 
ginia \fy James Powell merchant, now resident in Virginia," and appoints 
his nephew Joseph Woory, merchant, to recover of said Powell &c., 27 
Sept., 1669. James Powell was justice and captain in Isle of Wight county, 
and married Anne, widow of Capt. Henry Pitt,also of Isle of Wight and 
formerly of Bristol. — Isle of Wight Records. Lt. Col. Robert Pitt, after- 
wards of the Council, obtained a patent in 1648 for 200 a. in isle of 
Wight Co. near New Town. 'Mi^ Henry Pitt" obtained one for 450 a. 
14 Jan. 1652 in same county. I think they were undoubtedly sons of 
William and Mary Pitt of Bristol. See will in New England Hist, and 
Gen. Reg., Vol. XLIX., pp. 252-'57. 

^ William Colston, son of William Colston, sheriff of Bristol, a great 
merchant and warm RoyaHst, came to Virginia, about the middle of the 
17'^ century. — {Richmond Critic, Nov. 18, 1888). He had a son William, 
whose will was proved in Richmond County Dec. 3, 1701, and was dated 
Oct. 27, 1 701. Mentions sons. William and Charles ; daughter, Susannah ; 
son-in-law, Thomas Beale ; and wife, Anne, deceased. She was daugh- 
ter of Major William Gooch, of York county, who died in 1655, and 
married first, Capt. Thomas Beale. — (Richmond County Records.) Of 
these, William Colston had Mary, married John Smith, and Frances, mar^ 



198 William and Mary Quarterly 

ried Joseph Morton, of James City county. Charles Colston (died 1724) 
married Rebecca, daughter of William Travers, and had Travers, born 
about 1712. who married first, Alice Corbin Griffin ; second, Susan Opi'i 
Kenner. See Richmond Critic for further notice of this distinguished 
family. 

7 It is believed that Edward Lloyd and Cornelius Lloyd, first of Nor- 
folk county, an then of Maryland, came from Bristol, and were probably 
connected with John Lloyd, the gossip mentioned in the text. 

8 This entry entry was made by Edward Thruston, as would appear 
from the succeeding entry, which will begin the next installment. 



EARLY GENERATIONS OF THE TANNER FAMILY OF 
^- HENRICO COUNTY, VIRGINIA 
*^ '^ / By Wlliam Clayton Torrence 

v^-^*"^4' -' (Concluded) 

Y\ f^-^ 4. Mary ,2 Tanner (Joseph^) married William Ligon of Hen- 

\j ^^ rico County. On April i, 1679, there was recorded in Henrico 
Court a deed from "Mary Piatt, wife of Gilbert Piatt of Bauld- 
inge, Henrico County" to her daughter *'Mary, now the wife of 
Mr. William Ligon* and to the said William Ligon," by which 
Mrs. Piatt "having full and lawfull write to dispose give or make 
sale of a small part of my estate I was possest with all at the day 
of my marriage as allsoe of the increase thereof or profitt thereof 
made thereof by mee eyther by change, sale or barter or other 
wayes" conveys to said Mary Ligon and her husband, William 
Ligon, certain personal effects, among them a feather bed, bolster, 
rug and blanket, a pair of curtains and valance, a pair of canvas 
sheets, a gold ring, several pieces of pewter, a Bible, a horse and 
hogs flesh "which were disburst for an Indian Girle which Mr. 
Lygon himself recorded by ye name of Moll Wateres." (Henrico 
Records.) 

The will of William Ligon of Henrifco County, dated January 
21, 1688-9, probated August i, 1689, sons Thomas and William 



♦The evidence that Mary^ (daughter of Joseph^) Tanner married 
William Ligon see a deed May 10, 1718. between William Ligon (son of 
said Mary-) and Edward Tanner, Henrico Records, Vol. 1714-18, p. 254. 



William and Mary Quarterly 199 

Ligon, plantation I now dwell on divided between them; son John,, 
my part of Ashen Swamp tract; son Joseph Ligon and Thomas 
Farrar, Jr., land joining Mr. Hancock's line ; daughter Mary and 
child my wife now goes with, land back of Curls, adjoining 
Solomon Knibb ; should wife remain widow until children come to 
age of 21 years they are to continue with her, but if she m.arries 
then they are to be at their own disposal at age of 16 years ; each 
son, a gun, as he comes of age ; residue of estate to wife during 
widowhood and if she marries half to be equally divided between 
my children and wife to have other half ; Captain Francis Epes, 
Mr. Robert * * * [Hancock?] and John Worsham, to see 
will performed. — 

5. Martha^ Tanner {Joseph^) married first, Thomas Jones, of 
Henrico County; second, Edward Haskins, of Henrico. 

The will of Thomas Jones, of Henrico County, dated January 
1688-9, names son Thomas Jones, daughter Lucretia Jones, wife 
Martha Jones. This will was probated ^August 20, 1689, being 
presented to the court by Martha Haskins, late Jones. The record 
of marriage licenses issued in Henrico County between October 
1688 and October 1689 show that one was issued to Edward 
Haskins for marriage with Martha Jones. (Henrico Records, 
Vol. 1688-97, p. 97.) 

Thomas Jones (the son of Thomas and Martha [Tanner] 
Jones) moved to Surry County and from him descends a numer- 
ous family in Brunswick and Lunenburg County. 

April I, 1 701, Edward Haskins and Martha, his wife, (one 
of the daughters of Joseph Tanner) conveyed property to their 
son, Edward Haskins. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1 697-1 704, p. 210.) 

The descendants of Edward and Martha (Tanner) Haskins 
are numerous in Southside Virginia, principally in Chesterfield 
and Brunswick Counties. The will of Edward Haskins of Hen- 
rico County, dated May 2, 1727, probated January i, 1727-8 
devises to son Edward Haskins, 150 acres whereon he now lives 
being on northside Appomattox River and taken out of a survey 
of Robert Hancocke's ; sons Robert Haskins and Aaron Haskins 
and daughter Sarah Haskins, i shilling each ; son Creed Haskins, 
land called Skinquarter being 300 acres on north side Appomattox 



200 William and Mary Quarterly 

River joining Hancocke's, survey and also residue of estate he 
being to allow my wife Martha Haskns £4 per annum credit in a 
store and board during her lifetime ; son Creed Haskins, executor. 
(Henrico Records, Vol. 1725-37, p. 162.) 

6. Joseph^ Tanner {Joseph,"^ Joseph^) born about 1684. He 
was the son of Joseph- Tanner and his first wife, Ann Floyd, and 
was under the guardianship of Peter Field in April 1699,* and 
was of age in 1708 when he was conveying land as "son and heir 
of Joseph Tanner, deceased. "f Joseph^ Tanner was for some 
years a magistrate in Henrico County. i No attempt has been 
made to trace his descendants. When Chesterfield County was 
erected in 1749 from territory of Henrico lying on south side 
James River, Joseph^ Tanner's home fell within the boundaries 
of Chesterfield. 

The following abstract of the will of a Joseph Tanner, though he is 
as yet unidentified, will prove of interest and no doubt furnish a clue to 
guide further research. Joseph Tanner of Chesterfield County, will dated 
October 3, 1757, wife Jane Tanner, land and plantation whereon I now 
live known as Coxendale, during her natural life and after her decease 
to Floyd Tanner, son of Joel Tanner ; residue of estate to wife Jane and 
she is named as executrix. (Chesterfield Records, Will Book i, p. 261.) 
By referring to the data given under Thomas Tanner (No. 7 of this 
pedigree) it will be seen that one Thomas Tanner of Amelia County, who 
died in 1765, had a son Joel Tanner and that Joel Tanner had a son 
Floyd Tanner. _ 

7. Thomas^ Tanner {Joseph,^ Joseph^) born about 1686. He 
was the second son of Joseph- and Ann (Floyd) Tanner, and in 
a deed June 30, 1708, is referred to as Thom.as Tanner of Bristol 
Parish, Prince George County. No attempt has been made to 
trace his descendants but it is not improbable that Thomas Tanner 
of Amelia County whose will dated March 6, 1763, probated 
September 26, 1765, was this Thomas' Tanner. 

Thomas Tanner, of Nottoway Parish, Amelia County, will dated 
March 6, 1763, probated September 26, 1765, "being (by age) very infirm 
in body," to friend Susannah Bauldwin, widow, £5 currency to be raised 



♦Henrico Records, Vol. 1694-1701, p. 222. 
t Henrico Records, Vol. 1706-9, pp. 100, loi. 
^ Order Books, Henrico County Court. 



William and Mary Quarterly 201 

out of my estate, during her life, and at her death to return to my estate; 
daughter Martha Brown, negro girl Amey during said daughter's life and 
at her death the negro and her increase to go my grandson, Joseph Brown ; 
to said daughter Martha Brown, £20 currency to be raised out of my estate, 
son Nathaniel Tanner, £20 currency to be raised out of my estate, one 
cow, one 3 year old steer, all my wearing apparel ; son Joseph Tanner, iio 
currency to be raised out of my estate; grandson Archelaus Tanner, 
feather bed with a drab tycke, one green rug, one roll sheet and stead ; 
granddaughter, Elizabeth Johns, small chest and 20 shillings cash ; daughter 
Judith Johns, £20 currency to be raised out of my estate; my negro 
woman Cloe and her increase (not before given) and my negro boy, 
Peter, to be sold, also what remaining estate not heretofore bequeathed, 
to pay legacies; son Joel Tanner, remainder of state (not before given) 
consisting of money, household furniture, stock of cattle, horses, hogs 
(after debts legacies and funeral charges are paid) ; estate not to be ap- 
praised but executors to expose to sale my negros and such other part 
of estate (as they think proper) to pay legacies and debts ; executors, son 
Joel Tanner and my son-in-law, John Johns. (Amelia Records, Will 
Book 2x, p. loi.) 

On October 4, 1799, Joel Tanner, Senior, of Nottoway County, to 
Sally Tanner, widow of Floyd Tanner, deceased, and Floyd Tanner, son 
of Thomas [?] Tanner, for iioo currency, said Joel Tanner relinquishes 
all his right in estate of his son Floyd Tanner, deceased, to be divided be- 
tween said Sally Tanner and Floyd Tanner, agreeable to the will of said 
Floyd Tanner, deceased, which has been admitted to record in Pittsyl- 
vania County. (Nottoway Records, Deed Book 2, p. 113.) 

At a Court held for Nottoway County, September, 1793, an inventory 
of Joel Tanner, Jr., deceased, was recorded. The record states : inven- 
tory of Joel Tanner, Jr., deceased, presented to appraisers by Thomas 
Tanner, attorney for Joel Tanner, Sr., administrator; total amount of 
appraisement £62 '.4 13 ; appraisement made in Pittsylvania County. (Notto- 
way Records, Will Book i, p. 96.) 

Joel Tanner, of Nottoway County, will dated July 31, 1802, probated 
December 2, 1802; grandson Joel Tanner, son of Thomas Tanner, wear- 
ing apparel ; wife Lucy Tanner, plantation and lands whereon I live, house- 
hold and kitchen furniture, horses, cattle, sheep, hogs and 8 negros, during 
life; daughter Martha [no other nam.e given] one negro, and after her 
decease to my granddaughters Lucy Ann Grissett and Elizabeth Coleman 
Green; daughter Martha, and her husband, Jesse D. Green, have under- 
taken to support me and my family with needful food, raiment, etc., there- 
fore to said daughter Martha, the land and plantation whereon I Hve, 
together with household and kitchen furniture; son David Tanner $100 
to be raised out of my estate after my wife's decease; son Joseph Tanner, 
a bond of the amount of £105, with interest from my death to the death 



202 William and Mary Quarterly 

of my wife, the negro Chloe to have choice whom she will live with of my 
children; residue of estate to be divided betwen my sons David ami 
Thomas Tanner and my daughter Martha Green ; Executors, nei;^hbors 
Captain Daniel Verser and Captain Isaac Winfree. (Nottoway Records, 
Will Book I, p. 542.) * 

8. Lodowick^ Tanner (Joseph,^ Joseph^) the son of Joseph^ 
Tanner and his second wife, Sarah (Hatcher) Turpin, was born 
in 1692, and died in Amelia County 177 — . At a Court held for 
Henrico County August 20, 1706, it was ordered that if Mrs. 
Sarah Oulton (who had been the widow of Joseph^ Tanner) did 
not appear and the succeeding court and give bond and security 
for "maintaining and educating her son Lodowick" [Tanner] 
that the said Lodowick she be placed in care of Alexander Mar- 
shall who had lately married Mrs. Elizabeth Ligon and by whose 
care and charge the said Lodowick hath been formerly m.ain- 
tained." f What disposition was finally made of this matter the 
records do not show and Lodowick Tanner does not again appear 
in the records until seven years later when at Henrico Court, 



* The following abstracts of land patents are given here because from 
the names it seems probable that the patentees were of this branch of the 
family. Aug. 17, 1725, Fran. Worsham and Thomas Tanner, 300 acres north 
side Appomattox River, Henrico County, north side John Ealam's path 
adjoining Mr. Phillip Jones, Francis Epes, Walter Scott, Williamson's 
path. September 17, 1731, Thomas Tanner, Junr, 200 acres in Goochand 
County, south side James River adjoining Mathew Oage's, said Tanner, 
and John Peter Bondurant. August i, 1734, Thomas Tanner, 400 acres 
north side Appomattox River, Henrico County. July 30, 1742, Joel Tanner, 
200 acres in Amelia County north side Winingham's Creek of Deep Creek 
adjoining Robert Malone, Fitzgerald, Brown. July 30, 1742, Thomas 
Tanner, 300 acres in Amelia County on both sides Flatt Creek, adjoining 
Craddock. June i, 1750, Joel Tanner, 640 acres in Amelia County south 
side Deep Creek adjoining Moody, Fitzgerald, Malone, Winingham's 
Creek, Fitzgerald's now Bookers, 200 acres part thereof granted said 
Tanner July 13, 1742, residue never before granted. March 13, 1756, 
Thomas Tanner, 200 acres in Lunenburg on both sides north fork of 
Allen's Creek. Alay 12, 1759, John Tanner, 400 acres in Albemarle County, 
north side the Fluvanna on both sides the Court House road. March 16. 
1771, Nathaniel Tanner 385 acres in Bedford County on both sides Manley's 
Branch and Chockarollapin Branch, branches of Falling River, on south 
side of said river adjoining Jones, Glass. (Register of the Land Office.) 

t Henrico Records, Vol 1694-1739. p. 48 



William and Mary Quarterly 203 

December, 17 13, ''Lodowick Tanner by his petition prays an 
order for his part of his father's estate, it being proved to the 
court that the said Lodowick is of lawful age and Col. Francis 
Epes, in whose possession the said estate is, making no objection 
against the same, it is ordered that he do pay the said Lodowick 
his part of his father's estate." At October Court, 1714, Lodo- 
wick Tanner acknowledged to have received his estate from 
Colonel Francis Epes. (Henrico Records, Vol. 17 10-14, pp. 265, 
304.) 

On June 3, 1716, Thomas Tanner of Henrico County convey^ed 
to his brother Lodo Tanner of the same county 50 acres part of 
150 acres of land said Thomas Tanner purchased of Joseph Tanner, 
and all that tract which lyeth on south side Flinton's Slash near 
or upon the place commonly called and known by name of Bald- 
wins in the Parish and County of Henrico and bounded in the 
patent of said 150 acres for that part on the south side the-said 
slash and the said slash being for division between them. (Hen- 
rico Records, Vol. 1714-18, pp. 92, 93.) At a court held for Hen- 
rico August, 1 72 1, Lodow^ick Tanner acknowledged a deed, dated 
July I, 1 72 1, from himself to William Baugh, and it was admitted 
to record. (Henrico Records, Vol. 1719-24, p. 118.) * 

Lodowick^ Tanner moved to Amelia County where he acquired 
lands and continued to live throughout the remainder of his days 
amassing a comfortable estate for his times. 

Lodowack'^ Tanner married first, FTd.nc{s, daughter of Thomas 
and Elizabeth (Archer) Branch, of Henrico County, and secondly, 
Ann Johnson, widow. The date of his first marriage is not known 
though it certainly took place before December 4, 1727, for in his 
will bearing that date Thomas Branch, mentions his daughter 
Frances Tanner. f The bond for Lodowick Tanner's marriage to 
Ann Johnson, widow, was issued in Amelia County and bears 



* On November 13, 1756, William Baugh, of Chesterfield County con- 
veyed to John Fleming, Jr., of Cumberland Co. a tract of land in Chester- 
field Co. containing 425 acres, on James River known as Baldings or Bald- 
wins. (Chesterfield Records, Deed Book 3, p. 102.) 

t See Branch Family in Qu.vrterly, Vol. XXV, p. 67. 



204 William and Mary Quarterly 

date May 4, 1764. By the first marriage there were several chil- 
dren whose names will be given presently, but by the second mar- 
riage there were, so far as is known, no children. 

On May 5, 1764, Lodowick^ Tanner made a deed of gift by 
which he conveyed part of his property in negros as follows : 
to granddaughter Michal Osborne, daughter of Elizabeth Osborne, 
a negro wench Dol ; to granddaughter Elizabeth Osborne, daugh- 
ter of Elizabeth Osborne, a negro boy, Adam; to grandson Wil- 
liam Osborne, son of Elizabeth Osborne, a negro boy, Dick; to 
grandson Abner Osborne, son of Elizabeth Osborne, a negro boy, 
Charles ; to grandson Branch Jones, son of Sarah Jones, a negro 
boy, Ben; to grandson Peter Jones, son of Sarah Jones, a negro 
boy, Bemby ; to EHzabeth Jones, daughter of Sarah Jones, a negro 
boy, Dick; to son Branch Tanner, negros, Jeff, Mereare, Robin, 
Agy and all her increase, Cockes and John, and at my death the 
negro girls Merreare and Betty. (Amelia Records, Deed Book 
8, p. 411.) 

The will of Lodowick^ Tanner, of Amelia County, dated 
August 10, 1773, was probated in Amelia County. To his son 
Branch Tanner, he devised all lands I am now possessed with, 
two negros, Dick and Molly, a looking glass hanging in the hall 
and a copper still; to granddaughter Frances Tanner, six silver 
teaspoons and silver tea tongs ; grandson Branch Tanner, all my 
books; he left £100 currency in the hands of his executor to be 
by him given to the testator's brother, Lewis Tanner, £10 yearly 
if he should live so long, and brother Lewis to have all of my 
wearing apparel if he is living at my death ; one half of estate not 
heretofore given to be divided amongst my daughter Sarah Jones' 
children as my daughter Sarah may think fit ; to Branch Osborne, 
£50, currency and remainder of estate to my daughter Elizabeth 
Osborne's five children as my daughter Elizabeth thinks proper; 
estate not to be appraised ; executor son. Branch Tanner. (Amelia 
Records.) 

Lodowick^ and Frances (Branch) Tanner, had issue: 

i. Elizabeth* Tanner married William Osborne of Amelia 
County; many descendants. 



William and Mary Quarterly 205 

ii. Sarah* Tanner married Peter Jones, of Amelia County. 
Their marriage bond, issued in Amelia County, bears date, February 
20, 1746. Clement Read was security.* 

ii. Branch* Tanner, of Amelia County, married Mary Page 
Finney. Their marriage bond, issued in Amelia County, bears date 
January 2, 1764. Josiah Tatum was surety. There are many de- 
scendants of Branch Tanner. 

9. Lewis^ Tanner (/<9^^/>/z/ /oj-^/)/i^). Occasional references 
to Lewis- Tanner have been found in the records principally as a 
witness to deeds. On August 17, 1725, he received a patent for 
400 acres on north side Appomattox River in Henrico County 
adjoining Francis Worsham and Thomas Tanner, on west side 
of Goode's Branch, and Walter Scott. On August 15, 1737, 
Lewis Tanner received a patent for 350 acres on lower side of 
Beaver Pond Branch of Flat Creek, adjoining his own, Thomas 
Spencer, John Hill, Thomas Covington and Joseph Wilkinson's 
Elm on Buckskin. (Register of the Land Office.) 

Lewis Tanner was living as late as August, 1773, on which 
date his brother Lodowick^ Tanner, of Amelia County, made 
provision for him in his will.f 



* Peter Jones was bom November 17, 1720, and was the son of Colonel 
Richard and Sarah (Stratton) Jones, of Prince George and Amelia 
Counties. Peter Jones died in Amelia County in 1799, having had issue 
(by Sarah Tanner): (i) Elizabeth Jones married Littleberry Royall ; 
(2) Branch Jones; (3) Peter Jones, of Lunenburg County, (4) Archer 
Jones, of AmeHa, married Frances Branch Scott; (5) Robert Jones, of 
Amelia, married Ann Ward; (6) Batte Jones, of Nottoway, who married 
Margaret Ward; (7) Sarah Jones. 

There is in course of preparation by the writer of this article, a gen- 
i ealogy of the Jones families of Prince George and Amelia, which will be 

I published at a later date in the William and Marv Quarterly. 

I t The following notes are from Mecklenburg County, Virginia 

I Records. Appraisement of estate of Lewis Tanner, deed., Oct. 31, 1765, 

j Thomas Tanner's administrator, recorded July 14, 1766. Settlement of 

j estate of Lucias [Lewis?] Tanner, deed., made Sept. 24, 1767, recorded 

i March 14, 1768. This Lewis Tanner is as yet unidentified. There are two 

i patents which may have been issued to this Lewis Tanner. June i, 1750, 

j Lewis Tanner, 354 acres in Lunenburg County south side Parham's Creek, 

j adjoining Adam Tapley. September 26, 1760, Lewis Tanner, 400 acres in 

j Lunenburg on head branches Parham's Creek adjoining Saml Jones and 

said Tanner. (Register of the Land Office.) Mecklenburg was created 
from Limenburg. 



2o6 William and Mary Quarterly 



MARK ALEXANDER AND HIS ANCESTRY 

Extracts from a letter written by Honorable Mark Alexander, of 
Mecklenburg Co., Va., to Honorable Hugh Blair Grigsby, of Charlotte Co., 
Va., July 2, 1876. Now in possession of Herbert F. Hutcheson, Clerk of 
Mecklenburg Co., Va. 

"My ancestors were from Scotland and were Presbyterians. About the 
time of James the ist and the Charleses they were persecuted on account of 
their religion and fled to Ireland. They were persecuted there, and con- 
cluded to form a colony and migrate to America. 

They settled on the head of Elk in Maryland, some of them moved to 
Penn., while others remained about Baltimore. Some of those in Penn. 
afterwards went to the western part of N. C, chiefly in Mecklenburg Co. 
(from 1737 to 1745) Foote's History N. C, act. of Presbyterian Church. 
They were Scotch-Irish. 

Abram Alexander, chairman of the meeting in that county which de- 
clared their Independence on May 20th, 1775, was the uncle of my father. 
My father had three brothers, Nathaniel, William, Julius and Wallace, 
whom you will find mentioned in Wheeler's History of N. C. Nathaniel 
was a graduate of Princeton, studied medicine, was elected to Congress in 
1804, & in 1805 was elected Gov. N. C. Wm. J. & Wallace were lawyers. 
My father, the youngest, was sent to a celebrated Academy called "Liberty 
Hall," an Acct. of which is given in Foote's History of N. C. connected 
with the Church Govt. When he left he was given a certificate of good 
scholarship, the only kind of degree conferred. His eldest brother in- 
herited the estate under the regal Govt. At the desire of an uncle in Balti- 
more he was sent to him, he soon entered the army and in the battle at 
Germantown, when an uncle in whose Co. he was, was killed. After the 
war his uncle, a large ship owner, whose vessels had been captured in the 
quasi war with France, sent him there to look after his interest. Upon 
the death of his uncle he came & settled in this County, Mecklenburg, Va., 
as a merchant. Married my mother, who was Miss Bugg, and who died 
soon after my birth. He was in the Legislature in 1798 & 1799 and was 
an Elector on the Monroe Ticket both terms of his election. He died 
27th July 1824, aged 64, in Mecklenburg Co., Va. 

I was born the 7th of Feb. 1792 in Mecklenburg Co., Va., sent to 
school when seven years old, was taught the rudiments of Latin in the 
common school of the Country, sent to an Academy 1805 & 1806 in Louis- 
burg. N. C, Matthew Dickenson, principal, a graduate of Yale. In 1807 
I entered the University of N. C, half advanced in the freshman class, left 
in 1810 half advanced in the senior class, no one graduating owing to a 
disturbance in college, obtained license to practise law, elected to the' 
Legislature in 1815, continued four years. In 1819 elected to Congress 
continued to spring 1833, when I declined having married June ist, 1831. 



William and Mary Quarterly 207 

When I first went to Washington I messed with Tyler Johnson of Nor- 
folk, Severn E. Parker, Gen. Waller Taylor, Senator from Indiana, 
(raised in Lunenburg Co.) and a coz. of Mr. Tazewell, the next winter I 
messed with Macon, Randolph, Edwards, Benton, Cobb, Tatnall of Ga., 
where I remained until near the close of my public life. My room was 
facing Mr. Randolph, with whom I had formed intimate and confidential 
association, often acting as his amanuensis, and when abroad sending me 
papers & documents through Hamilton Fish of N. Y., I presume the pres- 
ent of Sec. of State. I often resorted to his room day and night to hear his 
conversational powers, replete with wisdom & instruction. I am proud to 
say I had his confidence to the day of his death. Benton, who roomed 
near him, was always reserved, with no intimate association or friendship 
but always master of the subject he discussed, and whose lamp never went 
out at night till one or two o'clock. Mr. Macon was a man of no literary 
attainments, being bred in the Revolution. He spoke but little in the latter 
part of his life, but always in plain language & to the purpose, with no 
pretention to eloquence, but no one ever left Senate with a higher reputa- 
tion for sound judgment & purity of character — a second George Mason. 
Mr. Randolph always spoke of him as the wisest man he ever knew. As 
evidence of his friendship, he sent me upon dying a razor & walking 
cane. In the first session of congress when I entered the Tariff question 
came up, it was a new subject upon which parties had not been formed 
and was fully debated. Being the youngest member of the body I think, 
I in the early part of the discussion ventured to make my maiden speech 
in opposition, upon the principles of Smith, Richards, Say &c. 

In 1824 it was again discussed when Mr. Webster made a great speech 
in opposition. He afterwards changed his views. 

Ini827 it was again brought up, called the Bill of Abominations, when 
Mr. Tazewell said to Van Buren, who had induced him to vote for certain 
articles to render it obnoxious, that he Van Buren might vote against it, 
but voted for it, 'Sir, I have been deceived once — that was your fault, the 
next time it shall be mine.' On this occasion I made the 1st constitutional 
speech ever delivered upon the subject during our convention. Mr. Giles 
desired me to send him several copies which he placed in his book of mis- 
cellanies and presented them to me. 

I served several sessions as chairman of the Comt. in District of 
Columbia. I made the ist. report against the abolition of slavery in the 
same upon constitutional grounds. It was adopted by the House by a 
large majority. I was afterwards placed on the Com. of ways & means 
& made the minority report in 183 1 & 32 against the Bank of U. S. 

Signed. Mark Alexander. 

[Mark Alexander was the son of Mark Alexander and his wife. Lucy 
Bugg, daughter of Jacob Bugg, of Mecklenburg Co., Va. He died in 
Scotland Neck, Halifax Co., N. C. October 7. 1883. He married Sallie 
P. Turner, daughter of Governor Jam.es Turner, of North Carolina.] 



\ 



2o8 William and Mary Quarterly 



POPE ADDENDA 

Barnaby McKennie petitioned the Virginia Assembly in 1702 for per- 
mission to build a grist mill on Black Creek in what was then Isle of 
Wight Co., afterwards Southampton Co. He afterwards moved to 
Edgecombe county, North Carolina, where he made his will in 1727. His 
daughter Mourning married John Pope. These dates show that he could 
not have been John Henry Pope mentioned by Dr. Beale in Quarterly, 
Xn., pp. 196 and 252, or John Pope, son of Nathaniel Pope mentioned in 
Quarterly, XXIV., p. 195. This John Pope, who married Mourning 
McKennie, Quarterly, XXIV., p. 45, had a son, Henry Pope, who, accord- 
ing to the statement of a descendant, married Martha, daughter of Col. 
John Martin, of King William county, Va., and Martha Burwell, his wife, 
daughter of Major Lewis Burwell, of Gloucester count}'-, and Martha Lear, 
his wife. Henry Pope lived in Halifax county, North Carolina, and his 
will dated January 2, 1764, proved at April Court, 1764, names wife 
Tabitha (she may have been a second wife), "eldest son" Burwell, "four 
younger sons" WilHs, John, Henry, Austin, (Augustine), Wiley. Henry 
Augustine Pope was born August 6, 1760, obtained a deed for property in 
Oglethorpe county, Georgia, on which he lived and was buried in 1796. 
He married (i) Clara Hill, in 1787, and (2) Mary Davis. By Clara Hill, 
first wife, he had Middleton Pope, who married Lucy Hopson Lumpkin, 
daughter of Gov. Wilson Lumpkin, and Elizabeth Walker, his wife. Their 
daughter, Sarah Eliza Pope married David Crenshaw Barrow, and had 
among other children Hon. Pope Barrow, Senator of the United States, 
born in Oglethorpe Co., Georgia, August i, 1839, and died in Savannah, 
Georgia, December 23, 1903, and David Crenshaw Barrow, who was chan- 
cellor of tlie University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. 

It is not proved that John Pope, son of Nathaniel Pope and Lucy S. 
Fox, his vAie, was ancestor of Col. Leroy Pope, as stated in Quarterly, 
XXIV., p. 196. "They too came to Georgia from Virginia, settled in Elbert 
county at a frontier town called Dartmouth, which name they changed to 
Petersburg. The town is now extinct. In this colony of Virginians were 
Bibbs, Olivers, W^atkins, Stokes, Popes, Walkers and others. Le Roy Pope 
moved to Huntsville, Alabama, one of his brothers to Kentucky, another 
to Tennessee, one remaining in Georgia. From a letter of William Ellzy 
Pope, grandson of Le Roy Pope, we learn that these Popes came from 
Amherst Co., Va. Le Roy had five sons — Willis, John, Le Roy, Alexander 
and William." 

The names of all the children of Nathaniel Pope, of "Chilton." 
Hanover Co., and Miss Duvall are not given in Quarterly, XXIV., p. 196, 
but the full list, by Dr. Beale, appears in Quarterly, XIL, pp. 251, 252. 
Miss Duvall was doubtless a descendant of William Claiborne, of Roman- 
coke, King William Co., who died in 1746. He had a daughter who mar- 



William and Mary Quarterly 209 

ried a Duvall, and the name Philadelphia, which was the name of one of 
the daughters of Nathaniel Pope and Miss Duvall, was the name of a 
sister of William Claiborne. In the Journal of the House Delegates for 
Dec. 28, 1785, it is stated that Philip Duvall, Claiborne Duvall, and Samuel 
Duvall were children of Samuel Duvall, deced. 



JOHN CLAYTON 

Commenting upon the article "The Contribution of Virginia to 
Science," which appeared in the April number of this Magazine, Dr. W. C. 
Peckham, of Brooklyn, on the editorial staff of the Scietitific American, 
writes as follows : 

"I was much interested in your note about the John Clayton for 
whom the Claytonia Virginica was named, about which you remark, *is 
occassionally met with.' Is that all in the home of its baptism? Is that 
all? It is a very common spring flower in the North. It has a wide range 
East and West, from Nova Scotia to Saskatchewan, and South to the 
Carolinas in the Alleghanies. We call it the 'Spring Beauty* for a 
popular name. 

"A remark you made in regard to the other, the Reverend John 
Clayton interested me. There was a John Clayton, who is thus alluded 
to in the Encyclopedia Britannica. Vol. VI., page 483 A, of the Eleventh 
Edition, 'Prior to 1691, however, Dr. John Clayton, dean of Kildare, 
filled bladders with inflammable gas obtained by the distillation of coal 
and showed that on pricking the bladders and applying a light to the 
escaping gas it burst into a luminous flame.' Might it be that this was 
the same man w^ho was in Virginia, and that his "spirit" was a gas and 
not an oil?~ I do not know." 



EDUCATION AND LETTERS IN VIRGINIA 1824-1835 

It is proposed to repubHsh a group of very valuable essays by certain 
Virginians, composed between the years 1824-1835, chiefly for delivery 
as addresses before the Literary and Philosophical Society of Hampden- 
Sidney College. 

The authors of these papers were John Holt Rice, G. P. Gushing, 
William Maxwell, James Mercer Garnett, J. B. Harrison, Lucian Minor. 

The names of these men are, in great part, their own guarantee. But 
those in any way interested now may be assured that the character of 
work in these papers is extraordinarily high — the best thought of men 
of brains and principle and literary accomplishments. The work is 
homogeneous, because for some reason each of these men chose for his 
subject the state of letters, science or education in Virginia at that time. 



2IO William and Mary Quarterly 

The cost of publishing the work proposed — running a good deal be- 
yond a hundred pages — will be around $125. Those wishing to guarantee 
the cost of the book, receiving copies pro rata, will communicate witli 
the undersigned. 



Box 160, Hampden-Sidney, Va. 



A. J. Morrison, 



QUERIES OF MRS. SMITHWICK 

The undersigned has been four years engaged in a very extensive 
research in the interest of a genealogical work which she is preparing for 
publication under the title, "Some Prominent Families of Virginia and 
North Carolina," the data for which she obtained first-hand in a personal 
search which she made of the old records of 42 Virginia counties and 
15 of North Carolina. She desires to hear from all persons who know 
themselves to be descended from the following : 

Capt. Nathaniel Ridley (emigrant) Isle of Wight Co., Va. 

Henry Isham (emigrant) Henrico Co., Va., through either of his two 
daughters, Mary (Isham) Randolph and Anne (Isham) Eppes. 

Colonel Robet Boiling (emigrant) Prince George Co., Va., through 
his second wife, Anne Stith. 

Maj. John Stith (emigrant) Charles City Co., Va. 

Lieut-Col. Francis Eppes (emigrant) Charles City Co., Va. 

David Walker, Prince George Co., Va. 

Dr. Samuel Browne, Isle of Wight Co., Va. 

John Vaughan, Isle of Wight Co., Va., afterwards of Northampton 
Co., N. C. 

Colonel Robert Dickins (emigrant) Person Co., N. C. 

Richard Bolton, Isle of Wight Co., Va., afterwards of Edgecombe 
Co., N. C. 

Edward Lewis, Mecklenburg Co., Va. — Mrs. Martha C. D. Smith- 
wick, 881 Washington Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee. 



William and Mary Quarterly 211 

QUERIES REGARDING JONES 

To the Editors Wm. and Mary College Quarterly, Williamsburg, Va. : 

In Volume V of your Magazine, pages 192-197, is found an account 
of some of the descendants of Rev. Rowland Jones, the first minister of 
Bruton Parish. Concerning one branch of these, you quote (page 194) 
Col. Cary as follows : 

"The line of descent is broken here, and a gap of forty-five years 
occurs before the family reappears in Albemarle, in the persons of Lain 
and Wm. Jones, who were surely sons of either Orlando, Rowland, or 
William, the remaining sons of 'Lain Jones, Sr., deceased' (who married 
Ann Barber)." 

To this the Editor adds (pages 196-7) : 

"The statements of Col. Cary in the latter portion of this account 
need some modification. The 'gap' spoken of is bridged several times 
in the York and Albemarle county books. . . . Orlando, Lane, and 
William Jones, mentioned by Col. Cary, were more probably the sons of 
Orlando Jones, who was in Albemarle in 1769 as a witness to the will 
of John Hudson," 

Certain Albemarle records induced in my mind some doubt as to the 
"surely" of Col. Cary and even of the milder "more probably" of the 
Editor. They seemed to be one generation further from Rev. Rowland 
Jones than had been indicated. Now come the x\lbemarle County records 
confirming this, showing that the three brothers Orlando, Lain, and 
William Jones were sons of Lain Jones, who died about 1805. It is also 
shown that this Lain Jones was son of Orlando Jones mentioned above 
as "son of Lain Jones deceased" (and his wife Ann Barber). The 
Editor speaks of this Orlando as in Albemarle in 1769 as witness, etc. 
As a matter of fact, he was then resident there, having removed to 
Albemarle from Hanover, purchasing a farm on Totier Creek, near the 
present Glendower, and dying there in 1793, leaving the one son Lain, 
mentioned above. 

Besides being interested in this Jones family for other reasons, 
I am also desirous to know clearly its relationship with the Woodson 
family. One Elizabeth Woodson appears as witness to the will of John 
Hudson, Albemarle, 1769, whose wife was Ann Jones, sister of Orlando ; 
and the will of John Woodson of "Carter's Ferry," Cumberland Co., 
April, 1793, mentions daughter Judith, as "late wife of Orlando Jones," 
Will some one kindly identify this Orlando, and also inform the writer 
whether there were any children of this marriage? Possibly he was 
the Orlando mentioned in the York Co. records, 1761, as ward of Roger 
Gregory (and nephew of Orlando, of Albemarle). 

The youngest son of Lain Jones and his wife, Ann Barber, was 
William, born November 7, 1746. Information as to marriage and 
descendants of this William Jones is desired. — B. L. Ancell, Yangchow, 
China, Oct. 6, 1916. 



212 William and Mary Quarterly 



BOOK REVIEWS 

The Revolution in Virginia. By H. J. Eckenrode, Ph. D., Associate Pro- 
fessor of Economics and History in Richmond College. Boston 
and New York, Houghton Mifflin Company. iQi6. 

This is a most interesting contribution to the history of Virginia, 
based on the great collection of manuscripts in the State Library never 
used to so full an extent by any other author. Perhaps "The Revolution 
in Virginia" is too full a title, since the chief attention of the author is 
given to local events, and matters of continental importance are sub- 
ordinated. Many phases of even the local life, especially in the economic 
and industrial aspects, for which the library gives ample opportunity, are 
ignored. A fuller account too of the naval and military operations might 
have been expected from a work of this title. However, the book is in- 
valuable, and on the lines which Dr. Eckenrode has developed, noble use 
has been made of the material. We have never before had such a develop- 
ment of the work of the county committees, the conventions and the com- 
mittee of safety. The history of the Tories in Virginia also receives for 
the first time an adequate notice, and we read with awakened interest 
the spread of disaffection in Virginia which made the years 1780 and 1781 
especially gloomy. Dr. Eckenrode is really happy in portraying the early 
stages of the Revolution in Virginia. He shows that Patrick Henry 
merely popularized an attitude which had been already assumed by the 
Assembly led by Richard Bland, beginning in 1753 with the Pistole Fee. 
He effectively puts to flight the idea that the Revolution was a poor man's 
affair, championed by the great orator Henry against aristocrats opposed 
to revolution. There was, as he says, a division into what might be 
called a Conservative Party and a Progressive Party, but both were bent 
on protecting the rights of Virginia against the oppressions of Parliament, 
and they only differed as to the character and extent of the means to be 
employed. There were wealth and social standing in each party, and it 
may be that Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee,, who led the Progres- 
sives, were of even "better families" than Pendleton and George Wythe 
who led the Conservatives ; while Jefferson, who succeeded Henry as the 
chief leader of the Progressives was, on one side, at least, of the bluest 
blood in Virginia. 

While Dr. Eckenrode is generally careful in his deductions, he never* 
the less, sometimes falls into an error of this kind. He talks repeatedly of 
"classes" in Virginia, and thus lends support to the idea, quite as popular 
as some of the views he so ably refutes, that Virginia society consisted of 
a few aristocrats and a lot of poor people who trembled at their bidding. 
This, of course, is not his idea. Dr. Eckenrode is well aware that there 
were no classes at all in Virginia in the sense of persons having exclusive 
privileges. St. George Tucker is the authority for the statement that there 



William and Mary Quarterly 213 

was absolutely no such thing as one class of white men dependent on 
another class, William and Mary College Quarterly, XXII, 252. The 
rich Virginia planters were wholly unlike Roumanian aristocrats lording 
it over a host of white tenants. They were rulers of negro slaves and 
were supreme on their plantations, but outside of these limits they had 
no real authority. It is true that the representatives in the Assembly were 
generally men of wealth and education, but wealth and education are 
factors even more commanding to-day than in these early times. To say 
that the ruling class was a "planter class" is only to say that, in a strictly 
agricultural country like Virginia where land was cheap and most families 
had a few acres, the ruling class belonged to the people. If we looked any- 
where for aristocrats, we would look to the rich members of the Council 
appointed by the King for life, but, as Dr. Eckenrode says, these men 
were distrusted and the Council itself had little or no power. As a matter 
of fact, old families were constantly sinking in the social Hfe and new 
families were constantly popping up. New names were constantly appear- 
ing in the House of Burgesses. My opinion is that the talk of aristocracy 
has been vastly overdone by writers on Virginia history. One thing 
alone confirmed the democracy of Virginia in colonial times and rendered 
any permanent distinctions in society impossible and that was universal 
suffrage, which prevailed, certainly, down to as late as 1736, when for the 
first time a moderate land qualification was required. In the election there 
was quite as much electioneering as there is to-day, and the voter exercised 
his preference with quite as much freedom. He was eagerly sought after 
by the politicians and every effort made to win his good graces. It is 
ridiculous, therefore, to say that any man in Virginia had a natural hold 
on the offices by reason of his rank in society. He held oflfice simply by 
virtue of his ability to please better than some other man. In addition to 
St. George Tucker already quoted, who described Virginia Society as he 
knew it just before the Revolution, three other persons may be cited — 
Alexander Spotswood, Thomas Jefferson and Landon Carter. The former 
writing in 1713 complained that the House of Burgesses was fully under 
the sway of the poorer people who had elected only men of their own 
thinking (Spotswood's Letters, II., p. i), and the latter in 1814, referring 
to the period anterior to the Revolution scouted the idea of any heredity in 
office, except one of merit, and further declared that the unpopularity of 
the wealthy slave owners was so great that a Randolph, a Carter, or a 
Burwell had to have great personal merit to prevail in any election. 
(William and Mary Quarterly, XXIII., 227.) Landon Carter in his 
Diary mentions the current opinion that his own defeat in 1765 for the 
House of Burgesses was due to his "not familiarizing himself with the 
people," whom he describes as exulting in turning down two prominent 
men to put into office "an impudent fellow" and "a good-natured fool." 
Even the utmost cringing on the part of the candidate failed at times to 
conciliate the fickle voters of his residential county of Richmond. (Wil- 
uam and Mary Quarterly, XVI., 259.) 



214 William and Mary Quarterly 

After the same manner exception is to be taken to Dr. Eckenrode's 
description of the poor in Virginia on page 12. It is a serious thing to 
charge a whole "class" in the Colony \vit!i being "utterly ilHterate," and 
"sunk in brutal dissipation." One would expect some proof, but Dr. 
Eckenrode gives none. The age of which he writes is well known to 
have been one of limited civilization and refinement, and Virginians were 
probably no better than their age, but give us the proof that they were any 
worse. Dr. Eckenrode's statement seems to imply as much. What his- 
tory demands is figures or documentary evidence — not the critical com- 
ments of persons who rushed to sweeping generalizations from a few 
observed facts. I am aware that citations may be made from travelers 
who spent a limited time in Virginia that might lend countenance to Dr. 
Eckenrode's charges, but how would any people show up if subjected to 
such an unjust test? How would the people of Massachusetts appear 
if we were to judge of them through individual cases? While there is no 
evidence that "gouging" was resorted to in Massachusetts, we have plenty 
of evidence of the horrid and immoral practices of "bundling" and "tarry- 
ing." (Weeden's Social and Economic History of New England, H. 739, 
864.) As to liquor drinking, the chief industry of New England, about 
the time of the American Revolution, was the making of rum, whereof a 
goodly amount was consumed at home. John Adams said that every other 
house in the different towns of the county in which he lived were 
"taverns, dirty, of miserable accommodations," and "full of people drink- 
ing drams, flip, toddy, carousing, swearing, but especially plotting with the 
landlord to get him at the next town meeting an election either for 
selectman or representative." Adams, Works, II., 125, 126. This confirms 
what the Baron Riedesel says in his Memoirs: "The New Englanders all 
want to be politicians and love, therefore, the tavern and the grog bowl. 
behind the latter of which they transact business, drinking from morning 
till night." The same witness (Riedesel) states in another connection 
that "only one in ten of the men in Massachusetts could read and still fewer 
could write." We have this much historical support for this statement. 
Mr. William Root Bliss, a native of New England, declares in his Old 
Colony Town, that the records written by town officers and accounts 
written in private families in New England were miserably illiterate. In 
addition to which, there is the public declaration of John Adams on the 
floor of Congress in 1776: "The condition of the laboring poor in most 
countries, that of the fishermen particularly in the Northern States, is as 
abject as that of slaves." Finally, not to multiply such evidence, we 
may give a statement of as respectable a person as Elbridge Gerry, who 
declared in the Federal Convention in 1787 "that in Massachusetts the 
worst men get into the Legislature. Several members of that body have 
lately been convicted of infamous crimes. Men of indigence, ignorance and 
baseness, spare no pains, however dirty, to carry their point against men, 
who are superior to the artifices practised." Now are we to infer from, 
these statements that the people of Massachusetts were utterly illiterate, 



William and Mary Quarterly 215 

brutally dissipated and totally corrupt? And yet that seems to be the 
necessary conclusion, if we did not know that some persons have a great 
way of talking "through their hat," and that it takes a great many particu- 
lars to justify a general conclusion. It seems that we must, after all, 
go to New England to have justice done to the poor people of Vir- 
ginia. Henry Adams, in his History of the United States, says "Nowhere 
in America existed better human material than in the middle and lower 
classes of Virginia. As explorers, fighters, whenever courage, and activity 
and force, were wanted they had no equals and were beyond measure 
jealous of restraint." 

Occasionally in other connections Dr. Eckenrode slips from his general 
accuracy. Jefferson when he heard Henry's speech on the Stamp Act 
was not in attendance on William and Mary, being at that time a law 
student in Williamsburg under George Wythe. Nor is it correct to say 
that a fee for issuing land grants had "never been demanded" before the 
time of Dinwiddie, since Lord Howard had levied a similar fee in 1688, 
but was compelled to give it up owing to the opposition of the people. 
So too it is a mistake to cite John Tyler as a "Conservative." He was, on 
the contrary, a progressive of the progressives. In fact, no warmer sym- 
pathizer with the Revolution could be found anywhere. He had absorbed 
its spirit, its aspirations, at the age of eighteen, when, as a student of 
William and Mary, he stood in the lobby of the House of Burgesses, in 
company with Mr. Jefferson, and heard Henry's speech on the Stamp Act. 
Afterwards so pronounced were his opinions that his father often pre- 
dicted that he would be hung as a rebel. He was a hot Henry enthusiast 
and as Captain of the Charles City Company he joined him on his march 
to Williamsburg in the affair of the gunpowder in 1775. After coming 
into the Legislature in the spring of 1778 he became known as an extreme 
representative of Republican principles, and an enemy of everything 
British. He championed the cause of education, denounced the slave trade 
and wanted to codify the common law as well as the statute law, "so as 
not to suffer a fragment of royalty to remain amongst us." In 1783 in 
opposition to Henry he resisted the return of the Tories as calculated to 
re-establish monarchial influences in Virginia. In the matter of taxation, 
he joined with Mr. Madison in fighting Mr. Henry's stay laws, and he 
was foremost in advocating a grant to Congress of a power to lay a dut>' 
of 5 per cent., it being on his motion in 1786 that the Annapolis Conven- 
tion was called. In 1788 he joined with the Western members in opposing 
the Federal Constitution, supported for the most part by Madison and 
the Eastern Conservatives, and afterwards was a warm advocate of the 
policies of the Repulican party against the aristocratic Federalists. As 
Governor (1808-1811) he recurred to his early viev/s and vehemently urged 
on the Legislature the necessity of schools and reforms in the law. He 
was throughout a great admirer of Mr. Jefferson, voicing, as Speaker of 
the House of Delegat'^s in 1781, the thanks of the Assembly and defending 



2i6 William and Mary Quarterly 

his administration as Governor in a letter published in the Richmo»d 
Enquirer in 1805, His general view as to Jefferson and his policies is 
shovt'n in the following from a letter written in i8o8: "I have known him 
for forty-four years and a more uniform character the world never gave 
existence to, I believe." 

In presence of these facts, for Dr. Eckenrode to classify Tyler as a Con- 
servative because of his attitude on one question only, that of the assess- 
ment of taxes for church purposes in 1784, ignoring all the rest of his 
career, is manifestly wrong. The fact is, that the evidence preserved is 
too meagre to found anything like an exact verdict in regard to his posi- 
tion. In all the divisions on this question published in the Journal of the 
House of Delegates his name does not appear, and this seems to prove that. 
though attached to the Episcopal Church, like the majority of members, 
he did not heartily approve the position of the Episcopal clergy. Cer- 
tainly there was never any conscious reaction on his part towards conser- 
vatism. When a few years later President Madison was ordained in 
England as Bishop, Mr. Tyler, in a letter to Judge Tucker, characterized 
his "canonicals" as unre publican and especially objectionable in that they 
came from Great Britain. ( Letters and Times of the Tylers, III., 13.) 

This suggests some remarks upon Dr. Eckenrode's chapter, entitled 
"The Fall of Jefferson," Mr. Jefferson was subjected to unexampled dif- 
ficulties while Governor, and it is not surprising to find matter for criticism 
under such conditions. His failure to exercise unauthorized power at 
the time of the British invasion is not, with all deference to Dr. Ecken- 
rode's opinion, sufficient reason to impeach his capacity for action. During 
the War between the States we became familiar with "war powers" exer- 
cised in the face of the whole constitution, but the attitude of Virginia 
in 1781 was exactly the reverse of the attitude of the Federal government in 
1861. The latter was attempting to crush a resistance which it denounced 
as a rebellion of disloyal people. The former was repelling an attack 
which it denounced as the tyranny of government. Hence, the w-hole trend 
of thought in Virginia in 1781 was against granting any considerable 
power to the executive, and it never occurred to Jefferson, as the exponent 
of that thought, to assume authority. On the contrary, Lincoln, with the 
majority of the northern people in 1861, had learned to think along the 
lines of King George III., and had no scruples in asserting absolute power. 

Perhaps Dr. Eckenrode does bring proof enough to show that Jeffer- 
son was not a model war governor, but to talk about his "Fall," seems 
decidedly far-fetched. At the very next Assembly after his resignation he 
received the unanimous vote of thanks of that body, was immediately 
elected to Congress, and by Congress was sent as minister to France. If 
Jefferson "fell," then the law^ of gravitation got somehow turned upside 
down and he fell upwards instead of downwards. 

The book is neatly printed and is to be had of the publishers at $2.00 
a copy. 



William and Mary Quarterly 217 

Andrew Johnson, Military Governor of Tennessee. By Clifton B. Hall, 
Ph. D., Assistant Professor in History and Politics in Princeton 
University, Princeton University, New Jersey. Published October, 
1916. 

This work by Dr. Hall, of Princeton, is exceedingly interesting and 
instructive. His efforts to portray a period in the history of Tennessee 
so full of the vindictive passions of man is, on the whole, decidedly suc- 
cessful. If he has not always presented the full facts, it is, no doubt, 
largely due, as he says very frankly in his Preface, to the dearth of Con- 
federate material. Probably for this reason he does not give the Con- 
federate antidote to. the charge that in forming a temporary league with 
the Confederate government on May, 1861, before the vote on secession 
by the people, the governor and the Legislature of Tennessee acted in a 
manner "indefensible from any legal standpoint." But consult the Con- 
stitution of the United States. Under Section 10, Article I., while no State 
of the Union can ordinarily "without the consent of Congress make any 
agreement, or compact with another State, or with a foreign State, or 
engage in war," it may do so when "actually invaded or in such imminent 
danger as will not admit of delay." That this reservation had reference to 
legislative action is shown by the fact that it was taken almost bodily from 
the Articles of Confederation, to which the States had been made parties 
simply through the action of their legislatures. The danger to Tennessee 
in 1861 cam.e from the Federal Government itself, which had called out 
troops and threatened hostile action against any State which might adopt 
secession. This section itself was a direct recognition of the sovereign 
power of self-protection through the action of the constituted government 
in any State, and the vote of the people, which required time, was not and 
could not be waited for when destruction was imminent. Indeed, a power 
of this character, independent of any constitutional recognition, was in- 
herent in the very nature of a sovereign State. 

Much important detail is furnished by Dr. Hall in regard to matters 
of Johnson's administration in Tennessee as military governor, but doubt- 
less the chief interest of the work lies in the opportunity it affords us for 
judging of the character of Johnson as well as the character of Lincoln 
who appointed him to his office. The object of the appointment was the 
restoration of Tennessee to the Union, but Lincoln, instead of selecting 
a cool, conservative person of conciliatory character to effect his purpose, 
took a man whom Dr. Hall describes as one of the most vindictive and, 
venomous men in Tennessee — a man thoroughly hated and detested by 
nearly everybody in the State, and he sent him there when the State 
was in the hands of the Confederates and kept him there for three years, 
during most of which time, it is stated, he was quarrelling with Federal 
generals, and chaotic conditions prevented any successful action. How 
much did all this speak for the wisdom of the president, and how, may 
it be asked, did Lincoln's fine words of "with malice towards none, with 



2i8 William and Mary Quarterly 

charity to all," harmonize with the steady and constant support which he 
gave to Johnson's violent methods that went even to the extent of chang- 
ing the terms of Lincoln's own proclamation of December 8, 1863. This 
was the famous proclamation issued by Lincoln under the pretense of 
carrying out the section in the Federal Constitution guaranteeing to the 
States a Republican form of government. After a clause disfranchising all 
the leading citizens, this paper promised recognition to the tenth 
part of the people in any of the rebellious States, who would take an oath 
of allegiance, and form a government. Now, however absurd the idea 
that the rule of so small a fraction of the people could constitute a 
"republican" rule, Johnson's deliberate conversion of the oath into a 
practically prohibitive test, with Lincoln's entire submission, made a 
travesty of both Lincoln's proclamation and his own action. 

Dr. Hall's estimate of Johnson as in large degree a demagogue, is 
undoubtedly correct The honors he won in the heat of the slavery agita- 
tion, as both Governor and Senator of Tennessee, shows that the poor 
man of the South had, after all, as good a chance for promotion as the 
poor man of the North, and that the hatred of Johnson, who was a slave 
holder himself, for the greater slave holders, was due more to personal 
jealousy and political ambition than to any other thing. Nevertheless, 
there were traits in Johnson's character which should rank him high in 
the estimation of every fair-minded and honorable man. One was his 
devotion to his ideals, the other his indomitable courage. No one could 
have excelled him in zeal for the preservation of the Union, while his 
bravery rested on a bed-rock of power. He would have hung any of the 
Confederate leaders taken in actual arms against the government, but, 
when the war was over and time was given to cool, he was incapable of 
the meanness of persecuting like so many others did a defenceless and 
helpless people. His masterful character rendered it impossible for him 
to play the part of the politic and vacillating Lincoln, who submitted to 
his secretaries and generals, and, while juggling with generous phrases in 
his messages and speeches, encouraged directly, or connived at, the most 
drastic measures of his subordinates. Johnson was a man of great abihty, 
but better than that he was a man in the open. As President he refused 
to submit to Stanton, and the spectacle which he presented during his 
administration of fearless opposition to the program of the radicals, at the~^ 
risk of an expulsion from his own high office, is one of the most sublime 
and inspiring in American history. 

American Patriots and Statesmen from Washington to Lincoln. By Albert 
Bushnell Hart, LL. D., Professor of the Science of Government. 
Harvard University. The Collier Classics. Copyright by P. F. 
Collier & Son. 

This work, tastefully published in five small volumes, is intended to put 
in easy reach of every reader a selection of American patriotic utterances 



William and Mary Quarterly 219 

best exhibiting the spirit of American nationality. Writers of every class 
have been included — statesmen, sages, men of affairs, presidents, judges, 
essayists, travelers, poets and orators. They represent every section. Of 
course, Dr. Hart must have had great difficulty in making a choice, as 
he tells us that he had material enough to fill twenty books instead of five. 
In spite of this, he has done his work well. It is pleasant to note that the 
South has been generously recognized, and of the five volumes, three have 
the portraits of Southern men occupjang the frontispiece — Washington, 
Jefferson, and Jackson — while Lincoln **born a Southerner and living a 
Northerner," is honored with the fourth portrait The only portrait of 
a Northern man, born and living such, is Benjamin FrankHn, who occupies 
the frontispiece of the first volume. With all its merits, some criticisms 
of this work are allowable perhaps. I do not think that all the articles 
contribute to the exploitation of patriotism, either by way of expostulation 
or exhortation, as Dr. Hart puts it in his prefeace. Certainly no such 
result is had by including such a villification of society in the South as that 
of H. R. Helper. It is rather surprising, too, that Dr. Hart fails to give 
any specimen from the brilliant pen of William Wirt, to say nothing of 
William B. Giles and Henry A. Wise. But then all could not have a place, 
and what is one man's taste is not another's. Dr. Hart tells us that to 
preserve the non-sectional and non-partisan character of the work, it is 
brought. to a close with the outbreak of the Civil War. An exception is 
made in the case of Abraham Lincoln, whose Gettysburg speech and other 
writings are included. Though this is a departure from the plan of the 
work, here, too, we need not be too critical, as the writings selected have 
undoubtedly great Hterary merit. Just one thing, however, about their 
introduction does give rise to some suspicion of the sectionalism which 
Dr. Hart disclaims. In his reference to Lincoln in his preface, he exalts 
Lincoln, "a Southerner born and living a Northerner," as the First 
American. This I do not think will ever be conceded Lincoln, except by 
a very few persons outside of Northern partisans and sectionalists, as 
long as the memory of George Washington exists, who born a Southerner, 
lived, not a Northerner like Lincoln — but an American, the idol of both 
the North and the South. Lincoln, it is true, had a superior knack of 
saying catchy things in his writings, but the real question is how far he 
meant them and how far he applied them in the conduct of the Civil War. 
Some of his abuses of the InternHLion{i^U-Law--i»aj/jp'_J!£',tTiained to this day 
to plague President Wilson in our relations with Germany and England, 
and he hurrahed for Sherman in Georgia and Sheridan in the Valley of 
Virginia with the loudest,* thus instigating by his approval similar 
atrocities in the present great European conflagration. In doing these 
things Lincoln acted doubtless perfectly patriotically, as did Sherman and 



* On December 6, 1864. in response to a serenade at the White House, 
Lincoln proposed "three cheers for Sherman and his army," expressing 
no regret at Sherman's methods. 



220 William and Mary Quarterly 

Sheridan, but certainly neither Lincoln, nor Sherman, nor Sheridan is 
entitled to any special recognition for humanity on account of them. 

Dr. Hart is a brilliant writer and prolific author, and to him American 
history is greatly indebted for numerous and important publications. He 
is, undoubtedly, one of the foremost of American scholars. 

Brave Deeds of Confederate Soldiers. By Philip Alexander Bruce, LL. D., 
author of "Robert E. Lee"; "The Rise of the New South," etc., 
Philadelphia : George W. Jacobs & &Company, Publishers. 

Dr. Bruce uses his polished pen to excelled advantage in recounting 
these interesting stories of the great civil war. They could, of course, 
have been greatly multiplied, but the sixteen which he gives us are wonder- 
fully thrilling and typical. While adhering strictly to the ■ facts in each 
case, Dr. Bruce frames them in a setting of words which gives them a 
freshness of action that enlists an absorbing interest. The Union before 
1861 consisted of two really distinct nations, and the war waged by the 
South was one waged to preserve its national existence. There was no 
other meaning to it, and there was no solution to the war except inde- 
pendence or absolute defeat. These young heroes who figure in Dr. 
Bruce's eloquent pages thought of naught but their country, and they were 
inspired by as pure a spirit as ever was cherished by a knight errant or a 
crusader of the olden time. Lincoln never understood the Southern people. 
and in offering to pay them for their slaves, if they would only stop fight- 
ing and come back into the Union, he really grossly insulted them. These 
men were not fighting for the money value of slaves, as Lincoln 
and the North seemed to think, but for a national existence, which they 
deemed menaced in the old Union. Both Seward and Lincoln had declared 
that the old Union contained the elements of an irrepressible conflict, and 
as this was really true, no such Union was natural or desirable. Now, 
by the defeat of the South and its absorption by the North, a greater and 
more powerful nation was made possible, but this does not invalidate the 
ground of its heroic resistance. The absorption of Switzerland by France 
might make a stronger France and a greater Switzerland, but all the 
arguments in the world would never persuade the Swiss that any amount 
of material benefit could compensate them for the sacrifice of their 
national identity. 

Dr. Bruce has written many excellent works, but none attests his 
literary ability more strikingly than the book under notice. 

The Hamiltons of Burnside, North Carolina, g.nd Their Ancestors, and 
Descendants. By Patrick Hamilton Baskerville, A. M. (University 
of Virginia.) Richmond, Va. William Ellis Jones Sons, Inc., 
Richmond, Va. 

Not long ago Mr. Baskerville wrote a book of the Baskerville family 
of Virginia and succeeded in tracing them back through many generations 



William and Mary Quarterly 221 

in England. In this work he traces his mother's family the Hamiltons, of 
North Carolina, with just a slight hitch, occurring ahout 1655, to quite as 
remote a period in Scotland. The line begins with Sir Walter Fitz Gilbert 
de Hamilton, of Cadyow, in Lanarkshire living in 1292, and comes down 
through the Hamiltons of Orbiston and Dalzell, the Hamiltons of Park- 
head, and the Hamiltons of Eastquater and Burnside. The immediate 
American emigrant was Patrick Hamilton, born May 5, 1789, at Burnside, 
Scotland, to which the family moved from Eastquarter. He came with his 
four brothers to America and settled in Granville County, North Carolina, 
where they carried on a successful mercantile business. He married Mary 
Eaton Baskerville, daughter of William Baskerville, of Mecklenburg, Va. 
His daughter Isabella Alston Baskerville married H. E. C. Baskerville, and 
they were the author's parents. Alexander Hamilton born March 18, 185 1, 
died February 4, 1916) distinguished as a la'wyer in Petersburg, Va., 
was a son of Robert Hamilton, the author's uncle. 

iVith Americans of Past and Present Days. By J. J. Jusserand, Ambassa- 
dor of France to the United States, New York, Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1916. 

In this work Ambassador Jusserand brings out very successfully the 
connection of the French with the American Republic. The French army 
under the great Rochambeau enabled us to achieve independence at York- 
town. A great French sculptor Houdon gave us the finest statue of 
Washington. A great French engineer, Major Pierre Charles L'Enfant, 
furnished the design of the new American Capital City. The author is a 
thorough historian, and is cautious enough in his statement of facts. The 
work is a timely and interesting one. 

Chemistry in America: Chapters from the History of the Science in the 
United States. By Edgar F. Smith, Blanchard, Professor of Chem- 
istry, University of Pennsylvania. Illustrated. D. Appleton and 
Company, New York and London. 

In this book which is handsomely prepared. Dr. Smith presents the 
reader with a most interesting account of the development of Chemistry 
in America. Philadelphia was the headquarters of this science, and the 
sketches he gives are largely of men connected with that great city. 
Among the most distinguished chemists was Robert Hare, who had a brief 
connection with William and Mary College. Besides being a great 
chemist, Thomas Cooper was a great writer on politics, and Dr. Smith 
calls attention to the fact that he was the real originator of the phrase 
popularized by Lincoln : "This is a government of the people, by the 
people, and for the people." The work, while not a complete history of 
chemistry in America, is, nevertheless, of profound interest and genuine 
importance to every chemist. Among the men who did the earliest original 
work in chemistry in America was the active James Madison, President of 



222 William and Mary Quarterly 

this College from 1777 to 1812. He was not only a great student of chem- 
istry and natural philosophy, but like Cooper, he was a profound student 
of politics and economics. 

Virginia Counties: Those resulting from Virginia legislation. Bulletin 
of the Virginia State Library. By Morgan Portia Robinson, Archiv- 
ist. Richmond, Va. Davis Bottom, Superintendent of Public 
Printing, 1916, 

This is one of the most interesting and important publications issued 
by the State Library. Mr. Robinson has shown great patience and erudi- 
tion in compiling the work. It is a thorough treatise on the origin of our 
counties with regard to time, name, and organization. 

Woman's Suffrage: By Constitutional Amendment. By Henry St. George 
Tucker. New Haven Yale University Press : Humphrey Milford, 
Oxford University Press MDCCCXVI. 

In this work Dr. Tucker gives the five lectures delivered by him in 
the Storrs Lecture Course in the Law School of Yale University in Feb- 
ruary, 1916. His object is not to argue upon the inherent right of Female 
Suffrage, but to show that the attempt to bring about an amendment of 
the Constitution is opposed to the genius of the instrument itself and sub- 
versive of one of the most important principles incorporated in it. To the 
support of his views Dr. Tucker brings all the learning on Constitutional 
Law for w^hich he is justly distinguished and undoubtedly proves his case. 
But what of that? Dr. Tucker seems to forget that the spirit of our 
institutions have undergone an absolute change. If the Union was in any 
sense, what the fathers intended it under the Constitution, a Confederacy 
of States, there would be nothing to say in reply. The local government 
adhering in a sovereign State is totally different from a local government 
implied in a consolidated nation which the Union became by force of arms 
in 1865. The Union still has a constitution under which it lives, and 
every citizen has a right to demand that it should be respected. There 
should be no illegal assumption of power by the courts or Congress, and 
all the .extra constitutional power should be had by amendments ; but when 
three-fourths of the States consent to an amendment there can be no ap- 
peal beyond it technically or otherwise. The suffrage amendment would be 
strictly proper not only according to the letter of the Constitution, but 
according to the spirit of the nation, which no longer carries the local 
idea to the extent of a reserved sovereignty in the States. Any usurpations 
of Congress or the courts should be sternly Qpposed, now as well as any 
future time, but it is idle to go beyond this and attack a clause which is 
certainly very conservative in protecting the rights of minorities and local 
government. When three-fourths of the States approve any question, it 
seems to me that it receives the sanction of nationality and cannot be gain- 
said. It is idle to talk about decisions of the Federal Courts before 1861, 
when the whole nature of the Union has been changed by force. 



William and Mary Quarterly 223 

Sally Ccry — A Long Hidden Romance of Washington's Life. By Wilson 
Miles Cary, with notes by another hand. Privately printed. The 
De Vinne Press, New York, 1906. 

This little book was an unfinished work of the late Wilson Miles 
Cary, of Baltimore. It is the sole relict of all his purely literary projects 
(and his mind was full of them), that reached anything near completion. 
When one has gone for a walk, who has not experienced the pleasure of 
turning at times from the broad highway to wander down some leafy 
by-path beautiful with the flowers and verdure of the woods? So to 
the student of history "Sally Cary" is a little roadway that leads far oflF 
from the bustle and noise of public life, and the sweet incense of her 
fairy soul is all about him. This little book opens a view of her relations 
with Washington which have never been vouchsafed to us so fully before. 
We notice that in the year before his death he avowed that "the happiest 
moments of his life" were enjoyed in her company. Besides giving the 
life story of Sally Cary, the book has three interesting appendices: (i) 
Sally Fairfax's childish diary in January, 1772; (2) The Society of 
Williamsburg in 1805; (3) The Ceely's Library. 

The Life of John Marshall. By Albert J. Beveridge. Boston and New 
York: Houghton, Mifflin Company, 1916. 

The first two volumes of this valuable work have been received and 
will be reviewed in the next Magazine. 



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Vol. XXVI APRIL, 1917 No 4. 



LETTERS OF MAJOR THOMAS ROWLAND, C. S. A. 

Contributed by the late Miss Kate Mason Rowland, LL. D. 

Fort Johnson, N. C, Jan. 10, 1862. 
My Dear Mother: 

I have your Christmas and New Year's letters and thank you 
all for them. You must excuse my crooked writing but I am 
favored by the light of a very indifferent tallow candle (bad 
luck to the blockade). I have just finished *'Love me little, love 
me long," which I took up to cheer my spirits. It is a very well 
written book, an ingenious variation of the same old love story 
that fills nine-tenths of the novels. 

I am not doing anything here hardly, I have a few hands 
with an overseer turfing the batteries, but I cannot close up my 
affairs until Col. Freemont sends several guns to be mounted. 

Your aff. Son 

T. Rowland. 



Fort Johnson, N. C, Jan. 20, 1862. 
My Dear Aunt: 

I received last week your letter of the 3d inst., containing 
Dora's photograph. I am seriously tempted to keep it, but I will 
not take advantage of your generosity in lending it to me when 
I know you prize it so highly. I am sorry to hear that the old 
gentleman is having so much trouble on account of his sympathy 



226 William and Mary Quarterly 

with the South. His honest detestation of the Yankees and 
Abolitionists would entitle him to a good berth in the Southern 
Confederacy. 

We have been in daily expectation here of a visit from the 
Burnside naval expedition. During the past week the weather 
has been foggy and stormy, which may have detained them. 
While I write one of the blockaders is firing heavy guns about 
three miles from the beach, but I think they are only practicing. 
If we have a fight I shall act as aide-de-camp to the commanding 
officer here. Col. Iverson. I suppose you have a cold winter in 
Western Virginia. We have no cold weather here at all. The 
flowers bloom in the open air as if autumn had been followed 
immediately by spring. 

Your aff . Nephew 

T. Rowland. 



Fort Johnson, N. C, Jan. 25, 1862. 
My Dear Mother: 

I received your letter of the 19th, yesterday while in Wilming- 
ton. I was ordered there by Genl. i\nderson who wished me to 
take command of a detachment of heavy artillery at some battery 
on the Cape Fear River. Of course I made no objection, though 
it is not in my department to drill artillery. I am willing to do 
anything useful, since I am denied the agreeable, viz., active 
service. 

The wind has been blowing a gale here for nearly a week. 
No, I am exaggerating, but we have had a long and severe storm 
which will doubtless prove fatal to many of the Burnside fleet. 
Zekes Island has been almost washed away by the storm. The sea 
came right up to the guns of the Battery. My love to my sioters. 
May God bless you all. 

Your aff. Son 

Thomas Rowland. 



William and Mary Quarterly 227 

Fort Johnson, N. C, February 9, 1862. 
My Dear Mother: 

Capt. Parker and I have given up our room to a sick lady, it 
being the only one in the house with a fireplace, except the parlor 
and dining room. The consequence is I am writing in the parlor 
with half a dozen persons talking around me. Occasionally I 
have to join in the conversation, so that I cannot keep up a con- 
nected train of ideas. I am still awaiting orders here with nothing 
to do. A company of heavy artillery is being raised in Wilming- 
ton. As soon as it is completed it will be sent to Light House 
Battery about two miles below Wilmington, and I will be ordered 
there to command the battery. Captain Smith is ordered to 
Wilmington again. The North Carolina, a large brigg-rigged ocean 
steamer ran the blockade here a few nights ago bound to Liver- 
pool with a cargo of cotton, tobacco and rosin. I went over to 
Fort Caswell with some of the officers to see her go out. There 
was a blockader lying off the Fort at the time, but the North 
Carolina managed to steal out in the darkness without being 
observed. There are four or five small sail vessels anchored 
here now, waiting for a convenient opportunity to run the 
blockade. 

I have just finished reading "The Mysteries of Udolpho" by 
Ann Radclifife. It is a very interesting novel and one of some 
celebrity. Byron refers to it in the fourth canto of "Childe 
Harold." The scene is laid partly in France, partly in Venice and 
partly among the Appenines. The descriptions of scenery are 
beautiful, and the account of the Carnival of Venice and the mode 
of life in that city are very entertaining. The "Mysteries" which 
are very deep are unravelled as the story comes to a close. I have 
borrowed a small history of France which I am now going to read 
though the style is not so interesting as that of Macauley and 
Hume. 

Love to the girls. God bless you all. 
Your aff. Son 

Thomas Rowland. 



228 William and Mary Quarterly 

Fort Johnson, N. C, Feb. i6, 1862. 
My Dear Mother: 

We have had a heavy cable stretched across the inlet at Fort 
Caswell to prevent Yankee steamers from running our blockade. 
What an unfortunate disaster we have had at Roanoke Island. 
I think, however, it will have the effect of causing our soldiers 
to re-enlist for the war more promptly than they would have done 
had our prospects been more bright in the future. It shows us 
that war is no child's play, and that we must be prepared to make 
every sacrifice in the cause that we have embraced. McLeod 
Turner who was a schoolmate of mine at Caleb Hallowell's was 
a captain in Col. Campbell's regiment. I believe he was on the 
Island, but I have not heard yet whether he escaped. 

I w^ent sailing yesterday and stopped on the oyster rocks. I 
have nothing else to do, so I w^alk, sail, and play whist. I cannot 
read much or write as many letters as I would like to because I 
have no room with a fireplace. Captain Parker and I have given 
up our room again to the sick, and I am obliged to write now 
in the parlor in the midst of a conversation. 

Your aff. Son 

Thomas Rowland. 



Fort Johnson, N. C, Feb. 25, 1862. 
My Dear Lizsie: 

I received mother*s letter of the i8th yesterday, while in 
Wilmington. I went up to see Genl. Anderson and ask for some- 
thing to do. I found that an order has just been issued, assign- 
ing me to new duties at Fort Johnson, so I will probably be here 
a month or two longer. I am to superintend the construction of a 
water battery, commanding the channel of the harbor. The work 
is to be executed by the soldiers of the regiment, in order to save 
the government the expense of hiring laborers. I am going up to 
Wilmington again to-morrow to consult with Capt. Smith as the 
battery is to be constructed according to his directions. 



William and Mary Quarterly 229 

Capt. Parker and I have had to give up our plan for a cavalry 
battalion, as we find that the government will not equip com- 
panies for that branch of the service. All cavalry companies in 
future have to furnish their own horses. Capt. Parker and Lieut. 
Devane are going to raise a company of light artillery. Capt. 
Parker has offered me a lieutenantcy if he succeeds, but pecuniary 
difficulties are in my way. I would have to buy a horse, saddle 
and bridle, sword and pistols, which would cost in all not less 
than $300. Then I would have to buy a uniform, which would 
cost $60 or $70 more. So I was forced to decline his offer. I 
expect I will have to wait patiently until I am of age before I 
can attain promotion. 

I am philosopher enough to be satisfied with my position as 
far as am personally concerned, but it annoys me to think that I 
can do so little for my mother and sisters who need my assistance, 
when hundreds of young men in our army, with less experience 
and less claim upon our country than I have, draw twice as much 
pay and perhaps have not half as good a use for it. 

Justice is blind, but not more so than its dispensers. 

I am reading the history of France by Taylor. I have just got 
to the coup d'etat of Louis Napoleon. What a great man he was 
and i^, a real Bonaparte ! How many monarchs would have been 
overwhelmed in the storm that made him an emperor, and scat- 
tered the enemies that plotted his destruction. What Napoleon 
the First was as a warrior. Napoleon the Third is as a statesman. 

Your most aff. brother 

T. Rowland. 



Wilmington, March 15, 1862. 

"Partant pour la Syrie, 
Mauvais pour la patrie." 

Dear Mother, Last night the 20th Regiment received orders 
to set out immediately for Newbern. To-day we hear that New- 
bern is in the hands of the enemy. We have just arrived in town 
and are awaiting transportation for Goldsboro. We will be oflF 



230 William and Mary Quarterly 

in the morning. I am going as aide to Col. Iverson. Do not be 
uneasy if you do not hear from me again in the course of a week 
or so I will not have much opportunity to write. Capt. Parker 
is going with us too as an aide. 



Brunswick Point, N. C, March 25, 1862. 
My Dear Mother: 

When I received your last letter I received at the same time 
an order from Col. Iverson, commanding District of the Cape 
Fear, to proceed to Zeeks Island, to examine the battery there, 
which w^as being washed away by the sea, to report whether it 
was tenable and if not what works were necessary to make it so. 
I started immediately for the Island, returned the next day and 
wrote my report. When I went to Headquarters to hand it to 
Col. Iverson I found Genl. French just arrived and in command 
of the District. He wished to examine the defences of the 
Cape Fear, so off I started again down the river with the General 
and staff and did not return until the next evening. The day 
following, which was yesterday, I was ordered here to superin- 
tend the construction of a battery and line of intrenchments. I 
am now the solitary tenant of a large house upon a rice plantation 
on Ithe banks of the Cape Fear. Mr. Wood, master- workman, and 
Mr. Rose, Master-carpenter stay here at night. The gentleman 
who owns the plantation gives us the use of his house, and ser- 
vants to cook for us and wait upon us. He is a lawyer and spends 
most of his time in Wilmington, so we have the whole house to 
ourselves. Brunswick Point is half way between Wilmington 
and the mouth of the Cape Fear. 



Brunswick Point, N. C, April 25, 1862. 
My Dear Lizzie: 

You had better write as many letters as you can before the 
ten cent postage law goes into operation. It has been just about 
a year since I left West Point and still the war is in full blast. 
When I left the College last spring, with my valise, on my way 



William and Mary Quarterly 231 

to Richmond, I did not anticipate such a long absence. I wish that 
I had with me all the books that I left in my trunk. I have 
a good deal of spare time now for reading. I have nearly finished 
Racine's Tragedies in French, and have commenced the Life 
and Writings of Josephus which I borrowed from the Captain 
of a steamboat. He gives a most interesting account of the Jewish 
wars and the Siege of Jerusalem by Titus. 

Racine needs no comment. He is more intelligible to an 
American than any French author I ever attempted to read except 
Voltaire. 

I enjoy the country fare here very x/ach. We have plenty 
of milk and clabber. We get our rations from the Commissary in 
Wilmington and have them cooked by Mr. Ivliller's servants. Genl. 
French has promised to send me a horse to use while I remain 
here so that I can explore the neighbouring country and be 
familiar with it in case of an attack. Captain Edelin, who is in 
command of the Battery is going out with me. We will take a 
guide and ride all day. 

I have nearly finished the Line of Intrenchments ; it is almost 
a mile in length, extending from the Battery on the river to a pond 
eight miles in length. All this country about here is interspersed 
with ponds and marshes. The ponds are well stocked with fish 
and alligators. One of the soldiers shot an alligator the other day 
with his musket. Their skin is so tough that it is difficult to kill 
them. I shot one with a rifle, but the ball glanced on his back with- 
out hurting him. 

I wish you were here to walk in the garden with me. I have 
to admire the beautiful flowers all alone. 

Your most aflF. brother 

T. Rowland. 



Brunswick Point, N. C, May 4, 1862. 
My Dear Mother: 

Major Lamb who will be Col. Lamb in a few days by the or- 
ganization of his regiment, has been ordered to the command of 
this Post. He is a Virginian, the same person who offered me 



232 William and Mary Quarterly 

the adjutancy of his regiment. I wish you could know him, he is 
a Christian and a gentleman as well as a soldier. He was con- 
firmed in Wilmington a few weeks ago by Bishop Atkinson. The 
20th, my old confreres, have been ordered back to Fort Johnson. 
We have anticipations of an attack in this District in the course 
of a week or ten days. We hope to check the tide of Federal 
successes on the sea coast. I do not feel fully confident of our 
ability to contend against the iron-clad gunboats and superior 
artillery of the enemy. Still we must hope ; our Forts and Bat- 
teries are in a good state of defence, and it is not impossible that 
we may make the first successful resistance to the Federal fleets. 

On our line of defences is an old church one hundred and 
fifty years old. It was the church of the Parish of St. Phillip 
in the old colonial days, and has already witnessed the struggles 
of one revolution. We think of calling our battery Fort St. 
Phillip. Parker has just ridden down from Wilmington to see 
me. He occupies the post of Provost Marshall there but will be 
the Lt. Col. of Lamb's regiment. He has been the best friend 
that I have had since I left W^est Point. 

By the bye I see that one of my West Point friends, Lieut. 
Wilson, U. S. A., carried the flag of truce to demand the sur- 
render of Fort Pulaski, and Lieut. Porter fired the first shell. 



Fort St. Philip, Cape Fear River, N. C, June 12, 1862. 

My Dear Lizzie: 

I have not found the weather here disagreeably warm yet. In 
fact I'am still wearing my winter clothes. Col. Lamb sent in his 
application for his staff a few days ago. It was favorably en- 
dorsed by Genl. French and forwarded to the Adjutant General's 
Office. It was returned before being acted upon, by Col. Chilton, 
Asst. Adjt. General, with an endorsement suggesting that Col. 
Lamb apply for Thomas Rowland instead of Cadet Thomas Row- 
land, the title of Cadet being an impediment to promotion. Col. 
Lamb them made an application for Thomas Rowland, and the ap- 
pointment will probably be made with this alteration, though it 



William and Mary Quarterly 233 

would seem to me that Cadet Thomas Rowland of West Point is 
more entitled to an appointment than Thomas Rowland, citizen. 
A citizen may receive an appointment without any reference to 
his age, but if a West Pointer is under twenty-one he must re- 
main a cadet. It is strange that two years study and discipline 
should render me less eligible to promotion than the merest novice 
in the art of war. 

Your aff. brother 

T. Rowland. 



Wilmington, li. C, June 18, 1862. 
My Dear Mother: 

I am spending a day or two in town. I came up on Monday to 
get a transit and some mathematical instruments to make a survey 
and a map of Fort St. Philip and the Line of Intrenchments ad- 
joining it. 

Douglas Forrest tells me that Arthur Herbert distinguished 
himself in the battle at Richmond, but had the misfortune to be 
wounded in both heels. Also that George Adie was wounded in 
the nose. Douglas is quite as much of a favorite with the young 
ladies ,in Wilmington as he used to be in Alexandria. Genl. 
Price and staff passed through Wilmington the other day on their 
way to Richmond. 

If I could hold a lieutenant's commission in the Engineer 
Corps I would much prefer it to the Adjutancy of a Regiment 
of Heavy Artillery. An officer of the Engineers is so indepedent. 
At every post where I have been stationed I have been the only 
officer of my corps, and hence have had none to look to for orders 
or to apply to for leave of absence. I am subject only to the 
orders of Genl. French, and within the Department of the Cape 
Fear can come and go whenever I please. Of course I would 
not abuse this privilege. In fact my duties call me to town quite 
as often as I care to come. 

Your aff. Son 

Thomas Rowland. 



234 William and Mary Quarterly 

Fort St. Philip, N. C, June 27, 1862. 
My Dear Mother: 

Tell Aunt Emily I got up this morning at half past four and 
went out on the river to put out targets. I don't get up so early 
though every morning. We have heard heavy firing at Fort 
Fisher since sunrise this morning, it has just ceased. I think that 
one of our steamers or sail vessels has run the blockade, coming 
in the Inlet, under the protection of the guns of Fort Fisher. 

P. S. — We have just heard from Fort Fisher. A German 
steamer attempted to run the blockacle this morning at daybreak, 
virith a cargo of powder, small arms, light artillery, salt and rum. 
The blockaders opened fire upon her, striking her once. The 
Captain beached his steamer and escaped to shore with the whole 
crew. It is very doubtful whether we will save the cargo. The 
Captain says that his cargo was valued at a million of dollars, but 
it will be worth many millions to us if we can get it. 

Your aff. Son 

T. Rowland. 



' Wilmington, N. C, July 7, 1862. 

My Dear Mother: 

I hope soon to receive my commission as Adjutant. I have 
ordered a uniform on the prospect of it; it will be my first uni- 
form since I have been in the service. I am wearing now my 
West Point furlough coat, which I have had newly lined and 
cleaned. It is almost as good as new. 

I ' told you in my last of a steamer that attempted to run the 
blockade at Fort Fisher and was run upon the beach. Her name 
is the Modern Grace. She is an English steamer from Hull. 
Most of the cargo has been saved, but a large portion of it is 
damaged by being wet. I went over to Fort Fisher last week, and 
went aboard the steamer in a surf boat. I was introduced to the 
Captain and treated to some very nice champaigne. I wish you 
could get some of it. 



William and Mary Quarterly 235 

Col. Iverson of the 20th is in town. He was wounded in the 
fight near Richmond. His regiment behaved with great gallantry. 
Lt. Col. Faison of the same regiment was killed in a desperate 
charge. He was a noble fellow and a universal favorite. What 
a closely contested battle it has been, and it seems not yet to be 
decided. I wish you would let me know of any of our Virginia 
friends who were killed or wounded. I only hear of the casual- 
ties in the North Carolina regiments. 

I see by one of the Northern papers that the Theological 
Seminary of Fairfax County has been fitted up as a hospital. 

Your aff. Son 

T. Rowland. 



I 

236 William and Mary Quarterly ^ 



COLLEGE PAPERS 

The following papers from a mass of documents preserved at the 
College are worthy of publication. They throw light especially upon the 
right of election and the Honor System which prevailed. 



Statute Regulating Admission of Students 

At a convocation of the Visitors and Governors of William 
and Mary College held at the Council Chamber within the said 
College the 6^^ day of August 1788. 



A Statute Concerning the Higher Schools 

No person shall be hereafter received as a Student who will 
not conform to a course of regular Study, to be prescribed by the 
President and Professors ; those being always excepted, who may 
have attained the age of twenty-one years and wish to study law, 
or who shall appear after due examination before the President 
and Professors, to have made the necessary preparatory acquire- 
ments of science elsewhere. Public examinations shall be an- 
nually holden ; and notice thereof shall be given in the 

And whereas those, who are generally admitted into 
the higher Schools, are from their years entitled to a certain 
degree of confidence in their discretion, and the ordinary strict- 
ness of schools may with respect to them be in some measure 
relaxed, but it is notwithstanding indispensably necessar\' that 
due discipline be maintained, It is recommended to the President 
and Professors to institute such Rules and Order for the Gov- 
ernment, discipline and instruction of the Students, as to them 
may seem expedient, and to enforce the same under proper 
penalties. 



William and Mary Quarterly 237 

Roll of the Professor of Humanity March qth, 1812* 

Department of Humanity 

' Junius Hosburg William Peachy 

John Dandridge 

Thomas, Cicero, Greek Testament 

Howard Sheild Thomas Newcombe 

Machen Seawell John Semple 

John Coke James Semple 

Richard Coke John Page 

Ovid, Sallust, Corn. Nepos 

John Plunkett Lloyd Briggs 

John Royle 

Phaedrus Fables Erasmus 

John Peachy Randolph Corbin 

: Francis Travis Peter Randolph 

William Christian Fountaine Briggs 

Robt Richardson Llewwellyn Griffin 

Latin Grammar 



List of Students for 1814-15 

W. D. Claiborne 
Ja^ Christian 
Ja^ Semple 
John Page 
W°^ H. French 
John Dandridge 
J. K. Horsburg 
John Semple 
Robert Richardson 
Cary S. Jones 



* The master of the grammar school was often called Professor of 
Humanity. The roll above is that of the grammar school. 



238 William and Mary Quarterly 

I Richard Coke 

Powhatan Robertson 
H. H. Sheild 
Eleazor Block 
W. H. Waller 
H. P. Van Bibber 
John Minge 
C. H. Minge 
A. L. Dabney 
Mann Page 
Edward Cocke 21 

Printed Address of the Board of Visitors 

At a convocation of the Visitors and Governors of the College 
of William & Mary held on the 4th day of July, 181 5. 
On motion — RESOLVED, That the following x\ddress of the 
Visitors and Governors of this College be recorded and published. 

Robert G. Scott, Rector. 

Leonard Henley, Clerk. 

^he public were formerly notified of the changes which w^ere 
deemed necessary in this Institution — and the Visitors are now 
happy to inform their Fellow-Citizens, that the effects which 
were then anticipated, have been amply realized. 

By the establishment of a chemical chair, and the purchase 
of an adequate apparatus, by prolonging the period of instruction 
to three years, and by re-modelling the Moral and Political 
courses, so as the better to adapt them to the present improved 
state of these sciences, new and important sources of knowledge 
have been opened. But the introduction of a strict system is the 
great and essential improvement which has been accomplished 
in the College ; so effectually has this been done, so completely 
have order and decorum been established, that no similar Institu- 
tion on the Continent, can, it is believed, boast of pupils more 
exempt from the ordinary vices and follies of youth. 



William and Mary Quarterly 239 

It is true, that the Society were obliged during the course 
which has just terminated, to make use of some severity ; but 
it was to maintain the discipline of the College, and not to punish 
depravity, that this rigor was exerted. So exemplary during the 
last year, has been the moral conduct of the Students, that not a 
solitary instance has occurred in which it was necessary to ar- 
raign one of them for an act in itself vicious ; nay, not one of them 
has been seen even lounging in a tavern. 

This thorough reformation incontestibly proves, that Young 
Men are by no means so intractable as some have imagined. Nor, 
where Parents and Guardians have co-operated, have the Society 
experienced any serious difficulty in establishing their authority. 
They never exact anything which can wound the nicest feelings, 
but obedience, where it is necessary, they require to be implicit. 

If this be duly impressed upon the minds of Students before 
they leave home, if they clearly understand that parental anger 
will be the inevitable consequence of Collegiate censures, and 
above all, that expulsion from the. University would be a stigma 
nearly indelible, there will be no risk in sending them to this 
Institution. 

When Young Men come with these feelings and prepossession, 
they never fall at once into dissipation ; to correct, therefore, the 
first deviations into vice, and to crush the germ of future mis- 
chief, is the great aim of the Society, By their directions, letters 
are written after each of the public examinations, to the Parent 
or Guardian of every Student at College, informing him, not only 
of the proficiency which his son or ward may have made, but 
also of his habits and deportment so far as it has been practicable 
to ascertain them. In addition to these stated communications, a 
special one is always made by the President, whenever in his 
opinion, the conduct of any Student renders such a step necessary. 
Thus, the powerful influence of parental authority is immediately 
called in, to aid in the correction of the slightest tendency to vice 
which may manifest itself. 

But to supersede, if possible, the necessity of an interference 
on the part of Parents which is always painful, and of a severity 
on the part of the Society which is always disagreeable, and at 
the same time, to give to Virtue, every practicable support, an 



240 William and Mary Quarterly 

appeal is made to that high sense of Honor, which is well known 
to characterize the youth of Virginia. On the Saturday subse- j 

quent to the opening of the College, the Students are assembled, j 

and are required to sign, in the presence of all the Professors, | 

and of some of the most respectable Gentlemen of the Town, the \ 

following declaration, viz : — "We, whose names are hereunto j 

subscribed, do acknowledge ourselves to be Students of the j 

College of William and Mary, and do consequently promise to | 

obey all the regulations passed for the government of the said 
College, and in a more especial manner, each of us does most 
solemnly engage and pledge his word and honor as a gentleman, 
never while he remains a student of the said College, either to 
game in any way or to any amount, or to be in the slightest degree 
intoxicated, or to go into a Tavern without express permission 
from the President, or one of the Professors." 

Such a pledge, it is fondly believed, will not be often violated 
by Virginians, and consequently, that although as has already 
happened, the Society may have to enforce the minor regulations 
of the Institution, moral delinquency in one of their Alumni, they 
will rarely indeed have to mourn and to punish. 

The following is the course of Instruction at present taught 
in the College: 

First Year, — Rhetorick, Belles-Lettres and Moral Philosophy, 
Chemistry, Mathematics, as far as Plane Trigonometry. 

Second Year, — Conclude Mathemathics, Natural Philosophy, 
Metaphysics, Natural and National Law. 

Third Year, — Government and Political Economy. 

This year, Students may, at their election, attend lectures on 
Municipal Law, and in a short time. Lectures on Theology also, 
it is hoped. 

No student can be admitted under 15 years of age. 

In order that Parents may be enabled to judge of the necessary 
expenses at this Institution, the Visitors have to state, that 

Board may be obtained in Town for the Course, at $120 
Washing, fire, &c. are estimated at 40 

Fees to three Professors, 60 

$220 



William and Mary Quarterly 241 

Fees to three Professors are mentioned, because Students 
(those who come to hear the Law Lectures excepted,) will be 
required to attend that number for the two first years, unless 
parents write especially to the President on the subject; in no 
case however will Students be allowed to enter a higher class, 
unless they are prepared in the lower branches. Students upon 
their arrival in town are requested to call upon the President, 
and it is particularly desirable that they should be here by the 
1st Monday in November, on which day the College will be 
opened. 

Endorsed — Addresses from the Visitors to the publick. 
July 181 5 

Recorded and Examined. 

Statute of July 6, 1827 

A Statute prescribing the number of classes which each stu- 
dent of this College, shall be required to attend. 

Be it ordained that when a student first enters college, unless 
he be a law student, he must attend the three junior classes ; and 
if he should wish to attend fewer than three classes or should 
desire to attend the senior classes before he enters either of the 
•classes he must apply to the faculty who will decide whether it 
be expedient to grant his request. 

Be it further ordained that a student will not be permitted to 
attend a senior class who is not prepared in the necessar>' pre- 
liminary studies unless his age or other circumstances of much 
weight shall induce the society to depart from this rule. 

Be it further ordained that students in the second year of their 
attendance at college shall attend three classes unless the society 
shall deem it expedient to permit a deviation from that course. 

Be it further ordained that no student, except those whose 
primary object it is to attend the Law class shall be permitted to 
enter the class of natural Philosophy who is not acquainted with 
Plane Geometry, Plane Trigonometry, and simple equations in 
Algebra, unless the society shall deem it expedient to permit a 
deviation from that course. 



242 William and Mary Quarterly 

The Statute shall be in force from & after the passage thereof. 
Endorsed — "A Statute prescribing the number of classes which 
each student of the College shall be required to attend." 

6*'^ July 1827 
passed 

Election of Studies 

I have no objection to my son Thotnas boarding out of College 
if he desire it. I wish him to make his own selection of the 
classes in the Inst" 

M. S. Watson 

Jas City Nov 15*^ 1834 



William and Mary Quarterly 243 



DOCTOR COLE AND THE WHIG PARTY 

Among the most interesting works published in 1913 was a book by 
Doctor A. C. Cole, of the University of IlHnois, entitled The Whig Party 
in the South. This work told a story very different from the generally 
accepted account of the Whig Party; for it depended upon the record 
rather than on the wild talk of prejudiced writers and sectional historians, 
who since the war have monopolized the field of history. The book was 
deemed worthy of notice, and a prominent place was accorded to it in the 
July, 1914, number of the magazine. 

Below is a letter of Dr. Cole written to the Editor in reply to some 
of the criticisms in the article which was otherwise intended to be lauda- 
tory. ' We have been told so often by partisan writers that the Federalists, 
National Republicans and the Whigs were the same that the Editor did 
not readily notice Dr. Cole's qualifying word "Eventually." Eventually 
the leaders of the majority in both the National Republican and the Whig 
Parties did interpret the Constitution after the Hamiltonian manner, 
but emphasis should be laid upon the fact that neither party admitted any 
descent from the FederaHst Party or any conversion to Federahsm at any 
time. They professed to the end to be followers of Jefferson, not Hamilton. 
This was even more true of the Whigs than the National Republicans, owing 
to the radical States' Rights men that constituted its Southern wing. The 
fact is that up to the very hour of the election in 1840 the Whigs claimed 
that they were the only true Jeffersonian Republican Party and bestowed 
upon the Democrats the odious names of FederaHsts and Hamiltonians. 
In the North the Whigs were silent upon most of the old issues and 
talked loudly of "Reform," and in the South they took strong grounds 
against the Bank* and a protective tariff. They adopted no national plat- 
form in 1839, and despite the arraignment of Tyler in 1841 said nothing 
of a Bank in their national platform of 1844. 



♦The objection to the old Bank of the United States was that it as- 
serted for Congress a power to create corporations in the States. In North 
Carolina a Whig committee in 1839 did declare for a Bank free from 
any constitutional objections. This left it to every man to say whether any 
proposed plan was constitutional. If the resolution was anything but a 
dodge, it must have meant a bank free from the vice of national incorpora- 
tion, that is a Bank of the District of Columbia suggested by Hugh Lawson 
W^ite in 1837 and by Tyler in 1841. — Editor. 



244 William and Mary Quarterly 

To the Editor of the William and Mary Quarterly Historical 
Magazine: 

I have long had it in mind to transmit to you a letter acknowl- 
edging my indebtedness to you for the copy of the William and 
Mary Quarterly Historical Magazine for July, 1914, and for 
the pamphlets which you have, from time to time, forwarded to 
me. May I take this occasion to do so and to thank you for 
your personal note congratulating me on my monograph on "The 
Whig Party in the South ?" 

I should like also to briefly explain away what seems to be a 
misunderstanding as to the conclusions reached in that volume, 
as reflected in your comment on my opening paragraph {Whig 
Party in the South, p. i).* I planned that statement with a 
complete realization of its importance and I allowed my final draft 
to stand only after repeated revisions that made for greater 
accuracy. Upon second glance you will note that I do not ascribe 
to the Federalists, National Republicans, and Whig parties essen- 
tially the same principles ; on the contrary, I state that "behind 
the measures eventually brought forward by W^hig leaders, there 
was a fundamental interpretation of governmental powers and 
relations similar, in all essentials, to the principles which governed 
Hamilton and his associates in formulating Federalist policies," 
and Clay in formulating Whig policies in the period from 1841 
to 1842. My expectation was that you would agree with me pre- 
cisely on that point. It was my intention thus to suggest — as the 
text later makes clear according to your own admission — that 
these policies could scarcely have been Whig policies during the 
thirties. If these policies were based on principles opposite to 
those of the Federalists and of the National Republicans, Clay 
and Tyler must have stood on common ground — which is a 
manifestly impossible conclusion. 

Party principles to me do not mean measures only; I am 
willing to accept as a fundamental distinction betw^een parties 



♦You state: "While cheerfully according to him his claim of being 
free from any 'sectional feeling,' I have to regret that in beginning his 
work he makes the mistake of ascribing to the Federalists, National Re- 
publican, and Whig Parties 'essentially the same principles.' " 



William and Mary Quarterly 245 

their views on federal relations and on constitutional interpreta- 
tion. I am not sure that J. Q. Adams in 1828, or even Clay, 
sincerely professed to adhere to the doctrines of 1798- 1799 in the 
Virginia sense; I leave that, however, to the historian of the 
National Republicans of 1828. I am not entirely sure, moreover, 
that Clay was on exactly common ground with Calhoun and Tyler 
when he denounced Jackson's anti-nullification proclamation as 
"ultra Federal black cockade." Could his state rights have been 
acceptable to the Virginia School? But this is of relatively little 
importances when it comes to giving John Tyler his place in 
American history. 

I feel sure that Clay and Tyler were in the forties leading their 
followers along quite divergent paths, — otherwise, why the split ? 
Tyler's objection to following Clay was, I take it, on the ground 
of principle, not of personality ; surely there was no dagger be- 
neath the friendship of the thirties. I see in Clay the champion 
of the American system, which could not have rested on a Virginia 
state rights basis ; I see in Tyler the champion of state rights in 
principle and in practice. I consider Tyler and his friends re- 
sponsible for the compromise tariff proposition of 1833 ; it was, 
in providing for a flat rate reduction, scarcely reconcilable with 
the protectionist principle incorporated in the American system.* 



* I do not know that I fully understand Mr. Cole in this paragraph. 
Mr Clay had been the champion of the protective tariff system, but from 
1833 to 1841 he clearly abandoned it. If "Tyler and his friends were re- 
sponsible for the compromise tariff proposition of 1833," Mr. Clay fathered 
it and defended it. Both in his speech at the time and in a letter to Judge 
Tucker in 1839 he declared that in the origin of the protective tariff it 
was never intended to be permanent — "if asked at that period whether we 
required a longer duration to the policy than the year 1843 when the 
compromise tariff will take complete effect, I think no one would have 
demanded it." (See Clay's letter to Tucker, October 10, 1839, Letters and 
Times of the Tylers, I, pp. 601-602.) The truth is Tyler and Clay led their 
followers along the same lines from 1833 to 1841, the lines of States rights. 
but after the election in 1840 Clay changed front and brought forward the 
oldmeasures of bank, protective tariff and internal improvements, which he 
had advocated as a National Republican before 1833, but which as a WTiig 
in the interim (1833-1840) he had discarded and pronounced "obsolete" 
in a letter to Mr. Tyler in 1839. (Letters and Times of the Tylers, I, p. 
598.) Dr. Cote asks "why they split" — Tyler and Clay. Obviously because 



246 William and Mary Quarterly 

Was Tyler a Whig? Was he in 1834? Was he in 1841 ? 
You rightly conclude from my book that the Whig party in the 
South was, during its early years and up to 1841, overwhelmingly 
state rights in feeling and in make-up. A better Whig than John 
Tyler could scarcely have been found. In this connection I may 
say that I am pleased to learn that Hon. Armistead C. Gordon 
found my monograph of value to him in establishing the character 
of the Whig party of the thirties in his interesting dedicatory 
address on John Tyler. I am not ready to commit myself on the 
general question of the virtue of consistency on the one hand, or 
of opportunism on the other, but it can scarcely be doubted that 
Tyler stood firm on the ground of principle and on its applica- 
tion to practical legislative propositions. I have no patience 
with the antiquated text-books or general works which state that 
the Whigs suddenly discovered in 1841 that John Tyler was not 
a Whig at all, that he was and always had been really a Democrat. 
There is no question of his Whigism. It happened that Clay, 
through the force of his personal leadership, and through the use 
of the lash aided by certain developments that lent a somewhat 
dilTerent aspect to what had been regarded as obsolete policies, 
drove the majority into line with a result that he could in a sense 
claim to speak for the party. The minority may have been right ; 
under the circumstances it could for the time, but make a choice 
between acquiescence in the will of the majority and schism. No 
one has a right to question the choice made. There thus came 
to be Clay Whigs and Tyler Whigs. The majority arrogated to 
themselves the exclusive designation of "Whigs;" the minority 
was unable to break down that majority, although it did tone 
down its policies aided by the fact that the Whigs again assumed 
the role of an opposition party, and that a new issue — that of 
slavery — entered the field; Tyler Whigs gradually became ab- 



Clay, finding his party in possession of the government and trusting in 

party cohesion, thought that he could safely recur to his ancient measures, ;| 

which, despite his profession for policy sake, when out of power, he secretly 

favored all along. Add to this the fact that in his calculations for the 

Presidency he considered that his change would please the manufacturers 

and men of capital in the North, who had grown lukewarm since 1833. — 

Editor. 



William and Mary Quarterly 247 

sorbed in the Whig opposition, or found occasion to hope for 
better things from the newly acquired particularistic atmosphere 
of the Democratic party. 

With regard to the northern Whigs, whom you admit to have 
largely consisted of old National Republicans, if they ''gradually 
changed, through Clay's courtship zvith the South, into very re- 
spectable state-rights men themselves" (as you state. Vol. 
XXIII, No. I, p. 4), must they not formerly have been "national- 
ists" in principle? I grant you that they did cease in the later 
thirties to advocate a protective tariff and a national bank and that 
the Whig campaign of 1840 was devoid of such real practical issues 
of a constructive character ; but just as a traditional particularism 
dominated the Whig party in the South, so nationalistic principles 
lingered in the ranks of the Northern Whigs, to reassert them- 
selves later and to furnish Clay the nucleus about which he rallied 
the majority of the entire party. 

So may it not rightly be said, as I have vouchsafed to say, 
that "behind the measures eventually brought forward by Whig 
leaders, there was a fundamental interpretation of governmental 
powers and relations, similar, in all essentials, to the principles 
which governed Hamilton and his associates in formulating the 
Federalist policies" and Clay in formulating National Republican 
policies in the period from 1828 to 1832? 

With my warmest congratulations to you on the success that 
you have met with in undertaking to set right an important episode 
in American history. 

Very sincerely, 

Arthur C. Cole. 



248 William and Mary Quarterly 



A DISCOURSE FOR FRIENDS OF VIRGINIA AND 
CAROLINA BY JOSEPH GLAISTER 

Edited by James Branch Cabell 

The following Discourse "ffor friends of Virginia and Carolina," very 
happily preserved in the Lower Meeting Records of the Virginia Quakers, 
is presented on its intrinsic merits, as a singularly beautiful piece of prose 
written by an early Virginian colonist. The spelling has, of course, been 
modernized, and punctuation (of which the original is wholly guiltless) 
has been supplied, as well as here and there a word which the context 
shows to have been omitted. 

Dear friends, to whom is the salutation of my love in Christ 
Jesus, fellowship : — in which I wish you all perfection, that you 
may so grow up in His divine life, that by the same you m^ay 
know the sure Rock, and build and abide thereon ; and that so, the 
devil may not unsettle you, neither by his roaring nor trans- 
forming. 

Thus you may stand in the faith, and run in patience the race 
that is set before ; still looking unto Him Who knows all your 
needs and wants, and takes continual care for His own family ; 
and Who hath solemnly promised by His own arms to uphold all 
them that do faithfully rely on Him for strength, in times of 
want, in times of weakness, in times of poverty of spirit, and of 
bodily sickness, and of exercise of soul. 

Oh, He is good, can all those say that have been deeply bowed 
in many exercises. Verily can these say. Had not the Lord been 
on our side, we had fainted. 

We, too, had staggered, we had fallen, and had been hopeless 
and helpless, and in a miserable condition, without the smiles and 
favor of God, without the assistance and help of the spirit of 
Christ, and not partaking nor knowing of the Covenant of 
Promise and the Commonwealth of Israel. 

But since the Lord hath been pleased to call us, to manifest 
His g^ace in our hearts and the truth which comes by Christ 



William and Mary Quarterly 249 

Jesus, and shines in our hearts, to give us knowledge of Heavenly 
things relating to salvation and peace of the soul with God : I say, 
since God hath dealt so kindly, and so gently, and hath shown 
us so many favors, let all be faithful and valiant for Him. 

Upon this earth let all that are fathers stand up, purging their 
houses from idols, and their hearts from covetousncss ; holding 
faith and a pure conscience, and ruling in the love and fear of 
God, as His stewards, in all their families' doings, and in their 
duties to their children and servants, as those that look to be 
called to give an account, by their great Lord and Master. So that 
in that day you may be glad your hands are clear, and your 
hearts pure from all defilements. 

And take heed in time, all you that are endowed with plenty 
in this world, that you answer the true end of life in bestowing 
these things on you ; so that your garment may cover the naked, 
and your morsel feed the needy. And take heed that the poor 
may be helped by you when they are young, to trades and educa- 
tion, so that as they grow up they may beseech the Lord to reward 
you with a blessing. 

Thus may you be as fathers to the fatherless, and make the 
widow's heart to sing for joy. So shall the blessing of him 
that is ready to perish come upon you, and the dew of Heaven 
shall lie continually about your branches. 

So may we have no carnal, earthly, selfish spirits amongst us : 
that is, such folk as come saying what they have is their own, and 
so rob God of His honor. For the cattle of a thousand hills are 
mine, saith the Lord. And who dare deny His right or contradict 
Him? — as do those that never answer His end Who loves them, 
and are unfaithful stewards. 

God will certainly call and judge them for their work, and' 
pronounce that fearful yet just sentence: — Cast out the unprofit- 
able servant into utter darkness, where shall be weeping and 
gnashing of teeth for evermore. 

Let all be careful to keep their minds from surfeiting and 
drunkenness, and from the cares of their life: with a watchful 
eye continually fixed upon the things that are laid up in store for 
the righteous, with which God, the righteous Judge of all, will 



250 William and Mary Quarterly 

reward the faithful ; giving them joy, and every lasting comfort 

and consolation, in a world without end. j 

And let those that have lesser enjoyment of worldly things ! 

be sure to hold fast the full employment of life. Keep close to ! 

that power by which the Lord did at the first open your under- j 

standings; so that thankfulness and faithfulness to God may be | 

the study of your minds. I 

And do the parts of God's service without girding at any 
others : for it was no excuse for the man who had the one talent, j 

that his Lord had given five unto his fellow. Just and righteous • 

was and is that blessed Hand that did reward the improver of the | 

five with being set over so many cities. He had that blessed sen- ' 

tence, — Enter thou into the joy of the Lord. 

This is the rest of the people of God, their travail and labor, 
and their hearts' desire. And it is their continual prayer to the 
most high and holy Lord, that they may rest in this joy, feeding 
on the Life springing up in them, fitting them for future glory, 
rejoicing in the Cross, standing steadfast in the course of God, 
honoring Him, preferring one another, and submitting themselves 
to the elders in Christ that have ruled v/eil, and who deserve 
double honor. 

Remember our ancient testimony against hireling priests, for 
which many faithful brethren have suffered by long imprison- 
ment unto death; lest any by putting dainties into their mouths 
bring the blood of those blessed and valiant soldiers upon them. 

And take due care about your marriages, that none be passed 
and recorded amongst you but such as are blameless and clear, 
and both in unity — unity both with the man and the woman. 

Make just payments in due time; and keep out of the fellow- 
ship of drunkards and swearers, and all that tends to hurt our 
blessed testimony. 

Watch against self, that great monster: for it is the great 
enemy, even that of our own house. And let none seek his own 
honor, but God's. 

So will God honor His people with that which is lasting and 
abiding, and which is not of this world, but outlasts all, and 



William and Mary Quarterly 251 

stains it and all the pride and power of man. This shall dwell 
upon the soul, and shall enter the new Jerusalem ; and shall be the 
Saints' crown, when kings shall bring their glory thither, who 
have an earnest of this life in their enjoyments here. 

Press ye on, for nearly are ye related to God. Ye are His 
husbandry and His delight : for it is as with the children of men ; 
ye are as the apple of His eye and His friends if ye do His com- 
mands. 

My soul beseeches Almighty God to send His blessing with 
a strong arm, that it may rest on you to His glory. And I remain 
your souls' friend, desiring you to keep to the Cross. So may 
the God of all peace be with you all. Amen. 

For friends of Virginia and Carolina: to he read in the fear of 
the Lord. Eaglesfield, the 2j day of the i2mo, 1707. 

Joseph Glaister, author of the foregoing, came from Cumberland, 
England, to Virginia, as a Quaker preacher, before 12 September 1702, on 
which date he took part in the Yearly Meeting of the Quakers in Virginia. 
The ensuing five years he seems to have spent in and about Nansemond 
County. In 1707 he revisited England, where the preceding address was 
written : and on 25 September 1707, received credentials from "the Quar- 
terly Meeting of Pardshow Cragg in Cumberland, old England," as a 
"faithful laborer in the Gospel" that *'hath had very good service among 
friends here, where he was settled," empowering him "to remove himself 
and family into America, to live there." By May 1709 he was again in 
Nansemond, where to Benjamin Jordan's "testimony" as to his deceased 
mother, Margaret Jordan, was appended the following hardly less note- 
worthy bit of noble prose, as an "addition by Joseph Glaister": 

If the righteous be had in everlasting remembrance ; and it be 
verily so that no man shut a door in the house of the Lord, nor 
kindle a fire upon his altar in vain ; nor any give a cup of cold 
water to a disciple of Christ in the name of a disciple, but shall 
have a plentiful reward at the hand of the Lord: — O Righteous 
and Eternal God! how then shall they be rapt in supernal joy , 
and such consolation as is the recompense of the just, that have 
served the Lord with their all ! — opening their doors and hearts 
to the faithful messengers and living ministers of our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ ; and doing what they do as unto God and 
not unto man, knowing that of Him they have their reward. 



252 William and Mary Quarterly 

Amongst the number of those servants of the Lord and the 
Church of Christ was our well-esteemed and serviceable friend \ 

Margaret Jordan, deceased : one who fulfdled that saying, Cast 
your bread upon the waters, for after many days you shall find it. 

No question is there of her reaping of the fruits of her labors. 
Having her mind steadfastly bent to do good in her day, she con- 
tinued in great service unto the Church unto her last in this low 
world. Now, being taken from her service here, as well as from 
all trouble that did or might attend her earthly pilgrimage, she 
is entered into such rest and peace as time will never wear out: 
and where she will ever have a plentiful and unprizable reward. 

For so it was commended to the Church, as virtues of God's 
commanding, to minister to the saints, and diligently to follow every 
good work. Such service I do heartily desire may be studied 
by all that in the eyes of God would be more esteemed : and such 
service doth render men more happy, as they diligently follow 
every good zvork, than all worldly honors can render them. 

By September 1710 — presumably about the time of his second mar- 
riage — Joseph Glaister had made his permanent home in Pasquotank 
County, North Carolina, where, as shown by a suit before the General 
Court in April 1713, he owned a plantation "lying on Nobbs Crook Creek." 
He was a member of the Pasquotank Monthly Meeting, but continued to 
preach to the Quakers in Nansemond. Giles Rainsford, then officially a 
missionary to the Indians in North Carolina, wrote from Pasquotank, 19 
January 1715-6, concerning the difficulty of converting Quakers : "In 
Nansemond County, bordering on Carolina, I have . . . made ye 
ignorance of their great Apostle Joseph Gloster in a dispute appear to 
whole multitudes : & yet" — Rainsford rather pathetically adds — "yet their 
prejudice is such yt I fear there is no possibility to win upon 'em." 

Joseph Glaister had married in England Robinson (a widow), 

who with her unmarried daughter, Sarah Robinson, constituted his family 
in 1707. By this first wife he seems to have had no issue. He married, 
second, circa 1710, Mary, daughter of Henry Palin, Sr., of Pasquotank. 
Joseph Glaister died in February 1718-9: his will, dated 27 January 1718-9. 
was recorded in Pasquotank 12 March 1718-9. His second wife, presum- 
ably by much his junior, survived him more than twenty years: the will 
of Mary Glaister, dated 9 June 1740, was recorded in Pasquotank at the 
October Court of 1740. 

Joseph Glaister had issue by Mary Palin two daughters, Ruth and Sarah. 
Of these, Ruth Glaister married Stephen Scott, and left descendants in 



William and Mary Quarterly 253 

North Carolina. The other daughter, Sarah Glaister, in February 1728-9, 
married Wyke Hunnicutt of Surry and Prince George counties; and as is 
shown by the Gravelly Run Register and the Blackwater and Burleigli 
Records, had issue: 

I. Sarah Hunnicutt, born 30 May 1730; who in January 1753 mar- 
ried Samuel Bailey. 

II. Glaister Hunnicutt, born 27 April 1732, died 13 April 1781 (his 
will, dated 13 April 1781, was recorded in Sussex 10 October 1781), who 
married circa 1756 Jane, daughter of John Pleasants of Henrico, and had 
issue. 

III. Mary Hunnicutt, born 3 November 1735, died September 1739. 

IV. Robert Hunnicutt, born 11 June 1737, died September 1739. 

V. Ruth Hunnicutt, born 11 August 1740, who in November 1761 
married Anselm Bailey. 

VI. Robert Hunnicutt, born 19 February 1742-3, who in July 1769 
married Priscilla Hunnicutt, the widow of his cousin Robert Wyke Hunni- 
cutt, and daughter of Binford. 

VII. Wyke Hunnicutt, born 11 February 1745-6, who in June 1769 
married Ann, daughter of Anselm Bailey of Surry, and left issue. 

It is hoped in a future issue to include a more complete account of the 
Hunnicutt family, which has been resident in Surry since the establishment 
of the county in 1652. 



254 William and Mary Quarterly 

THE WADDY FAMILY OF NORTHUMBERLAND 
COUNTY, VIRGINIA 

By Mrs. O. A. Keach, of Wichita, Kansas 

The following study of the family of Waddy has been made 
with especial pleasure, as it again places the name among those ' 

prominent in the development of Northumberland County. 

Records are missing or are obscure in some critical places 
and the writer has access to no private documents that might 
clear up' important relationships. Deductions not supported by 
data from the record books have been given very patient thought 
but they are not verified proofs and later investigations may or 
may not confirm them. 

The history of this family is an example of the intermarrying 
of certain families through successive generations. 

The Waddys, Ingrams, Damerons and Lees were closely re- 
lated through all the hundred and fifty years covered by the notes 
here presented. 

The immigrant member of this family was John^ Waddy 
who first appears in Northumberland County, Virginia, in 1651, 
and in a deposition made January 20, 1653, ^^ gave his age as 
thirty-three years and thus the year of his birth may be placed 
as about 1620. On April 3, 1651, John^ Waddy had a patent for 
250 acres of land in Northumberland County. John^ Waddy 
married Ann (whose surname is now unknown) who w^as proba- 
bly not his first wife. There seems a probable relationship be- 
tween Mrs. Ann Waddy and Captain Peter Knight, a prominent 
early resident of Northumberland. On November 17, 1654, Mr. 
Peter Knight gave a heifer to Thomas^ Waddy, son of John^ 
Waddy. 

John^ Waddy 's name appears frequently in the records. A 
suit brought in June, 1679, by Mr. George Bledsoe against Mr. 
John Harris, Mr. John^ Waddy and Thomas Ingram suggests 
the probability of Waddy's having married for one of his wives 
a daughter of John Ingram, Sr., as Captain John Harris (another 



William and Mary Quarterly 255 

party to the suit) had married the stepmother of Thomas 
Ingram, Jr.* 

On April 14, 1683, a petition was presented from Peter 
Knight, John Waddy, John Taylor and Christopher Garlington, 
Vestrymen, and Samuel George and Bartholomew Dameron, 
Church Wardens, to Lord Culpeper requesting him to reinstate 
Mr. Charles Dacres, the rector of Yeocomico Church (Calendar 
of Virginia State Papers, I, p. 14). 

On April 7, 1686, James^ Waddy presented the will of his 
father, John^ Waddy, deceased for probate in the Northumber- 
land County Court. The only living witness to the will at the 
time of the probate was Elizabeth Oliphant. 

I. John^ Waddy (born about 1620, died 1686) was the 
father of : 

2. i. Thomas- Waddy; ii. John^ Waddy, Jr. On May 20, 1656, 
John^ Waddy, Sr., agreed to deliver to his son John^ Waddy, Jr., 
one mare, as payment of a debt to Michael Brooke, god-father to 
said John2 Waddy, ]r. Nothing further has been discovered about 
John^ Waddy, Jr. 

3. iii. James^' Waddy. 



* Ingram : Will of John Ingram, of Northumberland County, proved 
November 20, 1654, names wife Jane; daughters Elizabeth and Jane; son 
Thomas Ingram (Northumberland Records). 

Jane, widow of John Ingram, married second Mr. Thomas Hopkins 

(Ann Hopkins [sister of Thomas Hopkins] married first, Mallet; 

second, William Nash; third, John Meredith). 

Elizabeth, daughter of John Ingram, married Theodore Baker, 

Jane ( ) Ingram-Hopkins died, and Thomas Hopkins married 

Grace Perse, widow of Richard Perse. After Hopkins' death Grace 

( — : ) Perse-Hopkins married John Harris (Northumberland Records, 

vol. 1666-78, pp. 26. 61). 

Thomas Ingram is mentioned as son (step-son) of Mr. Thomas Hop- 
kins, deceased husband of Mrs. Grace Hopkins. John Harris, husband of 
the administratrix of Mr. Thomas Hopkins (Ibid., 1666-78, pp. 40, 61). 

Thomas Ingram, son of John and Jane Ingram, married Katherine, 
sister of Thomas Winter. Mr. James Gaylord, attorney of Katherine 
Ingram, the attorney of Thomas Ingram. Katherine Ingram assignee of 
Wilham Broks, attorney of Thomas Ingram (Ibid., 1666-78) pp. 127, 147). 

It is the opinion of the writer of this article that either John^ Waddy, 
or his son Thomas- Waddy intermarried with Jane Ingram, the daughter 
of John Ingram. 



256 William and Mary Quarterly 

2. Thomas^ Waddy (John^), of Northumberland County. 
On November 17, 1654, Mr. Peter Knight gave a heifer to 
Thomas^ Waddy, son of John^ Waddy. 

On November 21, 1678, he "brought suit against Mr. George 
Bledsoe. On March 19, 1679, ^^ ^^as appointed one of the ap- 
praisers of the estate of John Dennis, of which Elizabeth Dennis, 
the widow, was administratrix. Elizabeth Dennis afterwards 
married George Dameron. Mr. Thomas Waddy had a grant for 
300 acres of land for headrights, May 19, 1680, and for another 
300 acres on March 2, 1684. On April 17, 1689, James- Waddy 
presented the will of his brother Thomas^ Waddy. 

Thomas^ Waddy may have married Jane, daughter of John 
and Jane Ingram (see footnote ante, p. 255). 

Thomas- Waddy is believed to have had two children : 

4. i. Thomas^ Waddy; ii. Jemima^ Waddy. Lawrence Pope 
eldest son of Humphrey and Elizabeth Pope, married Jemima, relict 
of John Spence and daughter of Thomas Waddy, of Northumberland \ 

County. His will was proved March 2, 1723 (William and Mary ! 

Quarterly). I 

3. James- Waddy (John'^), of Northumberland County, was • I 
the ancestor of a distinguished line. He appears in the records 

as executor of his father's will on April 7, 1686, and was also I 

executor of his brother, Thomas Waddy's will, in 1689. He 
probably married Elizabeth Oliphant, a widow, who was a witness 
to the will of his father. 

James^ Waddy was appointed constable in 1682 ; w^as commis- 
sioned High-Sheriff in 1702, remaining in this office for several 
3^ears. He was also appointed a Justice on January 2, 1702, and 
served in this capacity as a member of the County Court for a 
long period. 

On February 17, 17 10, Mr. James- Waddy was made over- 
seer of the highways in Dameron's Neck. This establishes his 
place of residence in Wicomico parish.* He was a good church- 



♦Dameron's Neck and Dameron's Creek took their name from the 
plantation of Mr. Lawrence Dameron which had been patented in 1652, 
and some part of which remained in the Dameron family until 1849 upon 
the death of Mr Robert Dameron. A part of the original Dameron plan- 



William and Mary Quarterly 257 

man as many records testify and a public spirited citizen who gave 
freely of his services in many ways. 

Mr. James^ Waddy's will is dated March 15, 1725, and proved 
August 18, 1725. He names his sons, Francis^ and Benjamin.^ 
Also his sons-in-law, (step-sons) William and John Oliphant. 
The will of James- Waddy contains these rather curiously worded 
bequests: ''Item. I give to my son daughter Benjamin Ann a 
negro hoy. Item. I give to my daughter Benjamin Jemina a 
negro hoy." This wording probably due to a mistake in transcrib- 
ing the will on the record. It is suggested that the proper reading 
is "To my son Benjamin's daughter Ann," etc. 

James^ Waddy was the father of : 

5. i. Francis^ Waddy. 

6. ii. Benjamin^ Waddy, 

4. Thomas^ Waddy {Thomas-, John^), of Northumber- 
land County. It is certain that Thomas Waddy, a man prominent 
in the affairs of Northumberland County for nearly forty years 
was a son of Thomas- Waddy, Sr. He was probably a ward of 
his uncle, James- Waddy, as there was always a close association 
between these families. 

Thomas^ Waddy served in almost every capacity as a useful 
citizen, as churchman, grand juror, executor of wills, appraiser 
of estates, guardian to orphans, surveyor of the highways, and 
often in association with his uncle, Mr. James- Waddy. 

On May 15, 171 7, Thomas^ Waddy presented for probate the 
will of Dennis Schrever, son of Bartholomew and Mary (Dennis) 
Schrever, of which he was executor.* 

Thomas^ Waddy seems to have married a Miss Lee : the 
daughter or niece of Captain William Lee. ^ 



tation is now known as Garden Point. This name was formerly "Guarding 
Point," so called because it was used as a lookout point during the Revo- 
lutionary War. 

* The first zvifc of Bartholomew Schrever was Mary Dennis, daughter 
of Paschal and Barbara Dennis. His second wife was Mary, th«-wKtcrw or 
daughter of Captain William Lee. 



258 William and Mary Quarterly 

The will of Bartholomew Schrever, dated March 21st, 1720, left ten 
pounds to buy mourning rings for Richard Lee, Chas. Lee and wife, Mr. 
Thomas VVaddy and wife, for Thomas and Samuel Heath and their wives 
and for his Sister. {Lee of Virginia, p. 93.) 

Richard and Charles Lee were nephews of Capt. William Lee and 
Thomas and Samuel Heath were stepsons of Bartholomew Schrever. 

The will of Mary Schrever (widow of Bartholomew) was probated 
October 20, 1731, with Thomas Waddy named as one of the executors. 
On May 15, 1734. Mr. Thomas Waddy was one of the appraisers of Major 
Charles Lee's estate. On April 21, 1736, Mr. John Stcptoe, Mr. Thomas 
Waddy and Mr. Thomas Gaskins were appointed to divide the estate of 
Major Charles Lee. On October 14, 1740, John Waddy, son of Mr. Thomas 
Waddy, and Ellis Gill brought suit against EHzabeth Brent who had been 
the widow of Maj. Lee, for counter security for the estate of the orphans 
of Maj. Chas. Lee. 

Thomas^ Waddy died in 1737. His will was presented for 
further proof on August 8, 1738, on the oath of William Dam- 
eron (one of the witnesses). The will is missing, but, from other 
records, we find that Thomas^ Waddy left issue: 

7. i. John^ Waddy; ii. ^ Waddy, wife of Robert Os- 
borne. On January 9, 1738, Robert Osborne petitioned for his wife's 
part of Thomas-" Waddy's estate in the hands of Benjamin Waddy. 
iii. Jemima* Waddy. October 9, 1738 John* Waddy was appointed 
guardian to Jemima*, orphan of Thomas-^ Waddy; no further ac- 
count of this Jemima* Waddy. iv. Mary* Waddy married Captain John 
Heath. January 12, 1756 John Heath ordered to have his wife^s 
personal estate in the hands of Joseph Mott, who married Jane 
Waddy, administratrix of Benjamin Waddy. June 19, 1756, John 
Heath who intermarried with Mary Waddy, daughter of Thomas 
Waddy,. deceased, to be possessed with his wife's estate in the hands 
of Joseph Mott. John Heath and Mary* Waddy were probably first 
cousins. John Heath's father was Thomas Heath, son of Mary Lee 
Schrever, while the mother of Mary* Waddy was probably a sister, 
or cousin, of Mrs. Schrever. John Heath was married three times ; 
first, Mary Waddy; second, Judith (Ball?); third, Chloe, daughter 
of John Hughlett. John Heath* mentions in his will three children : 
John, Robert Jones, and Ann. 

v. (probably) Jane* Waddy who married first, Benjamin^ 
Waddy; second, Joseph Mott (see notes given under Benjamin^ 
Waddy, No 6, of this pedigree). 



♦See Heath Family, William and Mary Quarterly, XXIV, p. 113. 



William and Mary Quarterly 259 

5. Francis^ Waddy (James-, John^), of Northumberland 
County. Francis^ Waddy married Sarah (Harris) Haynie, 
daughter of Major John and Grace Harris, and the widow of 
Anthony Haynie.* On March 16, 171 5, Mr. Francis'"'' Waddy 
and Sarah, his wife, made a deed of lease for land to Captain 
George Ball. He was named as one of the executors of the will 
of his father, Mr. James- Waddy, which he offered for pro- 
bate on August 18, 1725. 

The following record illustrates the early Virginian's attach- 
ment to land that had belonged to his forefathers. 

April 17, 1728, Francis^ Waddy bought 32 acres of land which 
had been owned by his grandfather [John^ Waddy] from Wil- 
liam Bentley, which is described as part of a tract on which said 
Bentley now lives and part of a patent for 250 acres granted unto 
John Waddy, dated April 3, 165 1, and by said John Waddy sold 
to Henry Bentley, grandfather of William Bentley. 

Francis^ Waddy and Thomas Waddy (who were first cousins) 
were named as executors of the will of Mrs. Mary (Lee) 
Schrever, the widow^ of Bartholomew Schrever. This will was 
proved October 2, 1731. 

On May 15, 1734, Mr. Thomas Waddy and his cousin Francis^ 
Waddy were appointed appraisers of the estate of Major Charles 
Lee. 

Francis^ Waddy died without issue. His widow Sarah 
(Harris-Haynie) Waddy in her will, proved April 9, 1749, left her 
entire estate to her daughter, Grace Haynie Ball, and several of 
her Ball grandchildren. 

6. Benjamin^ Waddy (James,-, John^), of Northumberland 
County. He is mentioned in the will of his father, James- Waddy, 
in 1725. In the records in my possession, the next mention of 
Benjamin^ Waddy is on January 9, 1738, when he and Captain 
George Ball were appointed by the Court to divide the estate of» 
Samuel Heath and allot to Elizabeth (Heath) Jones her share of 
her father, Thomas Heath's estate. Elizabeth was the wife of 



♦Grace Haynie (a daughter of Anthony and Sarah [Harris] Ha>'nie) 
married George Ball. 



^ 



26o William and Mary Quarterly 

Charles Jones, son of Captain William and Leeanna (Lee) 
Jones. On this same day, Robert Osborne petitioned for his 
wife's part of Thomas Waddy's estate in the hands of Benjamin* 
Waddy. 

Aug. II, 1740, Mr. Benjamin* Waddy, Colonel Philip Smith, 
Captain Robert Jones and Mr. Thomas Winters were appointed 
to settled the accounts of the estate of Richard Lee. On May 11, 
1741, Mrs. Leeanna (Lee) Jones, executrix of Captain William 
Jones, moved the Court to appoint Benjamin^ Waddy as one of 
the appraisers of Captain Jones' estate. 

Benjamin* Waddy died in 1741 and on January 27, Mrs. Jane 
Waddy, James Waddy and Charles Ingram for his wife, peti- 
tioned for their parts of his estate. 

The writer has been greatly interested in trying to solve the problem 
of the identity of Jane Waddy. The available records do not afford a 
definite answer to this problem, but the following is tentatively offered, that 
Thomas^ Waddy {Thomas-, John^) was probably reared in the family of 
his uncle, James^ Waddy. Thomas^ Waddy married a Lee, a daughter of 
either Captain William Lee or Charles Lee.* Thomas^ Waddy's daughter 
Jane-* married her cousin Benjamin^ Waddy, son of Mr. James^ Waddy. 

A close study of the subjoined records is invited by those who may be 
interested in the suggested conclusion. 

On November 4, 1741, Mrs. Jane Waddy was appointed administratrix 
of Benjamin^ Waddy. 

On January 11, 1742, James Waddy and Charles Ingram brought a 
friendly suit against Jane W^addy, administratrix of Benjamin^ Waddy. 
The Court ordered estate divided and James Waddy and Charles Ingram 
allotted their parts of same. 

In February, 1744, there was a further division of the estate of Ben- 
jamin^ Waddy. In the following July, Joseph Mott and Jane, his wife, 
administratrix of Benjamin^ Waddy, deed., petitioned that Robert Jones, 
Colin Campbell and Christopher Garlington should settle the accounts of 
the estate of Thomas Waddy, deed., father, it is thought, of Jane (Waddy) 
Mott, in the hands of John Waddy, his son, also to settle the accounts of 
Benjamin Waddy's estate. Mr. Thomas Waddy had died in 1737 and 
Robert Osborne had in 1738 petitioned for his wife's part of Thomas 
W^addy's estate in the hands of Benjamin Waddy. It is probable that 
Jane and Benjamin had lived with Jane's father, Thomas Waddy, and that 



* See will of Bartholomew Schrever given in Lee of Virginia, p. JZ- 



William and Mary Quarterly 261 

Robert Osborne was asking for his wife's part of Thomas Waddy's per- 
sonal estate. Now Jane in her turn petitions for a part of Thomas 
Waddy's estate in the hands of his son, John. 

The next record is of much interest, as it establishes Jane Waddy's 
relationship with the Lee family. On February 6, 1745, Thomas Lee, of 
Westmoreland County made a deed to Jane Mott, wife of Joseph Mott 
of Northumberland County, schoolmaster, and. to Benjamin Waddy, second 
son of said Jane, for 150 acres in Wicomico parish, on the west side of 
the branches of the Dividing Creek, which said land belonged to one 
Knight and was by him devised to Linefield Sharp of whom said Lee 
purchased the land, etc. . . . (This land deeded to Jane Waddy in 
exchange) for 400 acres in Westmoreland County, the inheritance of the 
said Jane. Recorded also in Westmoreland County Courts. 

Jane, widow of Benjamin^ Waddy, married second Joseph 
Mott. 

Benjamin^ and Jane (Waddy) Waddy had issue,* 

8. i. James^ Waddy married Lucy Chilton. 

ii. Mary* Waddy married Charles Ingram. 

9. iii. Benjamin* Waddy married Judith Neale. 

iv. Judith* W^addy married Charles Jones (son of Captain 
William and Leeanna [Lee] Jones) whose will, proved September 
14, 1778, mentions wife Judith, and daughter Penelope and sons 
Thomas and William. 

V. Penelope* Waddy, died unmarried. Her will, dated Octo- 
ber 2, 1775, and proved November 3, 1775, mentions sister Judith 
Jones and her son Thomas and daughter Leeanna Jones; brother 
Spence Waddy; executor Captain Charles Lee. 

vi. Jemima* Waddy married Renum. 

vii. Spencer*, (or Spence) Waddy, probably of age in 1760 
as in that year he petitioned for his part of his father's estate in 
the hands of David Ball. 



* The following extracts from the records identify the other children 
of Benjamin Waddy, Sr. 

An order of Court, dated January 11, 1747, for a division of the estate 
of Benjamin Waddy. Due Benjamin Waddy, orphan of Benjamin Waddy. 
etc. James Waddy (brother of Benjamin, Jr.) appointed his guardian. 

1748 January 11. James Waddy to be possessed with the estate of 
Benjamin Waddy in the hands of Joseph Mott. 



262 William and Mary Quarterly 

7. John* Waddy (Thomas^, Thomas^, John^), of Northumber- 
land County. John* Waddy married Elizabeth Dameron, daugh- 
ter of George and Margaret (Taylor) Dameron.* 



1750 December 10. On motion of James Waddy, the Court ordered 
that Jane Mott, be allowed her thirds of the estate of her late husband, 
Benjamin Waddy. 

Thomas Edwards was appointed guardian of Jemima, orphan of Ben- 
jamin Waddy, and on September 12, 1745, presented an account of her 
estate in Court 

In March 1749, Penelope Waddy petitioned for her estate in the hands 
of Joseph Mott. December 10, 1750, Judith Waddy chose David Ball her 
guardian and he was appointed by the Court guardian of Spencer Waddy, 
orphan of Benjamin. 

1751 March 11 Joseph Mott, James Waddy and George Nichless 
proved the will of Mr. Thomas Dameron. 

1756 January 12 John Heath to have his wife's personal estate in 
the hands of Joseph Mott, who married Jane Waddy, administratrix of 
Benjamin Waddy. 

1756 June 19 John Heath who intermarried with Mary Waddy, 
daughter of Mr. Thomas Waddy, deed., to be possessed with his wife's 
estate in the hands of Joseph Mott. 

1757 November 30. Joseph Mott of Wicomico parish and Jane, his 
wife, deed of gift to their son, Benjamin Waddy for land that Thomas 
Lee, late of Westmoreland County, by deed dated February 6, 1745, con- 
veyed to said Jane during her natural life and to Benjamin Waddy, her 
second son, after her death. 

1757 December 12 Bond from Benjamin and James Waddy to Joseph 
Mott, the condition of which is that said Benjamin and his heirs shall 
permit the above Joseph Mott during his natural life to hold and enjoy Yz 
of a certain tract of land, which land is given to said Benjamin by Jane, 
the wife of said Mott. 

The will of Joseph Mott was proved September 11, 1775. The Court 
appointed David Ball, George Dameron and Barth. Dameron to divide 
the estate of Randolph Mott between Jane, his widow, and Randolph Mott- 
The will of Jane Mott, dated June 28, 1780, proved Alay 13, 1782, mentions 
her daughters, Jemima Renum and Judith Jones. Executor — George 
Ingram. 

* Margaret (Taylor) Dameron married secondly, Thomas Winter. 
On September 8, 1746 Mr. Thomas Winter [stepfather of Mrs. Elizabeth 
(Dameron) Waddy] made a deed of gift to his wife, Margaret Winter, 
for 10 negroes during said Margaret's life and at the death of said Mar- 
garet to go to Elizabeth Waddy and her children. On January 31, 1753, 



William and Mary Quarterly 263 

The will of John Waddy was dated December 15, 1748 and 
proved February 13, 1749. He names his wife Elizabeth, his sons 
Thomas and John, daughters Elizabeth and Mary. Executors — 
Thomas Winter and Geo. Ball. Witnesses, James Waddy and 
Roger Winter. 

John* and Elizabeth (Dameron) Waddy | had issue: 

10. i. Thomas^ Waddy married Ann Dameron. 

ii. John^ Waddy. He is mentioned in his father's will, 
dated December 15, 1748. After his mother's death in 1758, he chose 
his brother Thomas, for his guardian. April 9, 1771 John Waddy 
brought suit against Thomas Waddy, William Hudnall, Jr. and 
Mary Chilton were admitted defendants in place of Thomas Waddy. 
The will of Samuel Garlington, dated March 13, 1775, names his 
friend, John Waddy, Sr. His executors were Benjamin Waddy, 
Jr. and Mr. Thomas Waddy. In his will, dated November, 1794, Mr. 
Thomas Waddy names his brother John Waddy as one of his 
executor. 

iii. Elizabeth^ Waddy married Joseph Dameron. January 
8, 1759, Joseph Dameron in right of his wife Elizabeth, and as 
guardian to Mary Waddey, orphan of John* Waddy, and also 
Thomas Waddy, in his own right, and as guardian to his brother, 
asked for a division of John Wadd3''s estate. Elizabeth (Waddy) 
Dameron married, secondly, Robert Pinckhard. 
iv. Mary^ Waddy. 

8. Jarnes* Waddy (Benjamin^, James^, John^), of Northum- 
berland County. James"^ W^addy married Lucy Chilton, daughter 
of Andrew Chilton. The will of Andrew Chilton probated Feb- 
ruary 9, 1 761, mentions his daughter, Waddy, his grandaughter 
Lucy and his grandsons, John and James Waddy. 

On November 11, 1771, James Waddy, of Wicomico parish, 
made a deed of gift to his son, Benjamin Waddy, of the same 
parish, for land whereon said James now lives, situated in 
Wicomico. 



Elizabeth Waddy, one of the daughters and co-heirs of George Dameron, 
of Northumberland County, deceased, deeded to Thomas Hurst, 94 acres 
of land on north side of Dennis Creek, Northumberland Countj'. 

t Mrs. Elizabeth (Dameron) Waddy died in 1758 and her son Thomas 
Waddy and son-in-law, Joseph Dameron, were administrators of her con- 
siderable estate. 



* He was a grandson of Captain William and Leeanna (Lee) Jones. 

t Alice Chinn Sherman married Robert Jones Dameron, son of George 
Dameron. 

$ Alice (Dameron) Giddlngs was the daughter of George Dameron 
and Mary Ann Dameron. 



264 William and Mary Quarterly 

The will of James* Waddy is dated November 6, 1759, and 
probated in 1772. Mentions wife, Sons Benjamin, John, James, 
William, Francis and Jesse, and daughters Milly, Lucy and Molly. 
Executors David Ball Sr. and David Ball, Jr. 

James* and Lucy (Chilton) Waddy had issue: 

11. i. Benjamin^ Waddy married Ma;-garet Payne. 

ii. John5 Waddy in his will dated July 29, 1775 and proved 
December 11, 1775 names his wife and son Spence and daughter 
Jane. Executors brothers Benjamin and James. 

iii. James^ Waddy (mentioned as grandson in Andrew j 

Chilton's will), with wife Elizabeth and others gave a deed Febru- { 

ary 10, 1777. On June 13, 1796 William Dameron was guardian to \ 

Lucy, Milly, James and Francis, orphans of James Waddy. j 

iv. William^ Waddy was, on January 14, 1796, guardian to • 

Lucy, Nelly and James, orphans of James Waddy. The will of j 

William W^addy dated June 22, 1805 names wife Mary, and daughters | 

Fatty H., Lucy C[hilton], and Betty H. Waddy; daughter Mary j 

Ann Jones ; son-in-law William Jones* ; nephew George Payne j 

Waddy; executrix, wife Mary S. Waddy. j 

V. Francis^ Waddy of whom no further record after 1777- ' 

vi. Jesse^ Waddy. Jesse Waddy, with Mary, his wife, gave j 

deed for land October 12, 1789. On January 14, 1794, Alice Chinn \ 

Shermanf by George Dameron, her next friend, brought suit against I 

Jesse W^addy. March 11, 1794. Mr. George Dameron and Thomas, \ 

son of George give bail for Jesse Waddy. Alarriage bond, April I 

22, 1797, Jesse Waddy, widower, and Molly E. Claughton, widow. j 

Thomas Dameron, Security. The said Molly, 25 years old. Nun- j 

cupative will of Jesse Waddy, dated September 27, 1798. Wife — I 

Molly E. In presence of Thomas Dameron and Thomas Ingram Sr. i 

On January 11, 1799, a writing purporting to be the nuncuputative j 

will of Jesse Waddy, dec. was proved according to law, by the oaths \ 

of Alice (Dameron) Giddings$ and Thomas Ingram Jr. 

vii. MillyS Waddy married William Betts. 
viii. Molly^ Waddy married Thomas Ingram, widower ; mar- 
riage bond April 12, 1790. 

ix. Lucy5 Waddy. 



William and Mary Quarterly 265 

9. Benjamin* Waddy (Benjamin^, James^, John^), of North- 
umberland County. 

Benjamin* Waddy was the son of Benjamin and Jane Waddy. 
He is mentioned in a deed from Thomas Lee of Westmoreland 
County, in 1745, as the second son of Jane, relict of Benjamin 
Waddy, and (now) the wife of Joseph Mott. His brother, James* 
Waddy was appointed hi§ guardian in 1747 and he probably came 
of age before 1757. 

Benjamin* Waddy married Judith Meale about this time. 
Judith Neale was the daughter of Shapleigh and Ann (Jones) 
Neale. Shapleigh Neale was the son of Colonel Richard and 
Hannah Neale. 

Benjamin* and Judith (Neale) Waddy lived in St. Stephen's 
parish, Northumberland County, where he was a large land 
owner and also a merchant. Benjamin* Waddy died intestate 
and an inventory of his estate was recorded in 1782. 

Bejamin* and Judith (Neale) Waddy had issue: 

i. Shapleigh^ Waddy, born September 14, 1758. On April 12. 
1782, Shapleigh Waddy, of St. Stephen's Parish, gave a deed to 
William Nelms, of the same parish, for land near Smith's Point, 
part of a tract given by Philip Shapleigh to his daughter, Judith 
Neale, and descended from said Judith to her son, Shapleigh Neale, 
grandfather of said Shapleigh (Waddy), only surviving heir of said 
Shapleigh Neale. Shapleigh^ Waddy served in the Revolutionary 
War. He married Molly Toulson, daughter of Thomas Toulson. 
His will was dated November 15, 1804, and probated June 10, 1805. 
and names wife, Molly, his sons, Shapleigh and Alexander and his 
daughters. January 13, 1808. Molly Waddy and Joseph Conway 
give a letter of attorney to recover what is due her from Richard 
Conway. Molly Waddy and Nancy Conway are mentioned in the 
will of their father, Thomas Toulson, probated April 14, 1794. 

ii. Benjamin^ Waddy, born June 23, 1760.* 

10. Thomas^ Waddy (John*, Thomas^, Thonms', John^), of' 
Northumberland County. About 1764, Thomas^ Waddy married 
his second cousin, Ann Dameron, youngest daughter of Thomas 



*The dates of the births of Shapleigh and Benjamin Waddy, sons of 
Benjamin and Judith (Neale) Waddy, are from the Register of St. 
Stephen's Parish, Northumberland County. 



i 



266 William and Mary Quarterly 

and Ann Dameron, and sister of Mr. George Dameron, who is 
mentioned so frequently in the Northumberland County Records. 
On November lo, 1766, it was ordered that George Ball, Thomas 
Edwards and Daniel Ball, Jr., do possess Thomas^ Waddy with 
Ann Damerson's part of Thomas Dameron's estate. 

In the will of Thomas Winter, of Northumberland County 
dated March 27,, 1763, proved June 13, 1763, he mentions his 
god-son, Thomas Waddy, son of John and Elizabeth Waddy, and 
also the other heirs of Elizabeth Waddy. On November 10, 1766, 
Thomas^ Waddy was appointed guardian of his niece, Nancy 
Dameron, whose estate was then in the hands of her step- 
father, Robert Pinckhard. Nancy Damerson's mother, Elizabeth 
(Waddy), widow of Joseph Dameron, married secondly, Robert 
Pinckhard. 

March 14, 1774, Thomas Gaskins and Kendall Lee vs. George 
Dameron, John Lawson, Thomas Waddy and John Heath. Jan- 
uary 24, 1794, George Ball, of Spotsylvania County, deed to 
Thomas Waddy, Sr. David Ball, Jr., his security. 

The will of Thomas Waddy was dated Novem.ber 30, 1794, 
proved December 8, 1794. He names his sons John, Thomas and 
Walter; and daughters Betty, Nancy and Margaret. Executors 
brother, John Waddy, Cyrus Pinckard, Thomas Hurst, Sr. and 
David Ball, Sr. 

1794, October 13, Thomas Dameron, Charles Hayden, James 
Waddy and John Hurst to appraise the estate of Thomas Waddy, 
deceased.* 

II. Benjamin^ Waddy {James*, Benjamin^, James-, John^)y 
of Northumberland County, was the eldest son of James* and 
Lucy (Chilton) Waddy, and is usually designated as "Benjamin 
Waddy, junior, of Wicomico Parish" to distinguish him from his 
uncle, Benjamin Waddy of St. Stephen's Parish. 



♦April 20, 1795. David Ball, Sr., executor of the will of Thomas 
Waddy, Sr., deed to George Payne Waddy for 100 acres, partly in North- 
umberland County, partly in Lancaster County, purchased by Thomas 
Waddy in his life time. 



William and Mary Quarterly 267 

The marriage bond of Benjamin Waddy, Jr., and Margaret 
Payne is dated December i, 1766, and is on record in Lan- 
caster County. 

Benjamin^ Waddy is first mentioned in a deed of gift for land 
given him by his father, November 11, 1771. This was con- 
firmed by his grandmother, Jane Mott, and his brothers and 
sisters on February 10, 1777, as follows: Deed of gift from 
James Waddy and Elizabeth, his wife, William Betts and Milly 
(Waddy) Betts, Jane Mott (grandmother), William Waddy, 
Francis Waddy, Jesse Waddy, Lucy and Molly Waddy and 
Spence Waddy to Benjamin Waddy, Jr., for plantation in 
Wicomico parish, whereon James Waddy and Joseph Mott, deed., 
late of this parish, dwelt, by estimation 200 acres. March 26, 
1779, Benjamin Waddy and Margaret, his wife, deed to George 
Ingram for one full moiety of land w^hereon William^Chilton 
and Mary, his mother, deed, lately lived.^ "" ' ' 

The will of Benjamin Waddy of Wicomico Parish, Northum- 
berland County, dated March 6, 1781, and probated October 8, 
1 781, names wife Margaret — homestead. Sons, James and George 
Payne Waddy ; brother Jesse Waddy. Executrix, wife Margaret, 
Cousin Thomas Waddy, and friend David Ball, Sr. 

June 13, 1803, inventory Mrs. Margaret Waddy. 

Benjamin^ and Margaret (Payne) Waddy had issue: 

i. James^ Waddy, of Northumberland County. August, 1809 
division of his estate between his widow, Catherine, Benjamin 
Waddy, and Richard Payne who married Maria Waddy, his daughter. 
February 12, 1816, a deed from Benjamin Waddy (son of James 
and Catherine Waddy) to Richard Pa>-ne for iii acres bounded on 
east side by Dividing Creek and the land of George Payne Waddy 
crossing the county line road to the lands of Thomas Dameron in 
Lancaster County and bounded on the west by the land of Thomas 
Dameron. 

ii, George Payne^ Waddy. He was a wealthy planter and 
owned land in Northumberland and Lancaster Counties. He was 
also prominent in the affairs of the County and upheld the best 
traditions of the blood from which he was sprung — Waddy, Ingram, 
Lee, Dameron, Pa>'ne, Chilton, Hobson. 



268 William and Mary Quarterly 



DEJARNETT FAMILY 

The earliest mention of the Dejarnett family so far discov- 
ered in the extant records of Virginia, is in the register of Abing- 
don Parish, Gloucester County, where the baptisms of six chil- 
dren of John and Mary Dejarnett (the name being variously 
spelled Dejurner, Dejurer, Dejernat and Dejurnat) were recorded 
between August, 1704, and November, 1720; these entries are 
as follows: 

Elias, son of John and Mary, Dejurner, baptized August 20, 1704. 
John, son of John and Mary Dejurner, baptized November 4, 
1706. 

Mary, daughter of John and Mary Dejurer, baptized February 
5, 1708. 

Daniel, son of John Dejurner, baptized January 24, 1713. 
Joseph, son of John and Mary Dejernat baptized February 3, 
1716. 

Ellenor, daughter of John Dejurnat, born September 5, and 
baptized November 20, 1720 * 

The destruction of the court records of Gloucester County j 

prevents any discovery from that source of any data relative to j 

this family, while circumstantial evidence points to an early | 

exodus of the Dejarnett's from Gloucester and their settlement I 

in counties to the west : New Kent, King William and later Caro- | 

line ;f several members of the family having made a much w^ider | 

departure from the original home by going across James River j 

and into the *'up country ;" Prince Edward County, which later \ 

became the point of departure for the migratory spirits of the I 
race to the extreme southern part of Virginia and to North 
CaroHna. 



♦The Abingdon Parish Register (which is unindexed) has been ex- 
amined down to the year 1729 without discovering any further Dejarnett 
items. 

fThe court records of New Kent County were all destroyed and the 
Register of St. Peter's Parish, New Kent, 1680-1787, and the Vestry Book 
of the same parish, 1682-1758, afford no data relative to this family; the 
fragments of records in King William and the order books (the only re- 
maining colonial records) of Caroline Countj' have not been examined. 



r 



William and Mary Quarterly 269 

The records of Virginia Land Patents, 1623-1774 afford only 
three grants to persons of this name : 

(i) 1750, July 12, Mumford Dejarnett* was granted 400 
acres in Amelia County on the upper side of Mountain Creek 
(Patent Book 29, p. 262). 



■ (2) 1759, May 12, Daniel Dejernat, was granted 280 acres 

in Amelia County on lower side of Mountain Creek (Patent Book 
34, p. 232). 

(3) 1772, August I, James Dejarnett was granted 174 acres 
in HaHfax County (Patent Book 40, p. 835). 

The following are abstracts of Dejarnett wills in Prince 
Edward County : 

1754, September 11, was dated the will of Daniel Dejarnett, 
of Nottaway Parish, Prince Edward County, devising to wife 
Martia [Martha?] a child's part of movables and privilege of 
houses and 100 acres with plantation ; to daughter Mary land on 
Snales Creek and £30 currency with what she already has, (line 
of Elias Ford's land mentioned) ; to daughter Bety Ford, £20 
currency; if either of these [Mary or Bety Ford] die without 
heirs the other to have her portion ; to soti Daniel, land on Sandy 
River, smith's tools, and his equal part of my estate; to son 
Mumford, 400 acres on Mountain Creek, and his equal part of 
my estate; and if either of these die without heirs other shall 



* The "source" from which was derived the name Mumford as a bap- 
tismal name in the Dejarnett family is not at the present time positively 
known and there are 'ioose ends" in the chain of circumstantial evidence 
which makes it seem advisable not to put that forth at this writing. It 
is not ever the wisest or the safest thing to press too far the use of a 
surname as a baptismal name as "evidence" of a family connection when 
there are no other facts known by which to substantiate the claim. There 
was, however, living in Gloucester County, and in Abingdon Parish, con- 
temporaneously with the De Jarnetts, a family of Mumfords (a name also 
spelled Munford), and it was probably from this source that the name 
Mumford came into the Dejarnett family, though whether on account of 
relationship or friendship is not at the present time known. 



270 William and Mary Quarterly 

possess his part ; to son John, land below road beginning at 
Watson's line and his equal part of my estate ; to Son Christopher, 
land on Sandy River and Snale's Creek and an equal part of my j 

estate; if either of these die without heirs the other to have j 

his part; to daughter Lidia, 280 acres on Mountain Creek and 
equal part of my estate; to daughter Martha, one negro and her | 

equal part of estate; if either of these die without heirs other 
to have her part; the girls portion not to be paid until they are 
20 years of age. Executors ivife Martha [Martia?], Richard 
Ferryman and James Davenport. Witnesses Jacob Mackgehee,, 
Henry Johnson, Catherine Davenport. An appraisement of the 
estate of Daniel Dejarnett, made December, 1755, amounted to 
£3x3, los, 6d. 

1765, April 24, was dated the will of Mary M (her mark) 
Dejarnat, of St. Patrick's Parish, Prince Edward County, by 
which she devised to son in lazv Jacob McGehee, my feather bed, 
with the whole furniture and bedstead, likewise whatever be- 
longs to me after my decease. Jacob McGehee, sole executor. 
Witnesses : Christopher Ford, James Garden. Frobated August 
19, 1765. (Frince Edward County Records). An appraisement j 

of the personalty of Mary Dejarant's estate, amounted to £12: 1 

7s, 6d. I 

1768, August 9, w^as dated the will of Elias Dejarnat, of \ 

St. Patrick's Farish, Frince Edward County ; debts and funeral \ 

charges to be paid ; to zvife Elizabeth, all estate during life and 1 

after her death to be sold and ^ of the money arising from sale 
thereof to testator's daughter Rebecca Dejarnat, and other ^ to 
be divided between testator's son Elias Dejarnat and testator's 
daughter Marrymiah, wife of James Hinds; to son John Thomas 
Dejarnat, estate formerly given him ; to son Elias Dejarnat, 
estate formerly given him ; to son Thomas Dejarnat, land 
whereon testator lives containing 149 acres being part of ' 
tract granted by patent to George Bagley in February, 1768, lying 
in Frince Edward County, and all wearing apparel. Executors : 
Miller Woodson and John Bass. Witnesses, Miller Woodson, 
Josiah Face. Frobated July 1769 (Prince Edward County 
Records). 



William and Mary Quarterly 271 

1780, January 3, was dated the will of Martha Dejarnatt, of 
Prince Edzvard County, devising to son Christopher, two negros, 
furniture he may have in his possession at my decease, except 
feather bed which I give to my grandson John Taylor, to daugh- 
ter Betty Ford Crenshazv, use of a negro girl and after her death 
to my said daughter's children and should she die leaving no issue 
then the said negro to the two daughters of my daughter Lydia 
Taylor ; have sold a negro to my son Christopher for 2000 weight 
of tobacco which to be put at interest and equally divided between 
the children of my tzvo deceased daughters Martha Ferryman and 
Lydia Taylor; all my other children not herein mentioned have 
received their portions; executors son Christopher Dejarnett and 
my brother Christopher Ford. Probated March 16, 1782 (Prince 
Edward County Records). 

1783, April 2^, was dated the will of Elias Dejernat of Halifax 
County^ which made bequests to daughters Frances, Hannah, 
Elizabeth, Sarah and Nancy Dejernat, son Reuben Dejernat ; 
wife Sarah Dejernat; mother Elizabeth Dejernat; sister Annaka 
Dejernat. Executors, Thomas Dejernat of Halifax County and 
James Hines of Charlotte County. Witnesses, Nathaniel Hall, 
xjohn Hall, Ursley Hall (HaHfax County Records). 

1788, April II was dated the will of John Thomas Dejarnett, 
of Frince Edzvard County ; no appraisement of estate to be made; 
all just debts to be paid out of crop on hand; devises to son 

■ Reuben Dejarnett, one negro of £35 value ; to son John Dejarnett, 
one negro i6o value, to son Bowler Dejarnett, land which 
my father gave me and land purchased from James Jennings and 
part from Josiah Ellington ; to son Stephen Dejarnett and son 
Elias Dejarnett, other part of land purchased of Ellington ; the 
negros and residue of my estate to be kept together for support 
and education of my children ; to daughter Elizabeth Dejarnett, 
choice of all my young negros ; to daughters Nancy, Milly, Dicey, 
and Polly Dejarnett, a general division choice of the remainder 
of my young negros, son Bozder Dejarnett, to have care of chil- 
dren and plantation. Executors, friends Simeon Walton and 
John Bass and my sons Bowler and John Dejarnett. Witnesses : 
.Richard Winn, John Foulks (son of Joseph), Spencer Griffen. 

/ Probated April 20, 1789 (Prince Edward County Records). 



* See statement quoted in McGehee notes, page 284, that Eleanor De ^ 
Jarnett (who married Jacob McGehee) was born 1717, which is evidently 
an error, for Eleanor, wife of Jacob McGehee, is "identified" by Mary 
Dejarnett's calling (in her will 1765) Jacob McGehee her "son-in-lazv." 

t There are many De Jarnett deeds in the Prince Edward records, 
among them one of John De Jarnett of Anson County, North Carolina in 
1784. This John De Jarnett was no doubt ancestor of the family of that 
name resident in North Carolina. 



2^2 William and Mary Quarterly 

The data given in the above abstracts would seem to account | 

for Mary De Jarnett (w^ife of John De Jarnett, of Abingdon ] 

Parish, Gloucester County) and three of the children of the » 

said John and Mary De Jarnett, viz.: Ellas, who was baptized | 

August 20, 1704; Daniel, Baptized January 24, 1713 ; and Eleanor I 

(Ellenor) born September 5 and baptized November 20, 1720* j 

What became finally of the other three children of John and Mary 
De Jarnett, of Abingdon Parish, viz. : John, baptized November 
4, 1706, Mary, baptized February 5, 1708; and Joseph, baptized 
February 3, 1716, is not at present known. Then there may 
have been also other children born to John and Mary De Jarnett, 
the records of whose births and subsequent lives have been lost. 
There was a Mumford De Jarnett who had a patent for land in 
Amelia (afterwards Prince Edward County) in July, 1750, 
who (if he may not be identified hereafter as Mumford, son of 
Daniel De Jarnett, of Prince Edward County who died in 1754 
or '55 — see abstract of will ante page 269) may have been a 
son of John and Mary De Jarnett, born post 1720. 

There are no data at hand with which to work out these 
problems. f 

Descending from John and Mary De Jarnett, of Abingdon 
Parish, Gloucester County, was also, no doubt, the De Jarnette 
family of Caroline County, Virginia, which has numbered many 
distinguished persons, both in men of the name and in men w^hose 
mothers bore the name. The records of wills and deeds in Caro- 
line County (which was formed in 1727 from Essex, King and 
Queen and King William Counties) have been destroyed and the 
remaining order books of the court have not been examined for 
De Jarnett data. 



William and Mary Quarterly 273 

The tradition in the De Jarnette family of Caroline County 
carries the line back to a certain Joseph De Jarnette "one of 
three brothers Joseph, James and Daniel, who emigrated from 
Rochelle, France, to Norfolk, Virginia; Joseph located near Nor- 
folk, James around Danville and Daniel went to Kentucky." 
Here we have the proverbial "three brothers" and the common 
form of the tradition which may be summarily dismissed as the 
traditional distortion of a very probably kernel of truth. 

There was a son Joseph (baptized February 3, 171 6) among 
the children of John and Mary De Jarnett, of Abingdon Parish, 
Gloucester County. Let us raise the question : May not Joseph 
De Jarnette, ancestor of the Caroline County family, have been 
one and the same with (or a son of) Joseph, son of John and 
Mary De Jarnett of Gloucester County ? There are no data at 
hand for proving the matter and the destruction of records in 
Gloucester, King and Queen, King William and Caroline may pre- 
vent even an eventual solution of the problem, but it is well worth 
consideration. 

In the absence of public and private records with which to 
prove this connection it will not be amiss to state the tradition and 
the verified facts in possession of members of the De Jarnette 
family of Caroline County. 

"Joseph De Jarnette was father of James De Jarnette who was 
father of Joseph De Jarnette who married Mary Hampton," so 
runs the tradition. . From this point we have verified facts. 
Joseph and Mary (Hampton) De Jarnette, of Spring Grove, 
Caroline County had issue : ( i ) Elliott Hawes De Jarnette, bom 
at "Spring Grove" in 1790; died, "Pine Forest," Spotsylvania 
County, in 1857; a large planter; sheriff and treasurer of Spotsyl- 
vania County. He married Elizabeth Coleman;* (2) Joseph 



♦Elliott Havves De Jarnette (1790-1857) married Elizabeth Coleman 
and had issue: (a) Betty, wife of William Hart, of Albemarle County; 
(b) Doctor Joseph Spencer De Jarnette, of Spotsylvania, who married 
Nannie Quisenberry ; (c) Mary Hampton, wife of Doctor Nelson Waller; 
(d) Huldah, wife of James D. Coleman; (e) Louise, wife of Daniel 
Coleman De Jarnette; (f) Caroline, w^ife of John Hampton De Jarnette 
(son of Daniel De Jarnette, above) ; (g) Lucy Ann, wife of Philip Dew; 



274 William and Mary Quarterly 

Dejarnette, of Caroline County; (3) Daniel De Jarnette, of 
Caroline Countyf who was father of Honorable Daniel Coleman 
Dejarnette (1822-1881) member of the United States and Con- 
federate States Congresses; (4) a daughter who married Mr.^' 
Withers; (5) a daughter who married Samuel Coleman. 

William Clayton Torrence. 



(h) James De Jarnette, who married Lucy Mary Herndon ; (i) Elliott Hawes 
Dejarnette, of Caroline County, born June 6, 1839, died April 2-j, 1913. 
Captain of Company I, 30th Virginia Regiment, C. S. A., who married 
Eva Magruder (a gifted writer) and had issue: (i) Caroline Hampton, 
wife of William L. Keyser; (2) Joseph Spencer Dejarnette, Superinten- 
dent of the Western State Hospital, married Chertsy Hopkins; (3) ^lay, 
wife of James M. Marshall; (4) Henry Magruder Dejarnette, M. D., of 
Fredericksburg; (5) Evelyn Magruder; (6) Elliott Hawes Dejarnette, 
of Orange, married Margaret Averill; (7) Sallie Watson, wife of John 
D. Micks ; (8) Horatio Erskine De Jarnette, of Princeton, W^ Va., married 
Bessie Beckwith. 

t Daniel Dejarnette, of Caroline County married first, Jane Coleman; 
second, Huldah Coleman (both daughters of Spencer Coleman) and had 
issue: (a) Robert E. Dejarnette; (b) John Hampton Dejarnette mar- 
ried Caroline Dejarnette; (c) Hon. Daniel Coleman Dejarnette married 
Louise Dejarnette; (d) Elizabeth Goodwin, wife of William S. Quisen- 
berry; (e) Annie Hawes, wife of Daniel Hoge; (f) Caroline Harriss, 
wife of Judge Samuel G. Staples ; (g) Jane Coleman, wife of George 
Tyler; (h) Lucinda, died unmarried. 

For the data relative to the Caroline County branch of the De Jarnette 
family the Editors are indebted to Elliott H. Dejarnette, Esquire, of 
Orange, Virginia. 



William and Mary Quarterly 275 



McGEHEE FAMILY IN VIRGINIA 

The following extracts from, and abstracts of, records relating 
to theMcGehee family are not presented as the results of an 
exhaustive research ; they represent only such items as have fallen 
under the eye as research has been made into the records of sev- 
eral counties in Eastern V^irginia. All heretofore published ac- 
counts of the ^IcGehee Family require most careful revision and 
before their acceptance in detail should be re-examined in the light 
of the evidence afforded by the local records of Virginia.* 

The following is an abstract of the land patents issued to 
persons by the name of McGehee betw^een the years 1623 and 
1774. 

1725, August 17, William Macghee, of King William County, 
1,000 acres on both sides Great Rockey Creek and on south side 
Northanna River, Hanover County, on Great Rocky Creek, John 
Ragiand, Captain Martin, Elk Creek (Book No. 12, p. 242).* 

1736, September 8, Edward Mackgehee, 400 acres in Gooch- 
land County on south branch of Great Guinea Creek, adjoining 
James Allen, Jacob Mackgehee (Book No. 17, p. 159). 

1736, September 8, Jacob Mackgehee, 400 acres in Goochland 
County, on south branch of Great Guinea Creek adjoining Edward 
Mackgehee (Book No. 17, p. 159). 

1740, March 24, Edward Mackgehee, 1,200 acres in Gooch- 
land County, on branches of Great Guinea Creek of Appomattox 
River, adjoining James Allen ; 400 acres part thereof granted said 



♦For a pedigree of the McGehee family see Early Settlers of Ala- 
bama by James Edmonds Saunders, With Notes and Genealogies by . . . 
Elizabeth Saunders Blair Stubbs . . . Nezu Orleans 1899, and for some 
very interesting comments upon the Georgia branch of the McGehee family 
see Gilmer's Sketches of Some of the First Settlers of Upper Georgia 
. . . Nezi' York . . . 1855 (familiarly referred to as Gilmer's Georgians). 

* The books to which references are made following each abstract of 
a patent are in the office of the Register of the Land Office, Richmond, 
Virginia. 



276 William and Mary Quarterly 

Mackgebee by patent 8 Sept. 1736; 400 acres part thereof granted 
James Terry by patent 10 June, 1737, and residue never before 
granted (Book No. 19, p. 922). 

1745, August 20, Jacob Mackgebee, 904 acres in Brunswick 
County on both sides second fork of Licking hole ; 500 acres part 
thereof granted said Mackgebee by patent 20 August, 1744, and 
residue never before granted (Book No. 22, p. 404). 

1746, January 12, Jacob Mackgebee, ^2^ acres in AmeHa 
County on both sides Sandy River, adjoining WilHam Ligon, 
Morton, Joseph Ligon ; 400 acres part thereof formerly granted 
Joseph Morton, 9 February, 1737, the right and title thereto since 
become vested in the said Mackgebee, and the residue never be- 
fore granted (Book No. 24, p. 573). 

1746, January 12, Edward Mackgebee, 1,830 acres in Amelia 
County between Bush and Bryer Rivers, adjoining Morton's 
Creek; 400 acres part thereof formerly granted William Brov/n, 
15 October, 1741, the right and title since become vested in said 
Mackgebee, and the residue never before granted (Book No. 24, 
p. 594). 

1747, January 12, James Mackgebee, 400 acres in Albemarle 
County on north side Rivanna River and both sides Mychunk 
Creek (Book 28, p. 330). 

1748, April 5, Jacob McGehee, 400 acres in Amelia County, 
north side of Bush River, adjoining Randolph, John Morton, 
Davis (Book 26, page 350). 

1748, July 20, Edward Mackgebee, 5798 acres, Amelia County 
between Bush and Briery Rivers, of which 2,830 acres part 
thereof was granted said Mackgebee by patent October 15, 1741, 
and residue never before granted (Book 26, page 464). 

1753, February 5, Jacob McGehe, 400 acres in Amelia Count>% 
on north side Bush River (Book '32, p. 18). 

1756, August 16, Jacob Mackgebee, 1,036 acres in Amelia 
County on north side Bush River; 798 acres thereof being part of 
a patent for 2,830 acres formerly granted Edward Mackgebee 
12 January, 1746, the right and title since become vested in said 
Jacob Mackgebee, and residue never before granted (Book No. 
33, p. 265). 



William and Mary Quarterly 7!JJ 

1768, September 20, William McGehee, 193 acres in Albe- 
marle Co., adjoining Peter Jefferson, the Secretary's Road, John 
Carter, deed., Henderson's Creek (Book 37, p. 417). 

1771, March 16, Jacob McGehee, 360 acres in Prince Edward 
County, on both sides Great Sandy River, in the forks of the two 
rivers, adjoining said McGehee (Book 39, p. 401)* 

The following abstracts of wills and deeds are arranged 
chronologically for the purpose of giving order to the data at 
hand. 

1696, June 22, Alexander Mackenny, of New Kent County to 
William Mackgehee, of New Kent County, for 3,000 pounds 
sweet scented tobacco conveys to said Mackgehee, 200 acres in 
Henrico County adjoining the lands of Samuel Bridgewater 
(Henrico Records i688-'97, p. 643 ).t 

1727, July 27, was dated the will of Thomas MackGehee of 
St. John's Parish, King William Count yX to son William 10 Shil- 
lings to buy a mourning ring; daughter Ann Butler, 10 shillings to 
buy a mourning ring ; daughter Dinah, and her husband, Joseph 



♦ Other patents to, at present unidentified, persons by the name are : 
In 1725 to Robert Magee, in Surry County (Book 12, p. 464) ; William 
Magec, land in Augusta, 1756 (Book 32, p. 686) ; Michael Mackee, jr, land 
in Lunenburg, 1760 (Book 22>, P- 790) ; Richard Magee, land in Botetourt, 
1772 (Book 41, p. 14) ; Richard Magee, land in Botetourt, 1774 (Book 42, 
p. 682) ; Richard Magee, land in Augusta, 1774 (Book 42, p. 710). 

t The destruction of New Kent records prevents the discovery of any 
data from the county records. The Vestry Book of St. Peter's Parish, 
New Kent, p. 45 gives "Will Mackgeehe" as a tithable in June 1698. The 
Register of St. Peter's Parish, New Kent, 1680-1787 gives these items : 
"Will: sone to Tho. Macheke, bapt ye 10 day of Octo., 1689" (page 22) ; 
"Thomas Butts, Gent. & Catherine Maclagehe was married y^ 2d of Apr. 
1713" (page 47) ; "James and William son[s] of James & Ann McGehee, 
born March 31, 1756" (page 167). 

l^The records of York County (which are intact from 1633) have not 
been examined for McGehee items. In King William County (which is 
just west of New Kent) and formed in 1701 from King and Queen (which 
was formed from New Kent in 1691) are several volumes of fragments 
saved from the burned records of the courts ; these volumes of fragments 
have not been examined for McGehee items. The court records of New- 
Kent County (formed from York in 1654) have been totally destroyed. 



278 William and Mary Quarterly 

Lipscomb, 20 shillings ; son Abraham, 96 acres part of land I 
live on, one negro, bed and furniture and a large chest; sons Jacob 
and Samuel and daughter Sarah, when they come of age, £5 each 
to be paid them by son Abraham; son Edward, 50 acres of land, 
one negro, one bed and furniture, one large chest which was his 
mothers; son Samuel, 50 acres of land, one feather bed and furni- 
ture, one large chest, riding mare, saddle and bridle ; daughter 
Sarah, one feather bed, chest and drawers, sealskin trunk, £5 cur- 
rency, her mother's horse, saddle and bridle ; daughter Mary 
Dickson, one feather bed, one pair blankets, desk, etc. ; cattle, 
sheep, hogs, etc., to be equally divided ; Executors, sons Abraham, 
Edward and Samuel. Witnesses, Robert; Bambridge, W. Crad- 
dock, J. Buckley.* 

1735, July 5, Edzvard Mack Gehee of King William County, 
conveyed to Samuel Mackgee, 400 acres on Great Rocky Creek 
in Hanover County. (Abstract of Hanover Records 1734-35, 
given in William and Mary Quarterly^ XXI, p. 60.) 

1746, May 16, Jacob Macgeehee, of Amelia County, planter, 
to Robert Jones, of Lunenburg County, for £55 currency, convey- 
ing 900 acres on both sides Twitty's Creek and is second fork of 
Lickinghole in Lunenburg County, formerly Brunswnck, and 
granted to said Macgeehee by patent August 20, 1745. Ellenothe, 
wife ^of Jacob Mackgeehee, relinquished dower (Lunenburg 
County, Deed Book i, page 8). 

1759, January 8, Richard Womack, of Lunenburg County, 
conveyed to John McGehee, of Prince Edward County, for £90 
currency, 400 acres in Prince Edward County on Buffalo River 
(Prince Edward County, Deed Book 2, p. 14). 



* The only copy of this will which has been seen is published in Early 
Settlers of Alabama by . . . Saunders . . . and Stubbs, page 448. 

There are In the court house of King Wilhatn County several volumes 
of fragments which were saved from the general destruction of the King 
WiUiam records by burning (some twenty-five years ago). These frag- 
ments, some of which are of documents bearing contemporaneous date 
with tlie establishment of King William County have not been examined 
for McGehee data, but it is probable that items may be found therein which 
would throw light on the early generations of this family. 



William and Mary Quarterly 279 

1768, Sej)tq|rf)er 19, Edward X McGehee, of Cumberland 
County, to Daniel McGehee, of same, for £50 currency, conveys 
700 acres in Prince Edward County, part of a patent to said 
Edward McGehee October 15, 1748 (Prince Edward County, 
Deed Book 3, p. 252). 

1 771, January 28, was probated the will of Edward X (his 
mark) McGehee, of Cumberland County, which devised to son 
John, 7 slaves and 700 acres of land in Prince Edward County 
joining land of Jacob McGehee, Simcock Cannon and George 
Walton ; to daughter Mary Hodnett, 5 shillings ; to daughter 
Elizabeth Wright, 2 negros, and 400 acres of land being part of 
tract whereon testator lived and adjoining lands of Thomas 
Wright, Charles Lee, and Frances Apperson ; to son in law 
Thomas Wright, ]^ of my water grist mill and ^ of the land 
I purchased joining him, to son Micajah McGehee, i negro and 
700 acres in Prince Edward County whereon he lives joining 
John Martin ; to son Mumford McGehee, i negro and 700 acres 
in Prince Edward County to be laid off in a lot as will appear by 
plot No. I, being land whereon he now lives, to son Daniel Mc- 
Gehee, I negro and 700 acres in Prince Edward County being lot 
No. 2 in plot ; to son William McGehee, 1 negro and 700 acres in 
Prince Edward County being [lot] No. 3 in plot; to son Jacob 
McGehee, i negro and 700 acres in Prince Edward County being 
lost No. 6 as by plot; son Samuel McGehee, i negro and 700 
acres in Prince Edward County being Lot No. 4 in plot ; to daugh- 
ter Anna McGehee, i negro and 400 acres part of tract testator 
lives on joining his mill but, in case wife wants timber on said 
400 acres or to tend same during her life she is not to be pre- 
vented ; to wife Elisabeth McGehee land and plantation testator 
lives on with 400 acres, 1 1 negroes, 3^ of the profits of the grist 
mill with remainder of stock and household goods, tools, etc., on 
plantation, during her life, and after her death the land testator 
lives on to be equally divided between his two daughters Eliza- 
beth Wright and Anna; after wife's death ^ of mill and re- 
mainder of household goods and stock with slaves lent her to be 
sold by executors to the highest bidders and out of the sum 
thus realized to be paid to son Jacob McGehee, £75, i6s, 8d, to 
son Daniel McGehee, £30, i6s, 8d, to son William McGehee 



28o William and Mary Quarterly 

£9, 3s, 4d, and after these legacies the balance of the amount 
devised by sale to be equally divided betv^reen testator's daughter 
Elizabeth Wright and his six sons Micajah, Mumford, Daniel, 
William, Jacob, Samuel and testator's daughter Anna; estate not to 
be appraised ; if either of testator's six sons or his daughter Anrui 
die before arriving at age of [21 years?] their part to be equally 
divided among the remaining ones ; executors, wife Elizabeth, 
son Mumford McGchee, son in lazv Thomas Wright, and Henry 
Macon. Witnesses, Nathan Glenn, James Glenn, Nehemiah 
Glenn. This will vi^as dated April 4, 1770 (Cumberland County, 
Will Book No. 2).* 

1771, June 24, was probated the will of William McGehee, of 
Cumberland County, devising to daughter Ann McGehee, i negro 
also the first live born child of testator's negro Dinah, i feather 
bed and furniture, w^hen said Ann is 17 years old or is married; 
to the child testator s wife is pregnant zvith, i negro and the sec- 
ond live born child of the negro Dinah, i feather bed and furni- 
ture; if this child should be a female the articles to be deHvered 
to her when she is 18 years of age or married, but if a male 
not to be given to him until he is 21 years old ; testator's land in 
Charlotte County to be sold to discharge debts and executors to 
attend to this as soon as convenient; to aforesaid children the 
testator gives £50 each to be paid to them at their respective age ; 
to wife Catherine McGehee full use of testator's land and planta- 
tion whereon he lives also the use of three negros and after pay- 
ing debts and funeral expenses residue of household furniture 
and stocks of all kinds (except a young sorrel mare) and she is 
thereon to raise my children and to give [them] four years 
schooling; land whereon testator now lives to the aforesaid chil- 
dren to be equally divided between them at the death of testa- 



* The distinguished families of McGehee in Georgia, Alabama and 
North Carolina all descend from Edward McGehee of Cumberland Countj^ ; 
see Early Settlers of Alabama, page 488 et seq, and Gilmer's Georgians. 

A carefully prepared study of the origin, early stages of development 
and subsequent history of the McGehee family worked out in detail through 
all of its branches would prove an invaluable contribution to the literature 
of Southern economic and social history. 



William and Mary Quarterly 281 

tor's wife, also 3 negros; the sorrel mare to be sold to the best 
advantage to pay executors. Executors, wife Catherine McGehee, 
brother Jacob McGehee and friends Frederick Hatcher and 
Thomas Carter. Witnesses : Isham Bradley, Adcock Hobson. 
Securities George Cox, John Mayo, Robert Moore, Robert Biscoe. 

This will was dated March 13, 1771 (Cumberland County 
Will Book 2, pp. 34-35). 

1773, February 4, John McGehee, Micajah McGehee, Mum- 
ford McGehee, Daniel McGehee, and Jacob McGehee, of Prince 
Edward County, Nathan Woniack, Thonias Wright, and Samuel 
McGehee, of Cumberland County, legatees of Edward McGehee, 
late of Cumberland County, deceased, convey to William Mc- 
Gehee, of Cumberland County (for 5 shillings) a negro (Prince 
Edward Deed Book 5, p. 199). 

1783, February 17, Jacob McGehee, of Prince Edzvard County 
conveyed to Joseph Truman, of Prince Edward County, for £40 
currency, lOO acres on Bush River, Prince Edward County, ad- 
joining Jacob McGehee, Jessee Winfrey, Joseph Truman, John 
McGehee and John Fulks (Prince Edward Deed Book 6, p. 491). 

1784, March Court was probated the will of Jacob X McGehee, 
of Prince Edward County, by which he bequeathed to sons Wil- 
liam and Jacob McGehee, mill with 4 acres adjoining, his still and 
all utensils thereto belonging, and a negro named Ceasar ; and if 
son Jacob McGehee should die without lawful issue then his 
part of mill and the 4 acres to testator's son William McGehee; 
son William McGehee, negros named Lye, Ben and Narrow ; son 
Jacob McGehee, during life, plantation whereon testator lives 
with land adjoining, and should said son Jacob die leaving chil- 
dren said plantation to be equally divided between them ; also 
lends to said son Jacob, for life, negroes Sarah, Sue and Peter, ' 
and to said Jacob's children should he die leaving issue, but 
should said Jacob die without issue the aforesaid negros and their 
increase to be equally divided between the testator's daughters,^' 

^EUzabeth Owen, Eleanor Smith, Martha Collins, Annis Foster, 
Sarah Car dwell and Drussilla Weaver; to said son Jacob McGehee, 
during life, two feather beds and furniture, and certain cattle, 
sheep and hogs, half of the pewter, and after his death to 



282 William and Mary Quarterly 

his children but if he should die issueless then to be equally divided 
between testator's other children ; to said son Jacob McGehee, i 

negro York, black walnut desk, to be at his own disposal ; to | 

daughter Elizabeth Owen, negros Diner, Stephen and Amy, and j 

a feather bed and furniture ; to daughter Eleanor Smith, during 
her life, and to her husband Jonathan Smith, during his life, the ^ 

negros Jane, Phil and Hannah; and after the death of said j 

Eleanor and Jonathan to any children of the said Eleanor, but } 

should she die childless then the said negros, by equal division, | 

to testator's other children; to said daughter [Eleanor Smith] | 

a black walnut desk ; to daughter Annis Foster, 400 acres in | 

Prince Edward County, also negros Gloster, Clovey, and Beck, 1 

and a black walnut chest; to daughter Martha Collins, and her 
husband William Collins, during their natural lives, 250 acres in » 

Prince Edward County, and negros oMintor, Lucy, Kate and j 

Dinah ; the said land and negroes are left in trust to testators' 
three sons in law, Joseph Truman, Brackett Ow^en and Abraham | 

Foster, for the support and maintenance of said Martha and 
William Collins during their lives and after their deaths to the I 

children of the said Martha Collins to be equally divided between 
them ; to daughter Sarah Cardijuell, 302 acres in Charlotte County, 
and negros Rachel, TJTclc'^ahct^Edmund, also half of stock on 
plantation in Charlotte whereon said Cardwell lives, half the 
working tools thereon, and one iron pot ; to daughter Drussilla 
Weaver, 349 acres in Prince Edward County and negros Nan, 
London and Fanny, and half stock of cattle on plantation in 
Charlotte County, and half the working tools, and one iron pot; 
to daughter Agness Clarke, the plantation in fork of Sandy River 
with land adjoining, and negros Sam, Janey, Let, Rose and 
Winney, and a black walnut desk marked : "A. M. ;" goods and 
chatties, 'and half of the pewter; testator lends to son in law, 
Joseph Truman, plantation said Truman lives on during his life, 
and at said Truman's decease, the said land and plantation to 
testator's granddaughter, Mary Redd, also to said granddaughter 
200 acres adjoining said plantation ; but if said granddaughter 
[Mary Redd] should die issueless the land to be equally divided 
betw^een all the testor's children ; to the said Mary Redd also eight 
negros : Bob, Jude, Phil, Stephen, Beck, Hannah, Bet and Susie ; 



William and Mary Quarterly 283 

to Ruthey Ramsey, a black horse named Darby ; ''My will and 
desire is that if any one of my children grumble or m^ke any 
disturbance, that their part be divided between all of the rest/' 
to wife Ann McGehee,* a horse named Diamond, a cow and calf, 
500 pounds of nett pork, a black walnut chest, also one bed and 
furniture which she shall chuse ; residue of estate to be equally 
divided between all of my children; executors, son William 
McGehee, and my friends Reverend Wm [Mr.?] M'Robert and 
Richard Burks. The will was dated May 8, 1781 ; witnesses, 
* George Foster, George Pulliam, Thomas Croflrord (Prince Ed- 

ward Records, Will Book i, p. 346). 

1784, February 16, William McGehee, son and heir at law of 
Jacob McGehee, late of Prince Edward' Gounty to Joseph True- 
man, of Prince Edward County ; said William McGehee from 
the desire he has to fulfil his father's intentions to make clear 
title to 400 acres of land to said Joseph Trueman hereby conveys 
the said land on Bush River, Prince Edward County, patented by 
Jacob McGehee, February 5, 1753, and which is part of the 
tract said Trueman now lives on and being the whole of lands 
possessed by said Jacob McGehee by said patent, containing 400 
acres on which the said Trueman settled and now lives (Prince 
Edward County, Deed Book 7, p. 15). 

1794, November 24, was probated the will of Jacob McGehie, 
of Littleton Parish, Gumberland Goiinty, devising to son Williayn, 
one negro; to son Jacob the home tract and he must maintain 
testator's daughter Anna McGehie until my daughter Sarah shall 
obtain a house and home, also [to] board, school and maintain my 
son David Burros until he is 15 years old then to bind him to 
some trade as he may choose, for a term of 5 years ; to son Abra- 
ham, ope negro to be divided between him and my son Charles; 
to dai^ghter Sarah one negro ; son Jacob to have benefit of one 
negro ; David Burrozi's, one negro, provision is made for paying 
testator's debts ; no appraisement to be made of estate ; Execu- 
tors : sons William and Jacob ; Witnesses : John Hill, Fleming 



♦This Ann McGehee was the second wife 'of Jacob McGehee, but by 
her there were no children (see post page 284 for children of Jacob Mc- 
Gehee). Eleanor De Jarnett, the first wife of Jacob McGehee, and the 
mother of the children, died June 14 1775. 



284 William and Mary Quarterly 

Caycie, Joseph Hill, Elijah Chastain, Charles Williams, Ben- 
jamin Dowdy. This will bears date September 16, 1794 (Cum- 
berland County, V/ill Book 3, pp. 41-42). 

1797, April, William McGehee, of Jefferson County, State 
of Georgia, power of attorney to John Redd, &c., of Prince 
Edward County, Virginia (Prince Edward County, Deed Book 11, 
p. 77).* 

1828, July 25, was probated the will of John Mackghee of St. 
Paul's Parish Hanover County which names children Elizabeth 
Lewis, Mary (Polly) Barker, Nancy Acre, Joseph Mackghee, 
Susannah Livesay, Sally Mosby Livesay, Patsy Gathright and 
Catherine Talley ; Executors, friends, Major Thomas Starke, 
Bowling Starke, and my son Joseph Mackghee. He also men- 
tions land in Buckingham county. This will was probated in 
Hanover County July 25, 1828 (A copy in possession of Mrs. 
Thomas W. McCabe, of Richmond, Virginia, to whom we are in- 
debted for these extracts). 

From the foregoing abstracts of documents the following 
pedigree of the McGehee family has been tentatively constructed 
(subject to revision by the future discovery of additional data) : 

(i) Thomas^ McGehee, of St. John's Parish, King William County, 

Virginia, born circa 1670-80 (?) ; married ; issue [in order 

named in his will dated July 27, 1727] : 

i. William^ McGehee; ii. Anna-, married Butler; iii. Dinah^, 
married Joseph Lipscomb ; iv. Abraham- McGehee ; v. Jacob- Mc- - 
Gehce; vi. Samiiel- McGehee; vii. Sarah- McGehee; viii. Edward- 
McGehee; ix. Mary^ married Dickson. 

'^'Jacob- McGehee (Thomas^) was born 1707; died December 6, 1783; 
his name is spelled Mack Gehee, Macgeehee, Mackgee [the two latter 
clerical variations] and to a deed in Prince Edward Co., 1783, and in his 
will, McGehee, which is the form used by his descendants to the present 
day. Jacob- McGehee moved from King William, County and settled on 



* The Cumberland and Prince Edward County records are rich in 
McGehee deeds an abstract of which would no doubt furnish a consider- 
able contribution towards the solution of many, at present, perplexing 
"questions of identity" of persons bearing the name. An examination of 
the Order Books of these courts would no doubt also add considerably 
to the knowledge of th.e lives of the earlier McGehees. 



William and Mary Quarterly 285 

lands in Amelia County later, and at the present time Prince Edward 
County. He was married first on October 30, 1737, to Eleanor Dejarnatt, 
born 1717, (also spelled De Jarnett; see De Jarnett notes page 267). 
Mrs. Eleanor (De Jarnett) McGehee died June 14, 1775, and Jacob^ 
McGehee married second, Ann . 

Jacob^ and Eleanor (De Jarnett) McGehee had issue: 

i. John^ McGehee, born November 14, 1738; died December 16, 
1763; ii. William^ McGehee, born December 17, 1740, married first, 
Miss Forrest, second Mrs. Sarah Harris (who was Miss Walker) ; 
iii. Mary^ McGehee, born November 10, 1742, married Joseph Tru- 
man* ;iv, Elizabeth^ McGehee, born September 5, 1744, died Novem- 
ber 18, 1800, married Brakett Owen ; v. Eleanor^ McGehee, born No- 



* Truman or Trueman Family. The family to which Joseph Truman 
belonged lived in Henrico County and from the records it appears that 
these people were industrious farmers. The multilated condition of the 
Henrico records prevents the construction of a consecutive history of this 
family, but the following notes will, no doubt, prove of interest to those 
who are descended from this family. 

On June 26, 1717, Thomas Pleasants (son and heir of John Pleasants, 
deceased) conveyed (For £ 3 curr) to Richard Truman, 60 acres in 
Henrico County on south side of Chickahominy Swamp and upper side 
of Beaver Swamp between the lands of Thomas Matthews and Benjamin 
Woodson (Henrico Records, vol; 1714-18, p. 186). December 7, 1730, 
Tarlton Woodson, of Henrico County, to Richard Trueman, Senior, for 
£20 currency conveys, 240 acres on Boare Swamp, being part of a patent 
granted in 1690 to John Woodson, deceased {Ibid, vol. 1725-37, p. 288). 
October 2, 1734, William X Hardin, of Henrico County, conveyed to 
Richard Trueman, Junior, of Henrico County, for £20 currency, 100 acres 
on Bore Swamp in Henrico on North side White Oak Swamp (Ibid, vol. 
'725-37, p. 435)- At a Court held for Henrico, September 3, 1739. Richard 
Woodson acknowledged a deed of gift to Richard Truman, Junior, which 
is ordered to be recorded (Ibid, vol. 1737-46, p. 89; the deed book for this 
period is missing). 

The will of Richard Trueman, Senior, of Henrico County, dated March 
31, 1754, probated July 1754 names daughter Mary WilHams, daughter 
Catherine Murfie, son-in-law William Still, son Abraham Truman (and he 
is named executor), wife Elizabeth Truman. He mentions land on Willis 
River (Henrico Records, vol. 1750-67, p. 354). August 20, 1745 one Richard 
Trueman had a patent for 400 acres in Goochland County on branches of 
great Buffaloe Creek and the Barren Lick Creek adjoining John Pain and 
Samuel Ridgway (Register of Land Office, Patent Book No. 23, p. 1083). 

The will of Richard Trueman of Henrico County,- dated November 3, 
1772, son John Truman, land and plantation whereon I now live and a 



286 William and Mary Quarterly 

vember 21, 1746, married first, Jonathan Smith, second, Francis Rice; 
vi. Ann^ McGehee born January 6, 1748, died March 1748; vii. 
Martha^ McGehee, born January 12, 1750, married first James 
Alwood second, William Collins ; viii. Anness^ McGehee, born May 
7, 1752. died September 13, iSoi, married Abraham Foster ; ix. 
Jacob^ McGehee, born July 17, 1754, died September 1816, married 
Ann Weaver; x. Sarah^ McGehee, born March 19, 1757, died June 
13, 1828, married George Cardwell; xi. Drusilla"^ McGehee, born 
Mar^h-T6,"T759rmarfred Moore Weaver; xii. Agnes-^ McGehee, born 



November 2, 1763, died May 17, 1821, married Thomas Clark.* 



negro Frank ; son Joseph Truman, a negro Joe and a feather bed ; daughter 
Ann Warriner, negro Dick; daughter Elizabeth Baker, negro Mary; 
daughter Rebecca Bethell, negro Hannah ; daughter, Agnes Gathright, negro 
Sail; wife Mary, negro Jude and residue of estate; executors Joseph Tru- 
man and John Truman. The will of Mary Truman of the parish and 
county of Henrico (not dated), mentions son John Truman, negro Jude; 
daughter Alary Austin, negro Tom; grandson William Truman, negro 
Sibb ; residue of estate to be divided between my six daughters : Ann War- 
riner, Mary Austin, Martha Fariss, Elizabeth Baker,' Rebecca Bethel, and 
Agnes Gathright, except Crop to my son John Truman. (The wills of 
Richard and Mary Truman were admitted to record by Commissioners for 
replacing destroyed records in Henrico Co. on the depositions of Ephraim 
Gathright and William Bethell. Proceedings . . . Respecting the records 
of Henrico Court destroyed by the British. 1774-1782, pp. 54-55.) 

Richard Truman of Henrico County married Mary, daughter of 
Richard Woodson (see William and Mary Quarterly, X, 47, where the 
name is given erroneously as Freeman and Vol. X, p. 186, where the cor- 
rection to Truman is made). 

Joseph Truman (son of Richard and Mary [Woodson] Truman) re- 
sided in Prince Edward County. He was born about 1740; and was a pri- 
vate in Captain Obadiah Woodson's Company of Volunteers in the French 
and Indian Wars {Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, XXI, 
p. 89). He is mentioned as son in law in the will of Jacob McGehee, of 
Prince Edward Co. in May 1781, and the McGehee record quoted above 
shows that Joseph Truman married Mary, daughter of Jacob and Eleanor 
(De Jarnett) McGehee. (See ante p. 281, and footnote below.) Joseph 
Truman and Mary McGehee had at least one child, Mary Truman (1763- 
1834) who married Joiin Redd, of Prince Edward County (see post p. 
287) and is mentioned in the will at her grandfather, Jacob McGehee in 
1781 as "granddaughter Mary Redd." 

* The dates of births, deaths and marriage of Jacob McGehee and 
Eleanor De Jarnett and of their children are from a letter written by S. M. 
Fuqua, dated Rice Dep[ot] [Prince Edward County, Virginia], February 
24, 1875, and addressed to Mrs. Pattie Eudaily, of which letter the opening 
sentence is: "Dear Cousin> Enclosed I send Uncle Jonnie the record of 



William and Mary Quarterly 287 



Edward^ McGehee (Thomas^) of Cumberland County, born 
died 1770 or '71 ; married Elizabeth [De Jarnett, ?] issue: 



i. John^ McGehee; ii. Micajah^ McGehee, who married Anne 
Scott, and went to Georgia; iii. Daniel-' McGehee married Jane Hod- 
nett, and settled in Georgia; iv. Mumford"^ McGehee, of Pearson 
[Person?] County, North Carolina; v. William^ McGehee, of 
Georgia; vi. Samuel^ McGehee, of Mississippi; vii. Jacob^ McGehee, 
of Georgia ; viii. Elizabeth^ McGehee married Thomas Wright ; ix. 
Mary^ McGehee married Hodnett; x. Anna^ McGehee.* 

Mary3 McGehee (Jacob-; Thomas^) born November 10, 1742; died 
— ; married Joseph Truman, of Prince Edward County, and had issue 



at least one child 



i. Mary* Truman, born September 20, 1763; died February 4, 
1834; married John Redd, of Prince Edward County, born November 
II, 1756, died July 22, 1840,! and had issue: 



his grandfather's family." We are indebted to Jacob McGehee, Esquire, 
of Richmond, Virginia, in whose posessesion is the original letter, for the 
copy of this letter and record. 

* The names of these children are from the will of Edward McGehee 

of Cumberland County (see abstract given on page ) and the additional 

information as to their places of residence from Early Settlers of Ala- 
bama, page 449. 

fREDD Family. John Redd, born November 11, 1756, died July 22, 
1840, was a son of Thomas Redd, of Prince Edward County born about 
1730; died 1801. The authority for these dates is Mrs. R. A. Walters, 127 
South Main Street, Danville, Virginia, who is descended from the Redds. 

The will of Thomas Redd, of Prince Edward County, dated January 
17, 1799, names children Charles Anderson Redd, Polly Redd, Sally Ander- 
son Redd, and Patty Redd, "as they come of age or marry" ; wife Frances ; 
my children George Redd, John Redd, Thomas Redd, William Redd, 
Charles A. Redd, Fanny Cunningham, Polly Redd, Sally Redd, Patty Redd ; 
granddaughter Polly Watkins (under age) a child's part; "all the children 
ot daughter Betsy Billups, a child's part devided between them ;" executors. 
George Redd, John Redd, William Redd and James Cunningham. Wit- 
nesses, Daniel Dodson, Jr., Richard M. Venable, Charles Morton. A 
codicil dated January 18, 1799, should daughter Betsy Billups survive wife; 
another codicil, dated April 17, 1801, property to son John Redd in trust 
for my daughter Polly. Witnesses, George Redd, Sally A. Redd, Andrew 
Redd, Martha Redd. This will was recorded June 15, 1801. (Prince 
Edward County Will Book 3, p. 238.) Thomas Redd (circa 1 730-1 801) of 
Prince Edward County married first (and had John Redd, born 



288 William and Mary Quarterly 

(a) Elbert F.s Redd; (b) Nancy'' Redd married Madi- 
son; (c) Elizabeth" Redd married Clark; (d) Joseph T.^ 

Redd; (e) John W.^ Redd; (f) Henry T.' Redd; (g) Susan Tru- 
man' Redd, .fiarried April 14, 1819. Matthew Mayes Dance, born 
January 29, 1790, died March 8, 1873 (see Note i, Dance Family)* 
and had issue (among other children) a daughter, Sarah Hill Dance, 
born 1822; died 1841, married July 23, 1839, Charles Harrison Og- 
burn, of Mecklenburg County, and had issue : Sarah Margaret 
Angelina Ogborn. born March 5, 1841, died December 13. IQ16. mar- 
ried, August I, i860, Benjamin Ha^-nie Hite, M. D., of "Groveland," 
Lunenburg County (see Note 2, Hite Family).* 

{To he concluded) 



1756; died 1840 and probably others), and second, Frances, daughter of 
Charles Anderson, of Cumberland County. The will of Charles An- 
derson, of Cumberland County, dated August 26, 1783, probated February 
27, 1786, names daughter Frances Redd (Cumberland County Records Will 
Book, No. 2, p. 391^ 

* The Dance and Hite notes will appear in next issue of the Qu.\r- 

TERLY. 



William and Mary Quarterly 289 



BOOK REVIEWS 

The Life of John Marshall, Vols. I and 11. By Albert J. Beveridge. 
Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1916. 

This is the first time a work in any way commensurate with the ser- 
vices of John Marshall has been given to the public. Despite the extensive 
field that it covers and the many historical matters introduced it is a real 
Biography, as the portraiture of the man strictly dominates all the details. 
Many books have appeared in recent days purporting to be biographies, but 
the details dominate the portraitures, and they appear rather as imperfect 
histories with a life story used by way of illustration. 

Not so Mr. Beveridge's work. He is a master in his purpose and 
his amazing vitality imparts a splendor almost unrivalled to his pages. 
John Marshall, who hitherto has existed as a sort of mythical character, 
suddenly springs like the palace of Aladdin before our astonished eyes as 
a powerful and dazzling creation. What reputation Marshall has hitherto 
enjoyed has been connected with his career on the Federal Bench, but 
Mr. Beveridge shows him to have been much more than a mere jurist. 
He was an able legislator, diplomat, and powerful debater, and the real, 
though not always active head of the great Federalist Party. This place 
has been given too often to the passionate and able Hamilton, but 
the Hght turned on by Mr. Beveridge shows that the party really depended 
upon Marshall, whose outward coolness and solid prudence, contrasting 
in every respect with the fiery character of the New England Federalists, 
made him a rock whereby the cause of Federalism was so long sustained 
against the unremitting assaults of Republicanism. 

Beginning with a brief account of his ancestry and birth in the county 
of Fauquier, Mr. Beveridge follows him in these two volumes with patient 
care to school, from school to the army, from the army to William and 
Mary College, where he attended law for a few weeks under the guidance 
of the celebrated George Wythe, from college to bar, from bar to the 
Legislature, from the Legislature to Congress, from Congress to the 
famous X. Y. Z. Mission to France, from this mission to a seat as Secre- 
tary of State in John Adams' Cabinet, to which was added the office of 
Chief Justice — where he leaves him for the time being, proposing in the 
next two volumes, when the story is to be resumed, to take him through all 
his great career on the bench. 

It is a stupendous life depicted by a sympathetic and powerful hand, 
fired with an enthusiasm that magnetizes his readers. 

Mr. Beveridge realizes the value of contrasts, and undoubtedly much 
of the interest of the work lies in his vivid presentation of Marshall's 
mental superiority to his physical and social surroundings, and of his 
political opinions in contrast with those of his great rival Thomas Jefferson. 
But to write by contrast is often very dangerous, and just in this lie the 



290 William and Mary Quarterly 

chief defects of Mr. Beveridge's brilliant labors. In the effort to render 
his hero more striking and dramatic he has fallen into the same error 
into which William Wirt fell in his "Life of Patrick Henry," when he rep- 
resented the son of Col. John Henry — the leading man in Hanover — as 
poor and unknown battling with proud aristocrats whom he likened to 
Roman Senators living in stately and magnificent palaces. Certainly no 
one who has seen a palace in Europe would be impressed with any re- 
semblance to them in the plain, even if massive, structures of Westover 
and Shirley. 

So Mr. Beveridge, like William Wirt, in his account of the social and 
physical conditions of Virginia in the eighteenth century, draws too extreme 
a picture. The description of the social conditions is liable to two objec- 
tions: First, to give a just idea of the times in Virginia he should have 
presented a full and thorough account of all the colonies, and this he fails 
to do. In the next place he practically confines himself to presenting the 
dark side of Virginia life instead of giving both sides — the bright as well 
as the dark. He rests his authority chiefly upon the reports of travelers, 
when it is notorious that such testimony is usually superficial and unsatis- 
factory, abounding in general conclusions based upon hearsay or on a few 
observed cases. 

Where other personal authority is introduced, it is subject to the ob- 
jections which the whole literature of the period of Marshall's life evi- 
dences. The average citizen of that time was particularly subject to 
emotional excitement and loved to deal in superlatives on all questions. 
Hence, even educated people indulged in a style of vehement expression 
that would not now be tolerated. 

Now, why in speaking of society in Virginia does not Mr. Beveridge 
give the opinions of two thoughtful persons — John Hammond, who wrote 
in 1656, or, if Hammond may be deemed to have lived too remote, Alexan- 
der Spotswood, who wrote in 1710? The former (Hammond) said: "I 
can confidently affirm, that since my being in England, wdiich is not yet 
four moneths, I have been an eye witness of more deceits and villanies (and 
such as modesty forbids me to utter) than I either ever saw or heard 
mention made of in Virginia, in my one and twenty years aboad in those 
parts." And the latter ( Spotswood) said in writing to the Bishop of london : 
*T shall conclude with doing justice to this Country as far as my Discoverys 
have hitherto been able to reach, and declare sincerely to Y'r Lord'p that 
I have observed here less swearing and Prophaneness, less Drunkenness, 
less uncharitable feuds and animositys, and less Knaverys and Villanys 
than in any part of the world where my Lot has been." When he writes 
of education in Virginia before the Revolution, why does not Mr. 
Beveridge give the interesting remarks of Mr. Jefferson to Joseph C. 
Cabell that "the mass of education in Virginia before the Revolution placed 
her among the foremost of her sister States." In the reference w^hich he 
does give to Mr. Jeflterson's authority on page 279 of his first volume, he 



William and Mary Quarterly 291 

is certainly unfortunate. In the parallel which Mr. Jefferson draws between 
the Northern and Southern people he is not at all unfavorable to the South, 
unless one is inclined to think that moral characteristics are secondary 
to physical ones. Surely Mr. Beveridge does not mean to say that 
self interest, trickery and hypocrisy are less to be condemned than im- 
petuousness, indolence, self indulgence and fickleness I (P'or conditions in 
colonial New England and Virginia see Tyler, Cradle of the Republic, 
186, 196, 198-200.) 

And when Mr. Beveridge speaks of the poor in Virginia, why did he 
brand them as apparently different from the poor of other countries, and 
why in quoting the travels of Smyth did he not, by way of note or some- 
how, add the information that Smyth said that "the real poor class in 
Virginia were less in number than anywhere in the world." Surely the 
evidence of their degradation is not greater than the evidence of John 
Adams against the poor of the Northern States when he said on the floor 
of Congress in 1776: "that the condition of the poor in most countries, 
especially the fishermen of the Northern States, is as abject as that of 
slaves." It is natural to suppose that Adams based his ideas of the 
poor on his knowledge of things around him. Henry Adams, in his 
history of the United States, says : "Nowhere iri' America existed 
better human material than in the middle and lower classes of Virginia. 
As explorers, fighters, whenever courage, and activity, and force were 
wanted they had no equals and were beyond measure jealous of restraint." 
Frankly speaking, however, only record evidence is of much real value 
in history, and it is too bad that in presenting the social conditions Mr. 
Beveridge should have passed by the excellent authority of the public 
statutes,, marriage bonds, the parish vestry books, inventories of estates, 
and the wills, deeds and orders from the county records, copiously cited 
in the William and Mary College Quarterly, the Virginia Historical 
Magazine and the Lower Norfolk County Antiquary. 

It is remarkable that in the one important instance in which Mr. 
Beveridge does rely upon documentary evidence to support him in this 
connection, he entirely misinterprets it. On page 24, of Vol. I, he says 
that "hardly more than one third of the men (in Virginia) who made 
deeds or se'rved on juries could sign their names, although this did not 
represent the illiteracy of the masses which, of course, was much lower." 
Reference is made to Mr. Bruce's "Institutional History," but this work 
instead of sustaining Mr. Beveridge's estimate shows that nearly two- 
thirds of the men, in a given large number of instances investigated by Mr. 
Bruce, could write their names ; and although these figures belong to the 
seventeenth century (a less enlightened period than, that in which Marshall 
lived), they demonstrate a larger percentage of literacy than that which 
prevailed at that time in New England, or England, or perhaps in any 
part of Europe. They far exceeded the percentage applying to-day to 
Russia, Roumania, Italy or Spain. 



292 William and Mary Quarterly 

It is certainly true that there were many defects in Virginia society in 
the eighteenth century, but it is also true that these defects were largely 
superficial and did not necessarily make the society depraved.- Washington 
and Marshall and the other great Virginians lauded by Mr, Beveridge were 
merely types of their neighbors, of whom they were separated only in a 
degree. They by no means constituted a class to themselves. Mr. 
Beveridge gives us enough insight into the history of Marshall to make 
us understand that, like Washington, his character was no exception to 
that of the general mass of his fellow-citizens. Both Washington and 
Marshall were true products of their environment. They had all the 
vices and virtues of the Virginians of their day — both of them played 
cards for money, both loved their dram, both bet on cock fights and horse 
races, both wen4: fox hunting, and yet no one has ever dared to say that 
either Washington or Marshall was inferior in his general makeup to 
either John Adams, or James Otis, or John Hancock, who were brought 
up under the New England influences. In certain respects the New Eng- 
land life was awfully poor, narrow and sordid. It had its vices in abund- 
ance, but neither there nor in Virginia did these evils strike to the heart 
of the community, which was essentially healthy and strong. 

Altogether too much stress is laid by Mr. Beveridge upon colonial 
society distinctions, though in this respect he is by no means by himself. 
The law of Virginia made no class distinctions and the suffrage was uni- 
versal down to 1736, when the freehold qualification was for the first time 
defined. St. George Tucker is the authority for the statement that there was 
absolutely no such thing as one class of white men dependent on another 
class. There were constant intermarriages between the "high" and the 
"lowly," which Mr. Beveridge himself shows to have been the case with the 
Marshall family, as well as with the JefTerson family, and new names were 
constantly appearing in the House of Burgesses. According to Alexander 
Spotswood, Landon Carter and Thomas JeflFerson, the real title to a 
seat in the House was popular favor, and in their view hereditary dignity 
was a positive injury to any candidate.* There was far more real political 
aristocracy in colonial New England than in colonial Virginia, though it 
was never so spectacular. The towns were governed by small oligarchies. 
The magistrates continued in office for life, and even down to the Revolu- 
tion those who took part in the elections for the Massachusetts House of 
Representatives were much fewer proportionately than the Virginia elect- 
orate for the House of Burgesses. The ultimate consequences of society 
in Virginia and New England were seen after the Revolution, when for the 
first time the two communities had full opportunity of showing without 
foreign restraint their natural bent. Virginia became the headquarters of 
the Democratic Republican Party of popular ideas, and New England that 



* See authorities cited in review of Dr. Eckenrode's "The Revolution 
in Virginia," in last issue. 



William and Mary Quarterly 293 

of the Federalist Party — the party of aristocratic ideas. As a matter of 
fact, the town meeting of which we hear so much praise from New Eng- 
land writers was never anything more than the rule of a few smart 
politicians, and to this day some of the worst inequalities in popular govern- 
ment prevail in New England. In Vermont, New Hampshire, and Rhode 
Island it is hardly believable, but it is a fact that the towns still retain 
their equal representation in the. Legislature, no matter how large or 
how small they are. (For the workings of the ballot in New England 
see Baldwin's Early History of the Ballot in Connecticut in American 
Historical Society Papers, Vol. IV, p. 81, and Jones The Rotten Boroughs 
of New England in North American Review, CXCVII, p. 486.) 

By his love of contrast, Mr. Beveridge is disposed, perhaps uncon- 
sciously to himself, to minify the faults of Marshall and to magnify the 
faults of his great rival Thomas Jefferson. Indeed, it does not take much 
reading of Mr. Beveridge's work to see that Marshall is being exploited at 
the expense of Jefferson. Thus, Marshall at Valley Forge, in 1778, at a 
most distressful period in the history of the Revolution is brought into 
uncomfortable contrast with Jefferson, who is described as in the State 
Legislature remote from the sufferings of the soldiers and safe from the 
attacks of the British. But where was Marshall at a period just as distress- 
ful? He had returned home in 1779, and for two years the State was a 
continuous scene of military operations by the British. Jefferson was 
Governor, and was doing all that his alleged military incompetency per- 
mitted him to do. But as far as the pages of Mr. Beveridge affords in- 
formation, John Marshall, in all this troublous time, took little or no part 
in defending his hard pressed State. It appears very strange to one who 
knows how differently men acted in Virginia in the stormy days of the 
Civil War that Marshall was contented to remain at home practically for 
two years awaiting a military command, when there was always room 
in the militia or the continental army for the common soldier. This is a 
curious chapter in Marshall's life, but Mr. Beveridge glides over it in a 
few pages with some rather commonplace talk about his marital relations 
and a walk to Philadelphia to be inoculated for smallpox. 

The curious conduct of Marshall in acting as attorney for the Vir- 
ginia debtors in the British debt cases, after he had been prominent i;; 
maintaining the injustice, not to say wickedness, of their claims, is noticed 
by Mr. Beveridge, but his astounding conduct in holding the offices of 
Secretary of State and Chief Justice at one and the same time is not. 
In so acting, issuing orders on one day as Secretary of State, and on the 
next sitting in court and delivering judicial opinions, he presented a spec- 
tacle which has never been paralleled. His action constituted an amazing 
infringement of the principle accepted as the foundation stone of the Con- 
stitution, of the complete separation of the three departments of govern- 
ment. Mr. Beveridge inveighs very much against the partisanship of 



294 William and Mary Quarterly 

Mr. JeflFerson, but really Marshall was as much a partisan as the great 
champion of popular rights. The only real difference between the two ' 
men was found in the degree in which they expressed themselves. Jeffer- « 
son said everything he felt, but Marshall, who felt quite as keenly, was J 
generally cautious and reserved. None but an extreme partisan, however, I 
could have played the part that Marshall did in the closing hours of John 
Adams' administration. Holding two offices of a most contradictory char- 
acter, aiding and advising in the appointment of the midnight judges and j 
encouraging by his silence, if in no other way, the boiling fury of the New | 
England Federalists bent on upsetting the government and defeating the I 
will of the people by making Aaron Burr President, whom neither their ! 
own party nor the Republican Party had ever intended for that office. i 

To do him justice, Mr. Beveridge is far from approving the attitude I 

of the Federalists at this time, but to me he does not seem to show the ; 

indignation that this gigantic fraud attempted on the popular will would j 

seem to demand. Burr is rather commended, and we are told that he did ; 

not authorize the Federalists to use his name, and that he entered into I 

no deal with them, but this is not to the point. Burr knew perfectly well | 

that nobody ever intended him to be President, and the unforgivable fact j 

was in his not coming out and letting the whole world know that he would | 

under no circumstances accept an office for which he had never been > 

intended. 1 



* See letter of Samuel Tyler, who was a member of the council of 
James Monroe, then Governor of Virginia. (Letters and Times of the 
Tylers, III, p. 15) 

t Annals of Congress, Sixth Congress, pp. 1031-1034. 



In remarkable contrast to the easy let off accorded to Burr by Mr. \ 

Beveridge is the severe treatment accorded to Mr. Jefferson. While Mr. I 

Burr is relieved from any corrupt imputations in the election made by j 

the House of Representatives, Mr. Jefferson's final victory is attributed to j 

a deal made with Mr. Bayard, of Delaware, who is said to have obtained '■ 

certain pledges in return for desertion of his fellow Federalists. Now, \ 

this charge has certainly never been proved, and it is surprising that Mr. I 

Beveridge should have deemed it necessary in his history to revive it. \ 

The plain facts are that Bayard, of Delaware, and Craik and Baer, of \ 

Maryland, were three Federalists counted on by the Republicans to support f 
Jefferson from the very first,* and it must be suspected that they were 
only too glad of any excuse for leaving their colleagues in the lurch. 

Many of their constituents — prominent Federalists in Delaware and \ 

Maryland — disapproved of the conduct of the party in Congress, and ! 

made their views known to them.f ' ? 

i 

In like manner, Mr. Beveridge accepts the Federalist view that the ♦ \ 

Mazzei letter was directed by Jefferson against Washington, but I am not 1 



William and Mary Quarterly 295 

aware that any new evidence has been developed on the subject since Randall 
I wrote his "Life of Jefferson," and facts stated there make no certain case 

I at all. It is all a mere matter of conjecture that Jefferson referred to 

Washington in this letter, as no names were given, and Jefferson himself 
indignantly denied the application. 

Mr. Beveridge makes John Marshall stand for the principle of national- 
ism which triumphed at Appomattox over the states' rights doctrines of his 
rival, but the question remains which was the wiser of the two great men 
as they viewed the future darkly through the coming years. Mr. Jefferson 
had the astuteness to recognize what Marshall did not seem to do, that 
the sympathies betv/een North and South were largely superficial, cemented 
chiefly by the offices and a certain pride of having established in common 
a government. Jefferson saw that there were deep and fundamental differ- 
ences between them, and that the Union consisted of two really distinct 
nations, differing in occupations, institutions and ideals. He lamented 
deeply the compromise of 1820, which marked out to the world with great 
precision the boundaries of the two powers. To both Marshall and Jeffer- 
son the Union was a great love, but Jefferson thought, and he thought 
correctly, that the extensive assertion of national authority within the 
field of the domestic relations would tend to drive the two nations apart 
and break up the Union. The policy that he commended was one of 
confining the government as much as possible to its foreign relations, so 
as not to awaken either local distrust or sectional jealousy. Now, the 
principle championed by Marshall of strengthening the government at 
home was an aggressive one, and being readily seized upon by the North 
for monopolistic ends, gave rise to the dangerous crises of 1820, 1833 and 
1861. 

Pushed to a conclusion at either of the two earlier dates, Marshall's 
principle of Nationalism would have undoubtedly broken the Union to 
pieces. It came near doing so in 1861, and the Union was only saved by 
the fact that the North had so greatly increased in power, as to render 
resistance to it unavailing. The result of the war was to destroy the 
Southern nation and there emerged out of the bloody strife only one 
nation — a Northern nation. But in what kind of strain would Mr. 
Beveridge have written had the Union been dissolved under the aggressive 
teachings of Marshall? I do not know and probably Mr. Beveridge him- 
self does not. Indeed, there are reasons to believe that Marshall himself 
in his latter years came to recognize that the North was exploiting his 
principle of nationalism for sectional purposes. We are told that Johp 
Tyler's speech, in 1832, against the protective tariff and in vindication of 
the states' rights theory received the commendations of the Chief Justice. 
(Letters and Times of the Tylers, I, p. 439.) 

But it was his trumphant faith in American manhood that singles Jeffer- 
son out as the greatest American of his day. Any amount of evidence 
can be produced that Hamilton and the New England Federalists, even if 



296 • William and Mary Quarterly 

they did not aim at monarchy, entertained profound distrust of the fitness 
of the common people to carry on a government.* If Jefferson went too 
far in a contrary faith, he erred, at least, on the right side. The opinions 
of Marshall certainly did not go to the extreme of the Northern Federalists, 
but it is apparent all the same that his whole influence was thrown in 
favor of those who did entertain undemocratic views. 

In firmly opposing these ancient and stupid distrusts and in bringing 
about the adoption of the popular principle by all parties in the United 
States and spreading them throughout the civilized world, Jefferson has 
secured for himself a place in history, and a claim to the gratitude of 
mankind that cannot be equalled by anything however great that Marshall 
may have done. No impartial writer will, of course, pretend to justify 
all the words and political actions of Mr, Jefferson, but of the rectitude 
of his great and underlying principles there can be no question. If Mar- 
shall had a spirit that permeated the Union, Jefferson had one that per- 
meated the world. 

In the forthcoming volumes we shall read with some interest what 
Mr. Beveridge has to say in regard to Marshall's behavior in one of the 
incidents in Burr's trial a few years after his appointment as Chief Justice 
— his knowingly dining with a man under indictment for treason in his 
own court. This conduct had all the appearance of extreme partisanship 
and was bitterly censured at the time by many good men. Perhaps Mr. 
Beveridge will give us some new facts which will lighten up the affair 
and relieve the great Virginian of the blame of reckless disregard of all 
the proprieties of his position. 



The Letters of George Long in Alumni Bulletin of the University of Vir- 
ginia, edited by Professor Thomas Fitzhugh. 

In the October, 1916, and January, 1917, numbers of the Alumni Bul- 
letin of the University of Virginia, Prof. Fitzhugh favors the public with | 
a most interesting account of George Long, first professor of Ancient i 
Languages at the University of Virginia. This article is a decided contri- 
bution to Virgina literature, and is illustrated by interesting letters of Mr. 
Long, which give many details of his life in Virginia and England. 

The Jews of Virginia from the Earliest Times to the Close of the 

Eighteenth Century. By Leon Hiihner, A. M., LL. B. Reprinted , 
from the Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society. 

It is interesting to notice that Mr. Hiihner mentions Elias Legardo, 
who came to Virginia in 1621 as probably the first Jew that came to 



* See extracts from Federalist letters, speeches and newspapers in 
Carpenter's Logic of History. 



William and Mary Quarterly 297 

America. . But if he was a Jew, he was a French Jew, as he was one of 
the Vignerons that came from Languedoc in France to teach the colonists 
how to raise grapes, for I assume that EHas La Guard and Elias Legardo 
was one and the same. The name, it is supposed, became anghcised into 
Ellegood, which was later the name of a prominent family in Princess Anne 
and Norfolk counties. The brochure of Mr. Hiihner is very interesting. 

How the World Makes Its Living. By Logan Grant McPherson. Pub- 
lished by the Century Co., New York City. Price $2.00. 

An interesting work on economic activities interpreted in the light of 
evolution embodying the results of the author's study and experience for 
twenty years. 

An Earthquake in New England During the Colonial Period. By Frederick 
E. Beasch. Reprinted from a Bulletin of the Seismological Society 
of America. 

This is a reprint of a Lecture on Earthquakes by John Winthrop Hol- 
lisian Professor of Mathematics and Philosophy in Harvard College, 
November 26, 1755 ; before the students of Harvard College. 

Old Letters of a Student in Germany 1856-57. Second Series. By Edward 
S. Jo5mes, M. A., LL. D., Emeritus Professor, University of South 
Carolina. Published in the Bulletin of the University of South 
Carolina. No. 50. 

The great favor with which Dr. Joynes' first series of "Old Letters" was 
received has induced him to add this second and final series, descriptive of 
a vacation travel. They give a vivid account of conditions in Germany 
sixty years ago, and it is difficult to realize the wonderful changes in 
Germany and German life which have since ensued. 

Correspondence of George Bancroft and Jared Sparks (1823-1832). By 
John Spencer Bassett, Smith College Studies in H'istory, Vol. II, No. 
2, Northampton, Mass. 

Via Pads: "How the Terms of Peace Can Be Automatically Prepared 
While the War Is Still Going On." A suggestion offered by an 
American, Harold McCormick: A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, 1917. 

Thomas Jefferson and the First Monument of the Classical Revival in 
America. By Fiske Kimball, Ph. D., M. Arch., Assistant Professor 
of Architecture in the University of Michigan. 

This is an interesting account of the capitol of Virginia at Richmond 
planned after the Maison quarree of Nismes, an ancient Roman temple. 



298 William and Mary Quarterly 

It is to be noted, however, that the portico of the old Capitol in Williams- 
burg was a classic structure, the lower order of which was Doric and the 
upper Ionic. 

Six Addresses on the State of Letters and Science in Virginia delivered 
at Hampden-Sidney College, Virginia. Edited by Alfred J. Mor- 
rison. 

This interesting pamphlet contains addresses of John Holt Rice, Wil- 
liam Maxwell, Jesse Burton Harrison, Jonathan P. Cushing, James Mercer 
Garnett and Lucian Minor. The immediate effects of the Revolution, while 
rendering possible better things in the end, were at first disastrous alike to 
labor, religion and education. For thirty years after the Revolution atheism 
and skepticism were rife in the State, and education appears to have been 
at a stand still. These addresses mark the period when public opinion was 
beginning to move towards a better agriculture, a better religious feeling 
and a better education. They cannot be read other than with great interest. 

Address : The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. By James PojTitz Nelson. 
Before the Railway Men's Improvement Society, New York, January 
27, 1916. 

Public School Education in North Carolina. By Edward W. Knight, Pro- 
fessor of Education in Trinity College, North Carolina, with con- 
tributions by James Y. Joyner, State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, and N. W. W^alker, State Inspector of High Schools : 
Houghton, Alifflin Company, Boston, New York, Chicago. 

We 'have long waited for a work of this character on Virginia, but 
none has yet appeared. North Carolina has decidedly the start of the 
Mother Commonwealth in this matter. Dr. Knight gives in this work a 
thoroughly comprehensive history of education in the Old North State from 
its foundation to the present time. Though in its colleges the State did 
not take the same rank as Virginia, it developed before i860 the best sys- 
tem of common school education obtaining in any of the Southern States 
that made a part of the Confederacy. 



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Works of Lyon G. Tyler 

President of WiUiayn and Mary College^ . 
Williamsburg^ Virginia, 

1. Letters and Times of the Tylers. 

Being a work in tliree volumes covering the lives of John Tyler, Sr., 
Governor of Virji^inia, and his son, John Tyler, President of the 
United States, with a running commentary on political events from 
1775 to 1861. Price $7 (Express to be paid by purchaser). Apply to 
the author. 

2. Cradle of the Republic — Jamestown and James River. 

A detailed history of Jamestown and the other James River settle- 
ments. Second edition, rewritten, enlarged and copiously illustrated. 
Sent to any place in the United States free of postage for $3. Apply 
to the author. 

3. Williamsburg, the old Colonial Capital. 

Copiously illustrated. Williamsburg is full of interest as the capital 
of Virginia during the American Revolution, and the seat of William 
and Mary College. Sent to any place in the United States free of 
postage for $2.50. Apply to the author. 

4. Parties and Patronage in the United States, 

in G. P. Putnam's "Questions of the Day." Out of Print. 

5. Narratives of Early Virginia (1606-1625). 

Charles Scribner's Sons, Publishers, New York. 

6. The English in America, 

(Volume IV. in Hart's American Nation). Harper & Brothers, Pub- 
lishers, New York. 

7. Men of Mark in Virginia^ 

In five volumes. Men of Mark Publishing Co., Washington, D. C. 

8. Biographical Dictionary of Virginia. 

In five volumes. Lewis Historical Publishing Co., New York. 1915. 



SUBJECT INDEX 



VOLUME XXV 



"Aboutionism and Southern Independ- 
ence/' 137, 138. 

"A Discourse for Friends of Virginia 
AND Carolina by Joseph Glaister," 
248-252. 

Ages of Lower Norfolk County Peo- 
ple, 36-40, 135-136. 

Alexander Family, 130- 131. 

Alexander, Mark and His Ancestry, 
206-207. 

Armistead Family, i 17-123. 

Assessors Book for 1778, Isle of Wight 
Co., 168-170. 

Ashburton Treaty, 1-8. 

"Bathurst/' a Colonial Residence, 70. 

Book Reviews: Gookin, Daniel Gookin, 
145 ; Heathwole, A History of Edu- 
cation in Virginia, 145 ; Eckenrode, 
The Revolution in Virginia, 212; 
Hall, Andrew Johnson, 217; Hart, 
American Patriots and Statesmen 
from Washington to Lincoln, 217; 
Bruce, Brave Deeds of Confederate 
Soldiers, 220 ; Baskerville, The Ham- 
iltons of Burnside, N. C, 220; Jus- 
serand, With Americans of Past and 
Present Days, 221 ; Smith, Chemistry 
In America, 221 ; Robinson, Virginia 
Counties, 222; Tucker, Woman's 
Suffrage, 222 ; Gary, Sally Cary, 222) ; 
Beveridge, Life of John Marshall, 
223, 229; Fitzhugh, The Letters of 
George Long, 296; Hiihner, Jein'S of 
Virginia, 2<)6; McPherson, How the 
World Makes Its Living, 297; 
Beasch, An Earthquake in New Evig- 
land during the Colonial Period, 
297; Joynes, Old Letters of a Stu- 
dent in Germany, i856-'57, 297 ; Bas- 
sett, Correspondence of George Ban- 
croft and Jared Sparks, 297; Mc- 
Cormick, Via Pads, 207 ; Kimball, 
Thomas Jefferson and the First 
Monument of the Classical Revival 
in America, 297; Morrison, Six Ad- 
dresses on the State of Letters and 
Science in Virginia, 298; Nelson. 
The Chesapeake and Ohio Raihvay, 
298; Knight, Public School Educa- 
tion in North Carolina, 298; Cole, 
Whig Party in the South, 243. 247. 

Branch Family, 59-70; 107-116. 

Brett — Isham — Randolph, 132-133. 



Chancelor Wythe and Parson Weems 

13-20. 
', Clayton, John, Note, 209. 
"College Papers,'' 236-242. o 
Colonial Seal, 159. 
De Jarneti' Family, 268-274. 
Doctor Cole and the Whig Party, 243 

247. 
Downing Family, 41-51, 96-106. 
Education and Letters in Virginia, 1824- 

1835, 209. 
Early Generations 0? the Tanned 

Family of Henrico Co., Va., 87-95 
Fairfax, Henry, In Memoriam, 140-143. 
The Flat Hat Club, 161- 164. 
Friends of Virginia and North Carolina 

A Discourse for, 248-252. 
Gardening, see A Treatise on Gardenir.g 
The Gardner of Wuj.iamsburg, 166 

167. 
Glaister Family, Note, 252. 
Gordon, W^illiam, of Mecklenburg Co. 

71. 
Henrico County, Beginnings of it: 

Families, 52-58. 
Historical and Genealogical Notes 

71-72, 144-145- 
Hudgins Family, Note, 71. 
Illustrations: Invitation to a Masoni, 

Ball, 156; Charter Seal of Williams 

burg, 158; Rez'olutionary Seal 0. 

Williamsburg, 158-9; Present Seal 0^ 

Williamsburg 158-9; Medal of Fla 

Hat Club, 162-3 ; Smith Portraits 

174-5. 
In Memoriam, Henry Fairfax, 140, 143 
Innis, James. 164. 
Isham Family, see Breet-Isham-Ran 

dolph. 
Isle of Wight Co., Assessors Book fo 

1778, 168-170. 
Jackson, Gen. T. J., An Unpublishe 

Letter of, 35. 
John Downing of Fairfields, North 

umberland County, Va., and Hi 

Descendants, 41-51, 96-106. 
Jones, Rev. Servant, 72. 
Jones. Family. Notes. 211. 
Kenner's Mission to Europe, 9-12. 
Lower Norfolk County People, Ages 01 

36-40. 135-136. 
Masonic Lodge, Williamsburg. 14V9-156. 
Matthews-Smith, 71. 



INDEX 



Mattapony Fort, 72. 

McGehee Family in Virginia, 275-288. 

Norfolk County, see Lower Norfolk. 

Norvell, William, 71. 

Patman-Bigger, Note, 144. 

Pope Family, 208-209. 

President John Tyler and the Ash- 
burton Treaty, 1-8. 

Quakers, see Friends. 

Randolph Family, see Brett-Isham- 
Randolph. 

Religious Freedom, 144. 

Renicks-Seymour, 72. 

Rowland, Thomas, C. S. A., Letters of, 
7y^2, 225-235. 

Royal Colleges in the United States, 
165. 

Rumsey, James, Inventor of the 
Steamboat, Letters of, 21-34. 

Seal, Colonial, 144. 

Seal of Williamsburg, 157-160. 

Seymour-Renicks, J2. 

Smith Family, 170-183. 

Smiths of Virginia, 184-191. 

Smith-Matthews, 71. 

Spence Family, Notes, 43. 

Tanner Family, 87-95, 198-205. 

Tatham, William, 83-86. 

Thomas and William Br.\nch of Hen- 
rico Co. AND Some of Their De- 
scendants, 59-70, 107-116. 



Thornton Family, 124-129. 

Thkuston Family, 192-198. 

"Treatise on Gardening by a Citizen 
of Williamsburg,"' 138-139. 

Tyler Family, Note, 144. 

Waddy Family of Northumberland Co., 
254-267. 

Watkins Family, 52. 

Weems, Parson, see Chancellor Wythe 
and Parson Weems. 

Whig Party, Doctor Cole and the, 243- 
247. 

White Family, Note, 183. 

William and Mary College: Admis- 
sion of Students, 236; Statute Con- 
cerning Higher Schools, 236; Pro- 
fessors of Humanity, 2^7 ; List of 
Students (i8i4-'i5), 237 ; Addressof 
Board of Visitors, 238; Statute Pre- 
scribing Number of Classes Each 
Student Shall Attend, 241 ; Election 
of Studies, 242. 

William and Mary College, see College 
Papers. 

Williamsburg Lodge of Masons, 149- 
156. 

Williamsburg, Seal of, 157-160. 

Wythe, Chanceller, see Chancellor Wythe 
and Parson VVeems. 



GENERAL INDEX 



Abbott. 39. ^ .- 

Abingdon Parish, Gloucester Co., 268, 

269, 2^2, 273. 
Abrell, 38. 
Acre, 284. 
Adams, 173, i74, 176, I77, 178, I79, 181, 

182, 183, 214, 215, 245. 
Addie, 61. 
Adie, 233. 
Adison, 145. 

Agricultural Department, 167. 
, Albany, Gentry Co., Mo., 176. 
Albemarle Co., 155. 202, 211, 273, 277. 
Albemarle Parish, Surry Co., 107. 
Albemarle Parish, Sussex Co., 107. 
"Aldie," Loudoun Co., 180, 181. 
Aleford, 40. 
Alexander, 13, 18, 19, 43, 102, 130, 131, 

186, 206, 207. 
Alexandria, Va., 124, 190, 22i2)- 
Allen, ziy T^^ 121, 275. 
Allen's Creek, Lunenburg Co., 202. 
Allison, 153. 
Alston, 221. 
Alwood, 286. 
Ambler, 121, 188, 189. 
Ambros, ijs. 
Amelia Co., 200, 202, 203, 204, 205, 269, 

272, 276, 21^, 285. 
American Farmer, 138. 
American Gardner, 139, 166. 
American Revolution, 163, 182. 
American Whig Society, 161, 163. 
Amherst Co., Va., 208. 
Ancell, 211. 
Anderson, 13, ,15, 71, 79, I55, 156, 226, 

228, 287, 288. 
Andrews, 154:, 155. 
Anketill. 38. 

Annapolis Convention, 175, 215. 
Anson Co., N. CaroHna, 272. 
Appenines, 227. 
Apperson, 279. 
Appleton, 178, 179. 
Applewhite, 168, 169. 
Appomattox River, 199, 202, 205, 275. 
Archer, 65, t-O, 203. 

Armistead, 117, 118. 1 19, 120. 121, 122, 
[ 123. 164. 
Arnold. 84. 
Arrowhattocks, 61. 
\shbrook, 95. 
Ashburton, Lord, i. 



Ashen Swamp, Henrico Co., 90, 199. 

Aston, 52. 

"Association of the Northern Neck," 173, 

174. 
Atkinson, 232. 
Atterbury, 38. 

Attopin Creek, Westmoreland Co., 130. 
Atwood, 40. 
Augusta Co., 277. 
Austin, 286. 
Averill, 274, 
Aylett, 121, 187. 
Ayton, 117. 

Babadoes, 197. 

Bacon, 71, 118, 185, 189. 

"The Bad Wife's Looking Glass," 13. 

Bagley, 270. 

Bagnall, 130. 

Bailey, 253. 

Baker, 120, 168, 169, 255, 286. 

"Baldwins," Henrico Co., 203. 

Ball, 51, 99, 100, 103, 105, 258, 259, 261, 

262, 263, 264, 266, 267. 
Balldock, 176. 

Baltimore, Md., 157, 162, 176, 206. 
Bambridge, 278. 
Bancroft, 21, 22, 23, 24, in. 
Bank of U. S., 207. 
Bankes, 38. 
Bankhead, 125. 
Banks, 30. 
Barber, 211. 
Barker, 38. 
Barlow, 169. 

Barnes, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 31, 32, 34. 
Barnewall, 21, 22, 23, 24. 
Barradall. 119. 

Barren Lick Creeke, Goochland Co., 285. 
Barrow, 208. 
Barry, 183. 
Baskerville, 220, 221. 
f Bass, no, 112. 270, 271. 
Bassett, Il8, 176. 
Bastile. 31. 
Batchelor, 135. 

Bathurst, 173, 174, 173, 176, 177, 181. 182. 
"Bathurst," Essex Co.. 70, 174, 175. 
Baiicrh, 64, 88, 95. 203. 
"Bauldm.^c," Henrico Co., 198. 
"Bauldings," ("Baiawvu"), 08, 90. 
Bauldwin, 200. 
Bayley, 190, 191. 



;/ 



IV 



INDEX 



Baylor, i6i. 

Bayes, 90. 

Beale, 197, 208. 

Beall, 155. 

Bearcroft, 49. 

Beauchamp, 53. 

Beaver Pond Branch, Henrico Co., 205. 

Beaver Swamp, 285. 

Beckwith, 274. 

Bedford Co., Va., 177, 202. 

Belfield, 174, 176. 

Bell, 51. 

Belle Fontaine, Mo., 179. 

Bentley, 259. 

Benton, 207. 

"Berbadoes," Henrico Co., 68. 

Berkenhead, 185. 

Berkeley, 181, 188. 

Berkin, 196. 

Bermuda Hundred, 87, 112, 113, 132. 

Bernard, 184. 

Berney, 79. 

Berry, 180, 181, 183. 

Bethel, N. C, 80, 286. 

Betts, 41, 264, 267. 

Beveridge, 223. 

Beverley, 117, 119, 145, 181, 191. 

Bexley, Eng., 133. 

Bibb, 208. 

Bickerton, 152. 

Biddle, 40. 

Bigger, 144- 

Billups, 287. 

Binford, 253. 

Birch, 130. 

Bird, 120. 

Birkin, 196. 

Biscoe, 281. 

Black Creek, Isle of Wight Co., 208. 

Black River, Gloucester Co., 117. 

Blackman, 62, 68. 

Blackwater Record, 253. 

Blackwell, 41, 48, 98, 99, 100. 105, 106. 

Blair, 150, 154, 155, 156, 177. 206, 275- 

Blanchard, 221. 

Bland, 53, 70, in, 151, 152, 153, 155, i8o, 

212. 
Bledsoe, 254, 256. 
"Blendenhall," Bexley Parish, County of 

Kent, England, 132. 
Bliss, 214. 

Blissland Parish, New Kent Co., 120, 121. 
Block, 238. 
Bloyde, 132. 
Blundell, 49. 

Boare Swamp, Henrico Co., 285. 
Body, 36, 37. 
Bolliiig^, 1x5, 210. 
Bolton, 210. 
Bonaparte, 229. 



Bondurant, 202, 
Booker, 202. 
Boston, Mass., 137. 
Bott, 38. 
Bottom, 222. 
Bottomly, 55. 
Bourbon Co., Ky., 128. 
Boush, 197. 
Bowers, 135. 

Bowler, 172, 173, 176, 271. 
"The BowHng Green," 127. 
Bowman, 39. 
Bowzer, 170. 
Boyce, 90. 
Boyd, 122, 190. 
Boyer, 195. 
^Bradford, 161. 
Bradley, 281. 
Bradshaw, 36. 

Branch, 59-70, 91, 93, 107-116. 203-205. 
"Branchiana," 59, 60, 61, 62, 88, 112, il^ 
Brandywine, 163. 
Braswell, 170. 
Bray, 136. 

"Breaking of the Light," 9. 
"Bremo," Henrico Co., 173. 
Brent, 9, 104, 258. 
Brett, 132, 133. 
"Brick-House Landing," 124. 
Bridge, 38, 136. 
Bridger, 169. 
Bridges, 196. 
Bridgewater, 277. 
Bridgman, 49. 
Briggs, 237. 
Brikaine, 37. 
Bringdon, 196. 
Brinson, 40. 

Bristol, Eng., 192. 196, 197, 198. 
Bristol Parish, Henrico Co., Va.. 90. 
Bristol Parish, Prince George Co., 9:- 

200. 

Brint, 195. 

Broadway, 62, 196. 

Brock, 157, 162. 

Brockenborough, 177. 

Brodhurst, 184. , • 

Broks, 255. 

Bromfield, 62. 

Brooke, 255. 

Brown, 120, 153, 201, 202, 276. 

Broune, 24, 38, 43, 210. 

Bruce, 220. 

Brunswick Co., 100. 276, 278. 

Brunswick Point N. C. 230. 

Bruton Parish, York Co., 71, 2II. 

Bryant, 181. 

Bryer River, Amelia Co., 276. 

Buckingham Co.. 284. 

Buckner, 72, 125, 185. 



INDEX 



Bucktrout, 152, 153. 155- 

Buckley, 278. 

Budding, 37- 

Buel, 34. 

Bupg, 206, 207. 

Bullock, 36. 

Burbage, 121. 

Burgess, 169. 

Burke, 197. 

Burks. 283. 

Burleigh Records, 253. 

Burlington, 179- 

Burnside, 221, 226. 

Burrough, 37- 

Burrows (Burros), 283. 

Burwell, in, 118, 119, 121, 168, 169, 177, 

208, 213. 
Bush, 132. 

Bush River, Amelia Co., 276. 
Bush River, Prince Edward Co., 281, 

283. 
Bushnell. 218. 
Bustian, 38. 

Butler, 37, 38, 40. 277, 284. 
Byrd, 90, 134. 

Cabell, 59, 60, 88, 89, in, 114, 248. 

Cadyow, Lanarkshire, 221. 

Cale, 193. 

Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 126, 

197, 255. 
Calhoun, 245. 
Callander, 181. 
Calle, 131. 

Campbell, 152, 176, 183, 228, 260. 
Camport, 134. 
Candorset, 30. 
Cannon. 279. 

Cape Fear River, 226, 230, 232, 233. 
Capps, 37, 40. 
Cardinal Newman, 142. 
Cirdwell, 281, 282, 2S6. 
Carey, 14, 121, 144, 188, 211, 223. 
Carigaline, County Cork, Ireland, 145. 
Caroline Co., 268, 272, 273, 274. 
Carraway, 39, 40. 
Carrick, 183. 
Carter, 43, 84, 94, no, 118, 176, 213, 277, 

281. 
"Carter's Ferry." 211. 
Carver, 136, 186, 187, 189, 190, 191. 
Carwishon, 39. 
Casson, 37, 
Cattelin, 37. 
Cawsey, 52. 
Caycie, 284. 
Chamber, 135. 
Chambers. 181. 
Chamberlayne, 155. 
Chambliss, 177. 



Chancellor, Wythe and Parson Weems. 

13, 15. 

Charles I, 197, 206. 

Charles II, 206, 145. 

Charlotte Co., Va., 206, 271, 280. 

Charlottesville, Va., 181. 

Charlton, 149, 155, 156. 

Chastain, 284. 

Cheatham, 95. 

Chesterfield Co., 199, 200, 203. 

Chesterfield, Lord, 17. 

Cheely, 36, 37- 

Chemistry in America, 221. 

Chickahominy Swamp. 52, 53, 54. 285. 

"Chilton," Hanover Co., Va., 208. 

Chilton, 232, 261, 263, 264, 266, 267. 

Chinn, 264. 

Christ Church, Philadelphia, Pa., 164- 

Christian, 237. 

Churchill, 118, 119. 

Claiborne, 208, 237. 

Clark, no. 

Clarke, 38, I7S, 180, 282, 286, 288. 

Clarkson, 152, 155. 

Claughton, 264. 

Clay, 57, 93, 244, 245, 246. 247. 

Clayton, 118. 

Clerk, 92. 

Cobb, 72, 207. 

Cocke, 53, 63. S7, 108. lOQ. no, 113, 114. 
164 171, 17^, 173. 238. 

Cockarollapin Branch, 202. 

Cockrill, 42, 47, 98, 99. 105. 

Cockroft, 135. 

Cogan, 194. 

Coke, 237. 

Cole, 156, 195, 19^, 243. 245, 247. 

Coleman, 36, 95, 116, 133, 161, 170, i8c. 
201, 273, 274. 

College Chapel, William and Marj- Col- 
lege, 139. 

College Papers, 236, 242. 

Collett, 137- 

Collins, 135, 281, 282, 286. 

Collowhill, 193, 194. 195, 196. 

The Colony Seal, 144. 

Colston, 194, 195. 197. 198. , 

Columbia, Adair Co., Ky., 176. 

Columbia University, N. Y., 165. 

"Columbian Maid." 30. 

Confederate Point. N. C, 76. 

Confederate States, 9. 137. 

Conquest. 38. 

Continental Congress. 151. 

Conway, 128. 137. 138. ^265. 

Cook, 159, i6r. 187. 188. 

Cooper Co.. Mo., 181. 

Cooper. 221. 222. 

Coppedge, 41. 

Corbin. 108, 237. 



VI 



INDEX 



Corcoran, 12. 

Corden, 39. 

Cordcroy, 184. 

Corinth, Miss., 122. 

Cork, Ireland, 145. 

Cornwallis, 84. 

Cotrell, 98, 99. 

"The Cottage," King George Co., 124. 

Cotton, 13, 189. 

"Council Book," 144. 

Covington, 205. 

Cox, 64, 100, 102, 104, 281. 

"Coxendale," Chesterfield Co., 200. 

Craddock, 188, 202, 278. 

Craffett, 37- 

Cralle, 103. 

Crawford, 181. 

Creech, 37. 

Crenshaw, 208, 271. 

Crofford, 283. 

Culpeper, Lord, 255. 

Crosier, 136. 

"The Cruising Convention," 4. 

Crutcher, 181. 

Culme, 193. 

Cumberland Co., 203, 279, 280, 281, 284, 

287, 288. 
Cumberland. Eng., 251. 
Cundiff, 100, 104. 
Cunningham, 287. 
Curd, 66, 67. 
Curry, 9. 
Curtis, 2Z. 
Cushing, 209. 
Cutchin, 169. 

Dabney, 178, 238. 

Dacres, 255. 

Dade, 184. 

Daines, 39. 

Daingerfield, 175. 

Dale, 40. 

Dale Parish, Chesterfield Co., iii, 115. 

Dalzell, 221. 

Dameron, 47, 48, 49, 96, 97, 99, 100, 102, 

103, 104, 254, 255, 256, 258, 262, 263, 

264, 266. 267. 
Dameron's Creek, 256. 
Dameron's Neck, 256. 
Dance, 288. 

Dandridge, 120, 121, 237. 
Daniel, 56, 71, 185. 
Dann, 24. 
Danville, Ky., 176. 
Danville, Va., 273, 2Q7. 
Darby, Z7- 

Dartmouth, Elbert Co., Ga., 208. 
Davenport, 270. 
Davie, 85. 
Davies, 74, 126, 127, 159. 



Davis, 9, 38, 62, 152, 162, 208, 276. 

Davison, 185, 187, 189, 190, 191. 

Dawson, 187. 

Deadrick, 178. 

Dean, 194. 

Deeley, 62. 

Deep Creek, Amelia Co., 202. 

Dc Jarnett (Dejurner, Dejurer, Dejer- 

nat, Dejurnat), 268, 269, 270, 271, 

272, 27Z, 27^, 283, 285, 286. 287. 
Dennis, 256, 257. 

Dennis Creek, Northumberland Co., 263. 
Dering, 168, 169. 
De Sear, 115. 
Devane, 229. 
Dew, 273. 

Dickenson, 154, 206. -.^ 
DIckins, 210. 
Dickson, 278, 284. 
Diddip, 152. 
Dier, 193. 
Digges, 72. 
Dillon, 149. 
Dinwiddie, 157, 215. 
District of Columbia, 207. 
Dixon, 152, 155. 
D'Klanman, 155. 
Dodson, 287. 
Dollard, 136. 
Doremus, 113. 
Dorrington, 120. 
Dorsam, 176. 
Dorsett, 144. 
Douglas, 152, 155. 
Douglasse, 62. 
Dowdy, 284. 
Downing, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 49. 5°, Si- 

96, 97. 98, 99. 100, loi, 102, 103, 104, 

105, 106. 
Draper, 183. 
Driver, 169. 
Dudley, 49, 118, 119. 
Duke of Clarance, 30. 
Dun, 136. 
Duncan, 170. 
Dunmore, Gov., 150, 163. 
Dunn, 172. 
Duryee, 128. 
Duvall, 208, 209. 
Dyer, 38. 

Ealam, 202. 

Early, 178, 181. 

"Early Settlers of Alabama." 27^;, 278 

280. 
Eastmost Kiver, Matthews Co., 118. 
Eastquater, 221. 
Eaton, 221. 

Eckenrode, 212, 213, 214. 
Edelin, 231. 



INDEX 



Vll 



Edv^ecomb Co., N. C, 208, 210. 

E.Hnburgh, Scotland, 149. 

Edlue. I57» 15^- 

Edmonds, 136. 

Edinondson, 128. '. 

Edwards, 36, 37^ 43, 44 5i, 92, lOO, 105, 

108, 112. 113, 115, 184, 207. 
Elcnor, Mo., 176. 
Elk Creek, 275. 
Elk River, Maryland, 206. 
Ellington, 271. 
Elliott, 193. 
Ellis, 220. 
Ellzy, 208. . 
Embry, iii, 115, 116. 
Emerson, 39. 
Emperor, 39. 
England, 159. 219. 
English Gleanings, 132. 
Epes, 112, 199, 202, 203. 
Episcopal Seminary, Fairfax Co., 120. 
Eppes, 133, 210. 
Ervin, 152. 
Eskine, 274. 
Eskeridge, 43, 105. 
Essex Committee of Safety, 174. 
Essex Co., 170, 172, 175, 176, 272. 
Eudaily, 286. 
Everett, 164. 
Ewell, 15. 
Ewing, 183. 
"Experiment," Saline Co., Mo., 179, iSo, 

182. 
Eyers, 135. 
Eyre, 3S. 

Fairfax, 223. 

Fairfields Parish, 42. 

Faison, 235. 

Fariss, ^. 

Fallin, 47, 49, 51, 96, loi, 102. 

Falling River, 202. 

Fallon, 50. 

Fanshaw, 135. 

Ford, 269, 270, 271. 

Farmer, 194. 

Farmers Register, 138. 

Farmington, Mo., 144. 

Farquharson, 155. 

Farrar, 64, 199. 

"Fauldinge," 89. 

Federalist Party, 146. 

Feld, 92. 

•^enford, 136. 

'>rgiison, 152, 155. 

^ield. 200. 

"inney, 205. 

^jnnie, 150, 152, 153, 154, 155. 

;nsh, 207. 

Fisher, 172. 



Fitche, 31. 

Fitzgerald, 202. 

Fitzhugh, 32, 179. 

Fitzpatrick, 122. 

Flatt Creek, Amelia Co., 202, 

F'lat Creek, Henrico Co., 205. 

"Fleet's Bay," Northumberland Co., 186. 

Fleetwood, 39. 

Fleming, 203. 

Flinton's Slash, Henrico Co., 94, 203. 

Floyd, 37, 88. 90, 92, 200. 

Fluvanna River, 202. 

Foake, 37. 

Follett, 38. 

"The Folly," 100. 

Foukes, 39. 

Foote, 26, 57, 81. 

Forrest, 90, 93, 233, 285. 

Fort Caswell, N. C, 76, 82, 84, 227, 228. 

Fort Edward, N. Y., 179. 

Fort Fisher, N. C, 10, 79, 234. 

Fort Hatteras, 73. 

Fort Johnson, Wilmington, N. C, 75, 76, 

77, 78,- 79, 80, 81, 82, 225, 226, 227, 

228, 232. 
Fort Lane, N. C, 75. 
Fort Macon, 76. 
Fort Pulaski, 232. 

Fort St. Phillip, N. C, 232, 233, 234. 
Fort Smith, Ark., 180. 
Fortress Monroe, Va., 80. 
Foster, 281, 282, 283. 
Fouler, 135. 
Foulks, 271. 

Fountain (Fontaine), 187. 
"T^owler, 135. 
Fox, 208. 
Fraley. 33, 34. 
France, 227, 229. 
Franklin, 13. 30, 42, 164, 176, 219. 
Franklin, Mo., 180. 
Franklin, Tenn., 122. 
Franklin Convention, 183. 
Frederick Co., 190. 
Fredericksburg, Va., 274. 
French, 230, 231, 232, 237. 
French Revolution, 140. , 

Friars, 25. 

Friend, 109, no, 114. 
Friends Meeting House at Curies, 54. 
Fulks, 281. 
Fullgham. 168, 169. 
Fuqua, 286. 

Gaines, iii. 

Gaive, 39. 

Gait 149. 150. 152, 153, 154, 155- 

"Garden Point." 257. 

Garden, 270. 

Gardener, 139. 



Vllt 



INDEX 



Gardener's Dictionary, 167. 

Gardiner, 166. 

Garlington, 255, 260, 

Gaskins, 103, 104, 258, 266. 

Gathright, 284, 286. 

Gatlin, -jz, 74- 

Gayle, 122. 

Gaylord, 255. 

Gazetteer of Georgia, 178. 

Gedney, 38. 

Genealogia Bedfordiensis, 132. 

George, 255, 287. 

George I, 157. 

George III, 216. 

Georgetown, D. C, 139, 166. 

Germantown, Penn., 163, 206. 

Germany, 219. 

Gerry, 214. 

Gibbs, 169. 

Gibson, 153. 

Giddings, 264. 

Giles, 207, 219. 

Gill, 51, 119, 120, 121, 258. 

Gilmer, 275. 

"Gilmer's Georgians," 275, 280. 

Glaister, 248, 251, 252, 253. 

Glass, 202. 

"Glendower," 211. 

Glenn, 280. 

Gloster (Glaister), 252. 

Gloucester Co., 185, 190, 191, 208, 268, 

269. 
Gloucester Point, 127. 
Glover, (i2, 63, 169. 
Godby, 38. 
Godwin, 168, 169. 
Goldsboro, N. C, 'JZ, 74, 229. 
Goldthwait, 122. 
Gooch, 197. 

Goochland Co., 202, 275, 285. 
Good, 62. 

Goode, 66, 67, 109, no, in. 
Goode's Branch, Henrico Co., 205. 
Goodrich, 38. 
Goodson, 155. 
Goodwin, 144, 274. 
Goodwynne, 107. 
Gookin, 145. 
Gordon, 71, 246. 
Gorgon's Head, 157, 158. 
Gower, 64, 108. 
Graham, 41, 43, 51. 
Granville, Co., N. C, 221. 
Grattan, 121. 

Gravelly Run Register, 253. 
Gray, 32. 
Great Buffaloe Creek, Goochland Co., 

285. 
Great Guinea Creek, Goochland Co., 275. 



Great Rockey Creek, Hanover Co., 275, 

278. 
Great Sandy River, Prince Edv/ard Co., 

277. 
Green, 116, 121, 201, 202. 
Greene, 135. 
Greene Co., Ga., 178. 
Gregory, 211. 
Griffen, 177. 

Griffin, 176, 198, 237, 271. 
Grigsby, 206. 

"Grindoli's Run," Henrico Co., 68. 
Grissett, 201. 

"Groveland," Lunenburg Co., 288. 
Grymes, 177, 188. 
"Guarding Point," 257. 
Guatemala, 183. 
"Gunston," Fairfax Co., 124. 
Gwathmey, 117. 
Gwatkin, 161. 

Hackny, 189. 

"Hackwood,". 185, 188, 190. 

Hale, 17. 

Hales, no. 

HaHfax Co., 269, 271. 

Halifax Co., N. C, 208. 

Hall, I, 39, 181, 217, 271. 

Hallowell, 76, 228. 

Hamilton, 220, 221, 243, 244, 247. 

Hampden-Sidney College, 138, 166, 209. 

Hampton, 273, 274. 

Hampton, Va., 163. 

Hancock, 69, 199, 200. 

Hancocke, 193, 196. 

Hancock Co., Ga., 107. 

Hanover Co., 176, 211, 284. 

"Hanover Town," 126. 

Harcum, 98. 

Hardee, 128. 

Hardin, 285. 

Harding, 38, 39, 47. 

Hardy, 84, 168, 169. 

Hare, 221. 

"Harewood," Frederick Co., 191. 

Hargrave, 40, 136. 

Harleian Society, 132. 

Harley. 41. 

Harmanson, 168. 

Harper, 106. 

Harris. 68, 90, ni, 136, 254, 255, 259, 

285. 
Harrison, 37, n8, 169, 180, 186, 209, 288. 
Harriss, 274. 
Hart, 136, 218. 220, 273. 
Haskins, 88. 92, 199, 2C0. 
Harvard University, 164. 
Harvey, 40, 169. 
Harwood, 150, 152. 154, 155. 



INDEX 



IX 



Ilatciicr, 64, 88, 90, 91. 93, 94, 95, 202, 

-81. 
Ilathwaye, 36. 
llatteras, 80. 
Matters ley, 40. 
Platton, 88. 
Havvcs, 273, 274. 
Hawkins, 36, 37. 
Hay. 155. „ ^^ 

JIayden, 14, 1 18, 200. 
Hayes, 37, lOi, 176. 
Hayne, 288.. 
Haynes, 36. 

Haynie, 42, 50. 51, 99, 259. 
Hayward, 195. 
Healer, 194. 

Heath, 99, 104, 258, 259, 262, 266. 
Heathrington, 136. 
Heathsville, Northumberland Co., 102, 

103- 
Heatwole, 145. 
Hcbdon, 40. 

"Hell Garden Bottome," 89, 90. 
Heller, 195. 
Helper, 219. 
Henderson, 183. 

Henrkrson's Creek, Albemarle Co., 277. 
Henley, 156, 238. 
Hening, 118, 119, 120, 121, 168, 170. 
Hening Statutes, 189. 
Henning, 49. 
Henrico Co., Va., 144, 177, 198, 199, 200, 

203, '210, 277. 285, 286. 
Henrico Court House, 133. 
Henrico Meeting, 54, 56. 
Henrico Parish, 56, 203. 
Henrico Parish Church, 62. 
Hcnr>', 9, 212, 215. 
Hepburn, 139, 166. 
Herbert, 124, 233. 
Herndon, 274. 
Hesseltine, 149. 
Hickman, 131, 155. 
Hickory Neck Church, James City Co., 

72. 
Higgins, 126. 
Highgate, 132. 
HJRht, 33. 
Hill, 36, 38, 69, 70, III, 116, 169, 205, 208, 

283,284,288. 
Hinds, 270. 
Hincs, 271. 
Hite. 288. 
Hobbs, 107. 

Hobson, 42, 51, 267, 281. 
Hobun, 132. 
Hocker, 13.5. 
Hodgkinson, 39. 
Hodnett, 279, 287. 
Hoge, 274. 



Holbeck, 27. 
Holliday, 169. 
Hollmes, 37. 
Hollo way, 118. 
Hollway, 193. 
Hollowell, 169, 170. 
Holt, 209. 

Holy Ground Slash, Henrico Co.. 90. 
Hone, 117. 
Hook, 194. 
Hopkins, 255, 274. 
Hopson, 208. 
Hosburg, 237. 
Hoskins, 40. 
Horine, 179. 
Hornetooke, 84. 
Houdon, 221. 
Howard, 54, 181, 215. 
Howell, 27. 
Howeson, 197. 
Howdett, 112, 115. 
I Hubard, 151. 
Huckstepp, 38, 39. 
Hudgins, 71. 
Hudnall, 263. 
Hudson, 211. 

Hughlett, 42, 48, 99, 103. 258. 
Hull, 99, loi, 102, 234. 
Hume, 227. 
Hunnicutt, 253. 
Hunt, 137, 192, 195. 
Hunter, 28, 36. 
Huntsville, Ala., 208. 
Hurst, 97, 263, 266. 
Hurt, 176. 
Hutcheson, 206. 
Hutchins, 56. 
Hutchinson, 131. 

Indiana, 207. 

"Ingleside," St. Louis Co., Mo., 181. 

Ingram, 103, 254 255. 256, 260, 261, 2^.z, 

264. 267. 
Inner Temple. London. 184. 
Innes. 155, 161, 162, 163, 164. 
Iredell Co., N. C, 183. 
Ireland, 159, 183, 206. 
Isham. 132. 133. 134, 210. 
Isle of Wight Co.. 170, 197, 210. 
Iverson,, 78, 226, 230, 235. 
Ivey, 36. 
Irv'in, 183. 

Jackson, 35, 136, 194, 219, 245. 
Jacksonville, Fla., 185. 
James, 43, in, 195. 
James I. 206. 
James II. 145. 
James City, 189. 242. 
James City County. 159, 198. 



INDEX 



James River, 200, 202, 203. 
Jamestown, Va., 146, 188, 189. 
Jaquelin, 187, 188, 189, 191. 
Jefferson, 14, 31, 62, 64, 68, 116, 138, 155, 

161, 212, 213, 215, 216, 219, 243, 277. 
Jefferson Co., Georgia, 284. 
Jennings, 139, 168, 169, 190. 
Jett, 171. 
Johns, 201. 
Johnson, 36, 39, 75, 152, 203, 207, 217, 218, 

270. 
Johnston, 179. 
Jones, 68, 70, ^2, 73, 74, 75, 88, 103, 112, 

113, 176, 199, 202, 204, 205^ 211, 220, 

2};^, 260, 264, 278. 
Jordan, 136, 169, 251, 252. 
Josephus, 231. 
Julian, 36. 
Jusserand, 221. 

Kannady, 13. 

Keach, 41, 96, 254. 

Kealinge, 36. 

Keeling, z^- 

Keene, 35. 

Keith, 118. 

Kelly, 38, 48. 

Kemp, Z7, 152. 

Kendall, 118. 

Kenner, 9, 50, 51, loi, 198. 

Kent, Eng., 188. 

Kentucky, 273. 

Keyser, 274. 

Kildare, 209. 

King, 164, 169. 

King and Queen Co., 175, 272, 273. 

King George Co., 167, 170, 171, 172. 

King William Co., 176, 208, 263, 268, 275, 

277, 278, 284. 
King's College, 165. 
King's Mountain, N. C, 183.' 
"Kingsland," Henrico Co., 61, 62, 63, 69. 
"Kirnan," Westmoreland Co., 176. 
Knibb, 65, 95, 199. 
Knibb's Creek, Amelia Co., 116. 
Knibb's Creek, Chesterfield Co., 115, 116. 
Knight, 254, 255, 256, 261. 
Knox, 122. 

Knox Co., Tenn., 183. 
Knoxville, Tenn., 177, 180, 182, 183. 

Lafayette, 31. 
Lamb, 231, 232. 
Lambert, yj. 
Lampkin, loi. 102. 
Lancaster City, Penn., 149. 
Lancaster Co., 266, 267. 
Land, 37, 38. 
Lane, 37. 
Langley, 135. 



Lanham, 144. 

Laton, 36. 

Lavender, 194. 

Law, 133. 

Lawrence, 169, 

Lawson, 180, 181, 183, 266. 

Lear, 208, 

Lee, 12, Z7, n8, 124, 175, 176, 177, 182 

212, 220, 254, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261 

264, 265, 266, 279. 
Leesburg, Va., 140. 
Leigh, 56, 121. 
L'Enfant, 221. 
Lennor, 2)7- 
Lewellinge, yj. 
Lewis, 53, 121, 128, 135, 180, 181, 185, 19c 

210. 

"Liberty Hall," N. C, 2c£. 

Licking Hole, Brunswick Co., 2'/6, 278. 

Liggon, 88. 

Lightfoot, 118, 185, 190. 

Ligon, 94, 198, 202, 276. 

Llilly, 2n- 

Lincoln, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221. 

Lincolnshire, Eng., 132. 

Linton, 39. 

Lipscomb, 2^"^, 284. 

Little. 180. 

Littleberry, 205. 

Littleton Parish, Cum.berland Co., 283 

Liverpool, Eng., 22"]. 

Livesay, 284. 

Lloyd, ZT, 38. 

Locke, 36. 

Lockley, 155. 

Loes, 120. 

Longden, 133, 134. 

Longman, 195. 

Lootwithiel, Cornwall, Eng., 133. 

London, Eng., 132. 

Louisburg, N, C., 206. 

Louisville, Ky., 192. 

Lound, 94. 

Lovett, 40. 

Low, 136. 

Lowe, 155. 

Loyd. 195. 196. 198. , 

Lumpkin, 208. 

Lunenburg Co., Va., 139, 199, 202, 20; 

^17- 
Lyman, 128. 
L>Titon, 39. 
Lyon, 46, 47. 



McAllister. 144. 
McCabe. 284. 
McCandlish, 156. 
McCarty. 124. 
McClung, 183. 



INDEX 



XI 



McClurg, 151, 152, 153, 154. 

M'Comb, McDonough Co., III., 170- 

McConnel, 183. 

M'Cree (M'Cay), 183. 

McGhee, I77. 270-288. '" 

Mcintosh, 36, 135. 

McKennie, 208. 

McKensey, 2"]. 

McLeod, 5, 228. 

McMechen, 32, 34. 

McNutt, 183. 

M'Robert, 283. 

Macauley, 227. 

Mackbride, 67. 

Mackemie, 144. 

Mackgehee, 270. 

Macon, 207. 

Macon, 280. 

Macoy, 136. 

Madison, 151, I55, 161, 175, 215, 216, 221, 

288. 
Madison Co.. Va., 178. 
Madock, 39. 
Magee, 277. 
Magruder, 274. 
Mahan, 74. 
Malbone, 39, 40. 
Mallet, 255. 
Malone, 202. 
Malvern Hills, 52. 
Man, 135. 
Manassa, 80. 

Manley's Branch, Bedford Co., 202. 
Mann, 155. 
Mannington, 131. 
"Marie's Mount," 145. 
"Marigold," Essex Co., 174. 
Marion, 13. 

Marshall, 14, 38, 94, 182, 202, 223, 274. 
Marshall, Mo., 144. 
Martin, z% 39, 40, 135, 208, 275. 
Matthews, 285. 

Maryland Historical Society, 162. 
Mason, 12, 15, 36, Z7. 38, 43, 79, 82, 124, 

137, 166, 175, 207. 
Mason's Island, Georgetown, 166. 
Massachusetts, 212. 
- Massey, 14, 15, 18, 19. 
^Mathews, 71. -72, 184, 185, 186. 
Mattapony Fort, 72. 
Mattox, 64. 

Maupin, 150, 152, 155. 
Maxwell, 209. 
May, 183. 
Mayes, 288. 
Mayo, 281. 
Mazzei, 155. 
Meade, 13. 
Meares, 36. 
Mears, 36. 



Mecklenburg Co., N. C, 206. 
Mecklenburg Co., Va., 205, 206, 207, 210, 
221, 228. 

Mecklenburg Independence, N. C, 206. 

Medley, 172. 

Memon, 136. 

Mercer, 166, 180, 209. 
' Meriwether, 70, 120, 174, 175, 176, 179, 
181, 182. 

Meredith, 255. 

Micks, 274. 

"Middle Plantation," 157, 185. 

Middle Temple, London, Eng., 139. 

Middlesex Register, 117, 118. 

Mikaye, z^- 

Milford, 222. 

Miller, 135, 167, 169, 231. 

Milligan, 139, 166. 

Mills, 128, 223. 

Minerva, 157, 158. 

Minge, 238. 
J Minor, 209. 

Mississippi, 287. 

Missouri, 178. 

Moeballe, 155. 

Monmouth, 163. 

Monroe, 85, 180, 182.-"*^ 

Montague, 181. 

Montgomery, Ala., 123. 

Montgomery Co., Ky., 128. 

Monumental Church, Richmond, 1S9. 

Moody, 152, 155, 202. 

Moore, 17, 40, 181, 183, 281. 
^Mitchell, 65, 66, 84, 107. 

More, 38. 

Morgan, 37. 

Moris, 194. 

Morris, 53. 

Morrison, 104, 138, 166, 210. 

Morrow, 27, 32, 2,^^, 34. 
V Morton, 135, 155, 198, 276, 287. 

Morton's Creek, Amelia Co., 276. 

Moryason, 2>7- 

Mosby, 56, 284- 

Moseley, 109, no, 114, 115. 

Mott, 258. 260. 261, 262, 265, 267. 

"Mount Zephyr," Caroline Co.. 125. 

Mountain Creek, 269, 270. 

Moy. 37, 40. 

Mudler, 38. 

Muddy Creek, Cumberland Co., 109, no. 

Mullekin. 40. 

Mumford, 269, 272, 280, 281, 287. 

Munford, 83, 269. 

Murfie, 285. 

Murray, 177. 

Mutter, 191. 

Mychunk Creek, Albemarle Co., 276. 

Mynn, 192. 



Xll 



INDEX 



Nansemond Co., Va., 251, 252. 

Napoleon, 229. 

Nash, 255. 

Nashville, Tenn., 183. 
-- Neale, 41, 43, 261, 265. 

Nelson, -84, 120, 126, 127, 273. 

Nelson Letter Book, 120. 

Nelms, 41, 44, 47, 49, 96, 97, 98, 100, 
265. -rj', v-y 

New England Historical and Genealogi- 
cal Register, 132. 

New England Towns, 146. 

New Inlet, N. C, 76. 

New Kent Co., 173, 268, 277. 

New Orleans. 275. 

New Town, Isle of Wight Co., Va., 197. 

New York, N. Y., 138. 
I Newark, N. J., 82. 
\ Newbern, N. C, 7Z, 74, 75, 7^, 78. 229. 

Newce, 145. 

Newce's Town, Ireland, 145. 

Newcombe, 22,7. 

Newman, 137. 

Newport, 40. 

Newport News, Va., 145. 

Newell, 40. 

Nichless, 262, 

Nicholas, 120. 

Nicholls, 40. 

Nicholson, 152, 155. 
, Nicols, 38, 39. 

1 Nobbs Crook Creek, N. C, 252. 
j Noland, 181. 
i Norfolk Cb., 197, 198, 207. 

Norfolk, Va., 156, 273. 

Norsworthy, 136, 168, 169. 

North Carolina, 221, 268. 

Northanna River, Hanover Co., 275. 

Northumberland Co., 184 190, 254, 255, 
256, 257, 259, 261, 262, 265, 266. 

Norvell, 71. 

"Norwood," Cumberland Co. (Powha- 
tan Co.), III. 

Nottoway Co., '201, 205. 

Nottoway Parish, Amelia Co., 200. 

Nottoway Parish, Prince Edward Co., 
269. 

Nova Scotia, 209. 

Nutt, 47, 49, 50, 100, loi, 

; Oage, 202. 
Ovenchain, 74- 
O'Fallon, 179. 
Ogburn, 288. 

Oglethorpe Co., Georgia, 144, 208. 
Old Colony Town, 214. 
"Old Congress," 174 
Old Dominion Bubble, 78. 
Oliff, 169. 
Oliphant, 255, 256, 257. 



Oliver, 123, 208. 

Opie, 198. 

Orange, Va., 274. 

Orbiston, 221. 

"Ormsby," Caroline Co., 125. 

Orrick, 32. 

Osborne, 66, 91, 92, 108, 112, 113, 116, 

204, 258, 260, 261. 
Oulton, 90, 91, 92, 93, 202. 
Outland, 170. 
Overton, 183, 
Overzee, 39. 
Owen, 281, 282, 285. 
Oxford University, 163. 

Pace, 270. 

Page, 38, 177. 237. 

Palin, 252. 

Pardshow Cragg, Cumberland. Eng., 251. 

Parham's Creek, Lunenburg Co., 205. 

Paris, France, 149. 

Park, 21, 22, 2T,, 24. 

Parker, 21, 22, 22, 24, 25, 78, 79, 80, 168, 

169, 207, 227, 228, 229, 230. 
Parkhead, 221. 
Paterson, 104. 
Patman, 144. 

Pasquotank Co., N. C, 252. 
Pasquotank Monthly Meeting, 252. 
Payne, 153. 264, 266, 267. 
Peachy, 2^7. 
Peale, 151, 153. 
Pearse, 40. - 
Peckham, 209. 
Peden, 168, 169, 183. 
Peeters, 36, 38, 39, 136. 
Pegram, 73. 
Pendleton, 212. 
Penn, 13, 181. 
Pennsylvania, 183. 
Perrot, 90. 
Perryman, 270, 271. 
Perse, 255^- 
Persico, l8l. 

Person Co. (Pearson), Ga., 287. 
Person Co., N. C, 210. 
Personal Recollections, Dabney, 178. 
Petersburg, Elbert Co., Ga., 208. 
"Petersburg, Va., 221. 
Petre, 149. 

petsoe Parish. Gloucester Co., 184. 
"Pet5Wortli." Buckinghamshire, 184. 
Pets\V'^'''"H Parish, Gloucester Co.. 172 
Petsworth Parish Vestry Book, 190. 
Peyton, 180. 
Philadelphia, 151, 221. 
Phillip, Z7- 
Phillips. 40, 84, 138. 
Pianketank. 127. 
Pickering, 43, 45. - 



INDEX 



xiu 



Pigott, 39. 165. 

Pinckhard, 266. 

"Pine Forest," Spotsylvania Co., 273. 

Pinner, 40. 

Pinney, 195. 

*Tiscata\vay," Essex Co., I77f I79- 

"Pistole Fee," 212. 

Pitt, 168, 169, 197. 

Pitts, 40. 

Pittsylvania Co., 201. 

Platin Rock, Mo., 179- 

Piatt, 88, 89, 90, 92. 93, 94, 198. 

Plattsburg, N. Y., 179. 

Pleasants, 253, 285. 

Plunkett, 2yj. 

Plymouth, Eng., 131. 

Poewhite Creek, Henrico Co., 68. 

"Point Hope," Va,, 145. 

Pollard, 176. 

Poole, 39. 

Pope, 179, 208, 209, 256. 

Port Royal, Va., 80, 127. 

Porter, 39, 40, 144, 197. 

Porteus, 186, 190. 

Portland, Me., 137. 

Potomac Creek, King George Co., 124. 

Powell, 38. 170, 197. 

Powell's Creek, Charles City Co., 87. 

Presley, 128. 

Presly, 100. 

Preston, 140, 143. 

Price, 233. 

Prince Edward Co., Va., 144, 268-287. 

Prince George Co., Va., 107, 205, 210, 

^ 253. 

Princeton, N. J., 163, 217. 

Princeton, W. Va., 274. 

Princeton University, 161, 206. 

Privy Council, 174, 176. 

Pryor, 184, 

"Public Characters," 84. 

Pulliam, 283. 

Punch, 65, (^, 67. 

"Purton," 184 185, 186, 187, 189, 190. 

Puxton, 195. 

Quarles, 175, 182. 
Queen, 136. 
Queen's College, 165. 
Quisenberry, 273. 

Racine, 231. 

Radcliffe, 22rj. 

Ragland, 275. 

Raines, 107. 

Rainestox, 195. 

Rainsford, 252. 

Raleigh Parish, Amelia Co., 95, 116. 

Raleigh Tavern, 156. 

Ramsey, 183, 283. 



Randle, 136. 

Randolph, 81, 87, 109, 127, 133, 138, 139, 

149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 162, 

163, 164, 167, 207, 210, 237, 276. 
Rappahannock River, 191. 
Raveninge, 40. 
JRaymond, 135. 
Read, 116. 
^Reade, 115, 128, 176, 190, 205. 
Reason, 44. 
Redby, 195. 

Redd, 282, 284, 286, 287, 288. 
Redd Family, 287. 
Reedesel, 214. 
Reid, 152, 155. 
Renalls, 39. 
Renicks, ^2. 
Rice, 209, 286. 

Rice Depot, Prince Edward Co., 2S6. 
Rich, 70, 192, 193, 194. 
Rich Mountain, N. C., 80. 
Richards, 207. 

Richardson, 37, (i2, (i:i), 67, 237. 
Richmond Co., 170, 197, 213. 
Richmond Critic, 198. 
Richmond Enquirer, 216. 
Richmond Examiner, 176. 
Richmond Theatre, 176. 
Richmond, Va., 159, 161, 176, 177, 182, 

190, 231, 233, 235, 287. 
Rickman, 152. 
Ridley, 210. 
Rigge, 39- 
Riglesworth, 36. 
Rind, 151, 152. 

Rivanna River, Albemarle Co., 276. 
Rivers, 36. 
Rives, 175. 

Roanoke Island, 228. 
Roberts, 133. 
Robertson, 49, 84, 238. 
Robinson, 39. 119, 222, 252. 
Rochambeau, 221. 
Rochelle, France, 273. 
Rogers, 23, 24, 43. 49, 88. 97, 99, 100, 

102, 105. 193, 197. 
Romancok, King William Co., 208. 
Root, 103, 214. 
Rootes, 125. 128. 
Rose, III, 230. 

"Rose Hill." Caroline Co., 125. 
Rosemaderos, 132. 

"Rosewall." King and Queen Co., 128. 
Rouse, 136. 

Rowan Co., N. C, 183. 
Rowe. 122, 125, 135. 
Rowsay, 150, 152, 153. 155. 
Rowland, 73-^^, I75. 225-235. 
Royall, 65, 132, 205. 
Royle, 237. 



INDEX 



Royster, 185. 

Royston, 41. 

Ruffin, 138, 139. 

Rumseian Society, 33. 

Rumsey, 21, 23, 24, 27, 32, 33, 34. 

Russell, 150. 155. 

Rutger's College, N. J., 165. 

St. Augustine, 142. 

St. Genevieve, Mo., 179. 

"St. Giles in the Fields," 129. 

St John's Parish, King William Co., 277, 

284. 
St. Louis, Mo., 175, 178, 179, 182. 
St. Martin's Cony St. York, 190. 
St. Nicholas Parish Church, Eng., 192. 
St. Patrick's Parish, Prince Edward Co., 

270. 
St. Paul's Parish, Hanover Co., 284. 
St. Peter's Parish, New Kent Co., 121, 

268. 
St. Peter's Parish Vestry Book, 277. 
St Phillip's Parish Church, N. C., 232. 
St Stephen's Parish, Northumberland 

County, 97, 98, 99, 1 01, 102, 105. 
St Stephen's Parish, 265, 266. 
St Thomas Church, Bristol, Eng, 193, 

194. 195- 
Sackett's Harbor, 179. 
Sagamon Co., 111., 128. 
Saile, 172. 
Salisbury, 90. 

Sandy River, Amelia Co., 276. 
Sandy River, 269. 270. 
S anew ell, 136. 
Saskatchewan, 209. 
Saunders, 42, 47, 275, 278. 
Savannah, 208. 
Say, 207. 
Sayer, 197. 
Sayre, 122. 
Scarburgh, 130. 
Schrever, 257, 258, 260. 
Scientific American, 209. 
Scotch Irish, 206. 
Scotland, 159, 206. 

Scotland Neck, Halifax Co., N. C, 207. 
Scott, 38, 39, 116, 144, 168, 170, 183, 202, 

205, 238, 252, 287. 
Seaborne, 38. 
Scale, 87. 
Seaton. 191. 
Seawell. 237. 

Secretary's Road, Albemarle Co., 277. 
Seggs, 40. 
Selden, 121. 
Semple, 121, 237. 
Sevier, 84. 
Seward, 220. 
Seymour, 72, 165. 



Shadwell Churchyard, 189. 

Shangton Rectory, Leicester, England, 

133. 

Shapleigh, 51, 265. 

Sharp, 261. 

Sharpham, 40. 

Shearman, 50, 97, 102. 

Sheffield, Lord, 84. 

Sheild, 153, 237. 
vShields, 156. 

Shelton, 120. 

Sheppard, 130. 

Sheridan, 219, 220. | 

Sherman, loi, 219, 220, 264. | 

Sherpeles, 135. j 

Sherwood, 178. * 

Shiloh, Tenn., 122. 

Ship Theodora, 82. 

Shipp, 37, 40. 

Shippy, 88. 

Shirley Hundred, 52. 

"Shooter's Hill," Middlesex Co., 124, 186, • 
187, 191. 

Short, 164. 

Shundsmore, 37. 

Sidney, 39. 

Simpkin, 42. 

Sison, 132. 

Skelton. 70. 

Skerme, iii, 112, 115. 

"Skinquarter," Henrico Co., 199. 

Slate, 152, 155. 

Slaughter's History, St Mark's Parish, 
177. 

Slidell, 12, 82. 

Slow, 136. 

Smart, 130. 

Smelly, 169. 

Smith, 33, 36, 40, 49. 70, 71, "6. 77, 78, 
133, 136, 155, 156. 169, 170, 171, 172, 
173, 174, 175, 176. 177, 178. 179, i'5o, 
181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186. 187, 1S8, 
189, 190, 191, 197, 207, 221, 227, 228, 
281, 282, 286. 

Smith's Mount Westmoreland Co., 171,, 
172. 

Smith's Point 265. 

Smithville. N. C, 77, 80. 

Smithwick, 210. 

Snale's Creek, Prince Edward Co., 269, 
270. 

Snow, 49. 

"Society Hill." King George Co.. 124. 

Society of Friends, 53. 

South Farnham Parish, Essex Co., 172, 

173. 174- 
Southall, 155. 156. 

Southam Parish, Cumberland Co., 110. 
Southampton Co., 208. 
Span, 42, 43. 44. 45- 



INDEX 



1^ 



Sparkc, 6i. 

Sparkes, 135- 

Sparrow. 87. 

Spcnce, 42, 43, 44, 45- 47. 51, 256. 

Spencer. 205, 271, 2-]2„ 274. ^ 

Spike, 64." 

Spotswood, 146, 157, 213. 

Spotswood's Letters, 213. 

Spotsylvania Co., 273. 

"Spring Beauty," 209. 

"Spring Grove," Caroline Co., 2J2i> 

Springfield, 80. 

Stanard, 61, 124, 132. 

Standard, 132. 

Stanley, 39. 

Stanton, 218. 

Stamp Act, 173, 175. 

Staples, 274. 

Starke, 284. 

Step, 62. 

Stephens, 135. 

Steptoe. 258. 

Sternell, 38. 

Stevens, 144. 

Stewart, 78, 80, 82, 95, 176. 

Stibbins. 196. 

Still. 285. 

Stirling, Earl of, 130. 

Stith. 124, 210. 

Stoddert, 15. 

Stokes, 130, 208. 

Stover, 177. 

Strathan, Logan Co., 111., 128. 

Stratton. 8^, 205. 

Strode, 182. 

Stuart, 31. 

Stubbs, 275, 278. 

Sulphur Springs, Mo., 179. 

Surratt. 11. 

Surry Co., 199, 253, 277. 

Sussex Co., 253. 

Suttan (Sutton), 28, 29. 

Swann, 176. 

Swellavant, 136. 

Sydnor, 104, I05, 174. 

Sylacauga, Alabama, 144. 

Taliaferro, 128, 180. 

Talley, 284. 

Tanner. 36, dz, 65, (^, 67, 87, 88, 89, 

90, 91, 92, 93, 94. 95, 198, 199, 200, 

201, 202. 
Taplcy, 131, 205. 
Tappahannock, 120. 
Tapscott, 97. 
Tariff Question, 207. 
J-^t-^m. 83. 84, 85. 86. 
Jate. 176. 
1 -itnall, 207. 
'^^*'"^ 6-,. 66, 67, 205. 



Tayler, 207, 229, 255, 262, 271. 
Taylor, 40, 43. 125, 137, 161. 
"Tazewell Hall," Williamsburg, Va., 139. 
Tazewell, 155, 164. 207. 
,Templeton, 183. 
Tennessee, 217, 218. 
"Tennessee Country," 84. 
Tennessee University, 177. 
Terry, 276. 
Teterel, 156. 
Thomas, 136. 

Thomas Co., Georgia, 107. 
Thomlingson, 194. 
Thompson, z^- 
Thomson, 74. 

Thorntop, 100, 103, 124-129. 
Thruston, 192-198. 
Thweatt. 114. 
Tignal (Tignor) 42, 
Tippecanoe City, Ohio, 176. 
Titus, 231. 
Todd. 38. 

Toddington, Bedfordshire, England, 132. 
"Tombstone ; Records," 172. 
Tooker, 38. 
Topsham, 131. 

Torrence, 52. 59, 87, 107, 198, 274. 
Toseland, 40. 
Totier Creek, 211. 
Toulson, 265. 
Toun, ^. 
Townsend, 25, 40. 
Travers, 198. 
Travis, 156, 2Z7. 

Trent, 84, 108, 109, no, 112, 113, 114. 
Trenton, N. J., 163. 
Troumball, 37. 
Trueman, 283. 
Trueman Family, 285.* 
Truman, 281, 282. 285, 286. 
Truro Parish, Fairfax Co., 14, 15. 
Tucker, 122, 135, 161, 180, 212, 213, 216, 

222. 245. 
Tullit, 68. 
Turbey, 40. 
•Turkey Island." 133. 
Turkey Island Creek, 52, 53. 
Turner, 76, 149. 167, 171, 172, 185, 207. 
Turpin, 64, 67, 6S>, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, io3, 

109, no, 113, 114, 202. 
Twigg, 194- 

Twitty's Creek, Lunenburg Co., 278. 
"Two Parsons," 83. 
Tye, 87. 

Tyler, 83, 144. 185, 215, 216, 243, 244, 243, 
V 246, 274- 
Tyne, 169. 
Tj'pton, 47. 
Tyson, 193. 



XVI 



INDEX 



Van Bibber, 238. 

Van Buren, 207. 

Vanderhood, 6g. 

Varina Parish, Henrico Co., 53, 63, 115. 

Vasey, 31. 

Vaughan, 37. 

Vaughan, 210. 

Veale, 132. 

Venable, 2'^t. 

Venice, 22^. 

Verser, 202. 

Virden, 111., 128. 

Visitation of London, 132, 134. 

Voltaire, 231. 

Wackly, 193. 

Waddill, 150, 152, 153, 154. 

Waddy, 43, 254-267. 

Wadeson, 2^, 25. 

Walcott, 193. 

Wales, 53. 

Walke, 118. 

Walker, 128, 208, 210, 285. 

Waller, 121, 176, 238, 2"^^. 

Walter, 130. 

Walters, 287. 

Walton, 271, 279. 

Wapping, England, 85. 

Ward, 62, 63, ^6, 90, 92, III, 135, 205. 

Waring, 38. 

Warner, 186, 190. 

Warren, 192, 193. 

Warren Co., Va., 185. 

Warrenton, Va., 74, ^(). 

Warriner, 286 

Warwick Co., 184, 188. 

Warwickshire, Eng., 134. 

Washburn, 137. 

Washington, 13, 14, 15, 83, 120, 126, 156, 

163, 167, 174, 180, 189, 190, 191, 218, 

219, 221, 223. 
Washington Co., Mo., 179. 
Washington, D. C, 166. 
Waters, 132. 
Watkins, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57. 58, 208, 

287. 
Watkinson, 53. 
^Watson, 40, 179, 242, 270, 274. 
Wattsone, Z7- 

Weaver, 144, 281, 282, 286. 
Webb, 2>7, 105, 155, 173. 
Webbe, 36. 
Webster, i, 207. 
VVedecke, 135. 
Weeden, 213. 
Weeks, 120. 
Weems. 13, 14. 15, 19. 
Welch. 13=;. 
Welden. N. C, 73- 
Wellington, Somersethire, Eng., 192. 



Wells, 169. 

West, 36, 133, 169, 175- 
West Point, 230, 234. 
Western State Hospital, Va., 274. 
Westminster, Eng., 165. 
Westmoreland Co., 175, 261, 262, 265. 
Weston, 169. 
"Westover," 134. 
Wheadon, 168, 169. 
Wheaton, 78. 
Wheeler, 38. 
./Wherry, 144. 
Whitby, 36. 
White, 25, 39, 90, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 

243. 

White Family, 183. 

White Oak Swamp, Henrico Co.. 285. 

Whitney, 128. 

Whitstanton, Devon, Eng., 132. 

Wichita, Kansas. 254. 

Wicomico Parish, Northumberland Co., 

100, 256, 261, 262, 263, 266, 2^-]. 
Wilder, 39. 
Wildy, 41, 51, lOi. 
Wilkes Co., Georgia, 177, 178. 
Wilkinson, 39, 64, in, 112, 115. 116, 168, 

169, 178, 205. 
Willey, 39. 
William and Mary College. 139. 149. 161, 

164, 165, 180, 221. 236, 2Z%, 23Q. 
William of Orange. 133. 
Williams, (ij, 97, 98, 183. 284. 
Williamsburg, 72, 121, 126, 133, 13S. 149. 

152, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159. 161, 162, 

164, 167, 180, 215. 223. 
Williamsburg Volunteers, 163. 
Williamson, 120. 152, 155, 202. 
Willis, 71, 187. 188. 
Willis Creek, Albemarle Co., 109. 
Willis River, Henrico Co., 285. 
Wilmington, N. C, 75. 1^^ 77. 79- 226, 

22^, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232. 
Wills, 169. 

Wilson, 66, 168. 169, 183, 219, 223. 232. 
"Wilton," 162. 164. 
Windham, 37, 84. 
Win free, 202. 
Winfrey, 281. 

Wining'ham's Creek, Amelia Co., 202. 
jwWinn. 271. 
Winter, 255. 262, 263. 
Winters, 260. 
Wirt, 219. 
Wise, 219. 
Withers, 274. 
Witten, 176. 

Womack, 64, 90, 278, 281. 
Womeck. 64. 
'^Wood, 152. 154 155, 230. 
Woodhouse, '37. 



INDEX 



xvii 



Woodson, 68, 211, 270, 285, 2S6. 

Woodward, 136, 177, 194. 

Woody, 38. 

VVooIdridge, 69. 

Woory, 197. 

Wormeley, 118. 

Wornum, 49, 50. 

Worsliam, 65. 66, 199, 202, 205. 

Wrenn, 169. 

Wright, 3&, 279, 280, 281, 2S7. 

Wroth, 14. 

Wyatt, 71, 191. 

Wyke, 253. 

Wythe, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 212, 215. 



Yale University, 222, 
Yardley, 38. 
Yeamons, 194. 
Yeat, 194. 

Yeatsbury, Wiltshire, Eng., 192. 
Yemons, 195. 
Yeocomico Church, 255, 
Yeomans, 197. 
Yonge, 40. 
1 York Co., 189, 190, 196, 211, 277. 
Yorktown, 118, 127, 163, 184, 187, 221. 
Young, 120, 173. 

Zeek's Island, N. C, 230. 
Zekes Inland, 226. 



O P- 



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